Akinori Shimada

Azabu University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan

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Publications (144)275.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Sand storms in Mongolia have increased in frequency and scale, resulting in increased exposure of the inhabitants of Asian countries, including Japan and Korea, to Asian sand dust (ASD), which results in adverse effects on the respiratory system. However, there is no information on the health risks of severe sand storms in domestic animals in Mongolia. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of sand dust particles on the respiratory organs, including the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, of sheep and goats exposed to severe sand storms in Mongolia. Seven adult sheep and 4 adult goats that had been exposed to sand storms and 3 sheep with no history of exposure were included in this study. Lung tissues and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. The mineralogical contents of the lungs and lymph nodes were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Fibrosis and granulomatous lesions comprising macrophages containing fine sand dust particles were observed exclusively in the lungs of sheep and goats exposed to sand storms. The activity of macrophages was also demonstrated by the presence of IL-6, TNF, and lysozyme. In addition, silicon, which is the major element of ASD (kosa aerosol), was detected exclusively in the lung tissues of the exposed animals. Our findings suggest that exposure to sand dust particles may affect the respiratory systems of domestic animals during their relatively short life span.
    Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 10/2014; 52(3):244-9. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent seizures without interictal resumption (status epilepticus) have been reported to induce neuronal death in the midline thalamic region that has functional roles in memory and decision-making; however, the pathogenesis underlying status epilepticus-induced thalamic neuronal death is yet to be determined. We performed histological and immunohistochemical studies as well as cerebral blood flow measurement using 4.7 tesla magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer on midline thalamic region in Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 75, male, 7 weeks after birth, body weight 250–300 g) treated with intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (10 mg/kg) to induce status epilepticus (n = 55) or normal saline solution (n = 20). Histological study using paraffin-embedded specimens revealed neuronal death showing ischemic-like changes and Fluoro-Jade C positivity with calcium deposition in the midline thalamic region of epileptic rats. The distribution of neuronal death was associated with focal loss of immunoreactivity for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), stronger immunoreaction for glutamate and increase in number of Iba-1-positive microglial cells showing swollen cytoplasm and long processes. Double immunofluorescence study demonstrated co-expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) within microglial cells, and loss of EAAT2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes. These microglial alterations and astrocytic EAAT2 downregulation were also observed in tissue without obvious neuronal death in kainic acid-treated rats. These results suggest the possible role of glutamate excitotoxicity in neuronal death in the midline thalamic region following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus due to astrocytic EAAT2 downregulation following microglial activation showing upregulation of IL-1β and iNOS.
    Neuropathology 08/2014; · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the last five years in western Mongolia, a neurological disorder and resultant economic loss have developed in goats, sheep, cattle and horses: association of the disease with ingestion of Oxytropis glabra, a toxic plant, was suggested. Affected goats showed neurological signs, including ataxia, incoordination, hind limb paresis, fine head tremor, and nystagmus. Three goats, one with moderate clinical signs and the other two with severe clinical signs, were necropsied and examined to describe and characterize the histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural lesions. Although no gross pathological changes were observed in a variety of organs including the central nervous system of these goats, microscopic examination of the cerebellum demonstrated degenerative changes in all these goats, such as vacuolar changes and loss of Purkinje cells, torpedo formation in the granular layer, increased number of spheroids in the cerebellar medulla, and loss of axons and myelin sheaths of Purkinje cells. The chemical analysis of the dried plant detected 0.02-0.05% (dry weight basis) of swainsonine. This is the first report describing the clinical and pathological findings in Mongolian goats suspected to be affected by O. glabra poisoning.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 02/2014; · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The effects of environmental pollutants on airway clearance have not been well elucidated. This study examined mucociliary transport using different sized-fluorescent particles on polarized human airway epithelial cells which were maintained in an air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system. The effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure on mucociliary transport were also investigated. The movement of fluorescent particles with diameters of 10-14 µm and 2.5-4.5 µm was observed by fluorescent microscopy as an index of the mucociliary transport. The mixture of the particles with two different sizes were propelled concentrically on the apical surface by the interaction of ciliary activity and mucus in the control condition, whereas H2O2 exposure for 24 h significantly inhibited the movement of the particles. The particle sizes did not affect their movement after the control or H2O2 exposure. These results suggest that particle tracking on polarized human airway epithelial cells is a useful experimental tool for the evaluation of the effect of environmental pollutants on mucociliary transport. In addition, reactive oxygen species may impair mucociliary transport, leading to the airway damage, and exacerbation of respiratory diseases.
    Toxicology mechanisms and methods 12/2013; 24(3). · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to nanoparticles during pregnancy is a public concern, because nanoparticles may pass from the mother to the fetus across the placenta. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible translocation pathway of gold nanoparticles across the maternal-fetal barrier as well as the toxicity of intravenously administrated gold nanoparticles to the placenta and fetus. Pregnant ICR mice were intravenously injected with 0.01% of 20- and 50-nm gold nanoparticle solutions on the 16th and 17th days of gestation. There was no sign of toxic damage to the placentas as well as maternal and fetal organs of the mice treated with 20- and 50-nm gold nanoparticles. ICP-MS analysis demonstrated significant amounts of gold deposited in the maternal livers and placentas, but no detectable level of gold in the fetal organs. However, electron microscopy demonstrated an increase of endocytic vesicles in the cytoplasm of syncytiotrophoblasts and fetal endothelial cells in the maternal-fetal barrier of mice treated with gold nanoparticles. Clathrin immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting showed increased immunoreactivity of clathrin protein in the placental tissues of mice treated with 20- and 50-nm gold nanoparticles; clathrin immunopositivity was observed in syncytiotrophoblasts and fetal endothelial cells. In contrast, caveolin-1 immunopositivity was observed exclusively in the fetal endothelium. These findings suggested that intravenous administration of gold nanoparticles may upregulate clathrin- and cavelin-mediated endocytosis at the maternal-fetal barrier in mouse placenta.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 11/2013; · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is associated with the induction and exacerbation of respiratory disorders; however, the impacts of DE containing mainly nanoparticles have been less studied. We have previously demonstrated that inhalation exposure to nanoparticle-rich DE (NR-DE) exacerbated allergic pulmonary inflammation, in the context of enhanced local expression of proinflammatory molecules. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a marker of oxidative damage, particularly in DNA. This study examined the effects of NR-DE on 8-OHdG synthesis in the lung in the presence or absence of an allergen. Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice were exposed by inhalation to four different gas compositions (control air, low-concentration DE, high-concentration DE and high-concentration DE without particulate matter) for 8 weeks, in the presence or absence of repetitive intratracheal administration of ovalbumin (OVA). Thereafter, we assessed the levels of 8-OHdG synthesis and expression in the lungs by means of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunohistochemistry. The EIA revealed that the level of 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the high-concentration NR-DE-exposed and allergen-sensitized/stimulated group compared with that in the control air-exposed and allergen-treated group. The immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the level of immunoreactive 8-OHdG was higher in the NR-DE-exposed and allergen-treated lungs compared with that in the corresponding control air-exposed lungs. The results suggested that NR-DE exposure enhanced 8-OHdG formation in asthmatic lungs. This, at least in part, is involved in the NR-DE-mediated exacerbation of the allergic pathophysiology that was identified in our previous study.
    Experimental and therapeutic medicine 09/2013; 6(3):703-706. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine whether angiogenesis and microglial activation were related to seizure-induced neuronal death in the cerebral cortex of Shetland Sheepdogs with familial epilepsy. Animals-Cadavers of 10 Shetland Sheepdogs from the same family (6 dogs with seizures and 4 dogs without seizures) and 4 age-matched unrelated Shetland Sheepdogs. Procedures-Samples of brain tissues were collected after euthanasia and then fixed in neutral phosphate-buffered 10% formalin and routinely embedded in paraffin. The fixed samples were sectioned for H&E staining and immunohistochemical analysis. Results-Evidence of seizure-induced neuronal death was detected exclusively in samples of cerebral cortical tissue from the dogs with familial epilepsy in which seizures had been observed. The seizure-induced neuronal death was restricted to tissues from the cingulate cortex and sulci surrounding the cerebral cortex. In almost the same locations as where seizure-induced neuronal death was identified, microvessels appeared longer and more tortuous and the number of microvessels was greater than in the dogs without seizures and control dogs. Occasionally, the microvessels were surrounded by oval to flat cells, which had positive immunohistochemical results for von Willebrand factor. Immunohistochemical results for neurons and glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) were positive for vascular endothelial growth factor, and microglia positive for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 were activated (ie, had swollen cell bodies and long processes) in almost all the same locations as where seizure-induced neuronal death was detected. Double-label immunofluorescence techniques revealed that the activated microglia had positive results for tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1. These findings were not observed in the cerebrum of dogs without seizures, whether the dogs were from the same family as those with epilepsy or were unrelated to them. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Signs of angiogenesis and microglial activation corresponded with seizure-induced neuronal death in the cerebral cortex of Shetland Sheepdogs with familial epilepsy. Microglial activation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor and associated proinflammatory cytokine production may accelerate seizure-induced neuronal death in dogs with epilepsy.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 05/2013; 74(5):763-70. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible translocation pathway of intratracheally instilled gold nanoparticles after the induction of acute pulmonary injury by Asian sand dust. ICR mice were intratracheally instilled with 800μg Asian sand particles (CJ-2 particles) 24h before instillation of 50-nm gold nanoparticles. Lungs from mice treated with Asian sand particles and gold nanoparticles showed an acute focal inflammation with an increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) and oxidative stress markers (Cu/Zn SOD and iNOS) in alveolar macrophages, type I alveolar epithelial cells, and endothelial cells at the alveolar walls. Electron microscopy revealed a destruction of the alveolar walls with an increased number of endocytic vesicles in the cytoplasm of both type I epithelial cells and endothelial cells; gold nanoparticles were demonstrated in these endocytic vesicles. These findings suggest that translocation of the exposed nanoparticles may be enhanced in the lung tissues with acute inflammatory changes.
    Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 04/2013; · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because precise information as to the toxicity of vanadium is required for practical use of vanadium compounds as antidiabetic drugs, we examined vanadium toxicity in mice fed normal diet or high-fat diet (C57BL/6N, male, 7 weeks) by oral administration of ammonium metavanadate (AMV) with a maximum dose of 20 mgV/kg/day. Marked lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, renal epithelial cells, and mucosal epithelial cells of the small and large intestines and severe degeneration, necrosis, and loss of mucosal epithelial cells in the small intestine were observed. These pathological changes were more severe in mice fed high-fat diet than mice fed normal diet, and the intensity of the changes increased with increase in the administered dose of AMV. By electron microscopy, the number and size of lipid droplets in hepatocytes were increased. In the small intestine, a TUNEL assay showed a decreased number of positive cells, and positive cells for acrolein immunohistochemistry were observed specifically in the mucosal epithelial cells indicating degeneration and necrosis in the AMV-treated group, suggesting that a possible factor responsible for cell necrosis in the small intestine could be oxidative stress. In conclusion, AMV may impair cellular lipid metabolism, resulting in lipid accumulation, and induce mucosal epithelial cell necrosis in the small intestine.
    Toxicologic Pathology 12/2012; · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endocytosis is the primary mechanism by which nanoparticles are translocated over the alveolar epithelium. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the association between endocytosis and the translocation of nanoparticles at the air-blood barrier (ABB). Gold colloid particles (diameter, 20 nm) were intratracheally instilled into male ICR mice. Fifteen minutes after instillation, localized accumulation of agglomerated gold particles was observed in the cytoplasm of macrophages, on the surface of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), and in alveoli. Electron microscopy revealed particles in the vesicles of macrophages, on the surface of AECs, and in caveolae-like vesicles in type 1 AECs. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positive immunolabeling for caveolin-1 in the ABB of untreated lungs as well as lungs treated with gold particles. Double immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy revealed the presence of caveolin-1 in AECs in the untreated lungs. These results suggest that instilled gold colloid particles are internalized into the alveolar epithelium at the ABB by caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which is regarded as a physiological function of AECs.
    Toxicologic Pathology 08/2012; · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metallothionein (MT), a low-molecular-weight protein with a high affinity for divalent heavy metal ions, is involved in many pathophysiological processes, including metal homeostasis, detoxification, cell proliferation and protection against oxidative damage. We previously found that MT in gastric mucosa plays a role in protecting against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastritis at the early stage of infection. H. pylori-induced chronic gastric inflammation is shown to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, to examine whether gastric MT contributes to protection against H. pylori-induced chronic inflammation, we compared histological changes in the gastric mucosa of MT-null and the wild-type mice at 53 weeks after inoculation three times with H. pylori SS1. As a result, we observed disruption of the gastric mucosa in MT-null mice, but not in the wild-type mice, even at the late stage of H. pylori-infection. Evaluation of pathological changes in gastric specimens by the updated Sydney grading system revealed that scores related to chronic inflammation and polymorphonuclear cell activity were higher in infected MT-null mice than those in the wild-type mice. Furthermore, a higher score for metaplasia was also observed in the MT-null stomach. These results suggested that MT might be involved in protecting against H. pylori-induced gastric chronic inflammation associated with carcinogenesis.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 01/2012; 37(6):1261-5. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cerebral vascular hamartoma was identified in the frontal lobe, striatum and thalamus of the right side of the brain of a male, 7-year-old Shih Tzu. Histologically, the lesion consisted of thin-walled vessels, which showed various sizes and occasionally contained fibrin thrombi. These vascular walls were composed of a single layer of fibromuscular tissue lined by flat endothelium with various amount of collagen, but devoid of large coat of smooth muscles and elastic tissue. Immunohistochemically, the lining endothelial cells were positive for von Willebrand Factor antibody. Neuropil between the vessels was stained with Klüver-Barrera stain, and positive for synaptophysin and GFAP antibodies. Based on these findings, the lesion was diagnosed as vascular hamartoma, which might resemble venous malformation in humans.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 06/2011; 73(10):1367-9. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd) causes renal dysfunction with damage to kidney proximal tubule cells; however, the precise mechanisms of the toxicity remain unclear. Previously, we found that the expression of Ube2d4 gene, which is a member of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ube2d family, is suppressed by Cd in NRK-52E rat renal tubular epithelial cells. To investigate the mechanisms of Cd-induced renal toxicity, we examined the effects of Cd on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, particularly the expression and function of Ube2d family members in the NRK-52E cells and mice. Cd markedly decreased the expression of Ube2d1, Ube2d2, Ube2d3 and Ube2d4 prior to the appearance of cytotoxicity in the NRK-52E cells. Cd also dramatically increased p53 protein levels in the cells, without stimulation of p53 gene expression or inhibition of proteasome activity. In addition, Cd induced phosphorylation of p53 and caused apoptosis in the NRK-52E cells. In vivo, we examined the effect of orally administrated Cd for 12 months on the expression of Ube2d genes and accumulation of p53 in the mouse kidney. Chronic Cd exposure also caused suppression of Ube2d genes expression and accumulation of p53. Cd did not induce severe kidney injury, but caused apoptosis in the renal tubules. These results suggest that the Cd-induced accumulation of p53 may be due to inhibition of p53 degradation through the down-regulation of Ube2d family genes, and that Cd induces p53-dependent apoptosis in renal tubular cells. Moreover, Ube2d family members may be one of the critical targets of renal toxicity caused by Cd.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 01/2011; 36(2):191-200. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were experimentally infected with the highly pathogenic scuticociliate Miamiensis avidus (syn. Philasterides dicentrarachi) using the immersion method to clarify/identify the possible neural routes of entry and possible ways of dissemination of the scuticociliate in the fish body. Scuticociliates were observed on the skin and gills right from day 0-1 post-infection, muscle tissue on day 2 post-infection, reached the brain, and spinal cord on day 3 post-infection, and systemic infection was prominent afterwards. Brain lesions were observed in most of the examined fish from days 3 and 4 post-infection and considered to be the cause of the sudden increase in mortality. Affected fish showed varying degrees of tissue damage including severe epidermal and dermal necrotic lesions, necrotic myositis, encephalitis and myelitis. Whereas, scuticociliates were frequently observed along the optic and/or olfactory nerve in the fish which were accompanied by severe brain lesions but by minimum lesions in the gills and skin, suggesting that in addition to skin and/or gills, neural routes including periorbital and nasal routes may play a role in scuticociliate invasion to the brain. Scuticociliates were also observed in the peripheral nerve fibers in the muscle tissue, cranial and spinal nerves, cranial cavity and in the vertebral canal, suggesting that nerve fibers and/or cerebrospinal fluid circulation may be involved in the spread of the scuticociliate throughout the body in addition to the blood circulation and connective tissue.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 12/2010; 72(12):1557-63. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the role of metallothionein (MT)-III in cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular toxicity, we examined the sensitivity of MT-III null mice to severe testicular injury caused by Cd. Male MT-III null mice, MT-I/II null mice and wild-type mice were given a subcutaneous injection of CdCl(2) (15μmol/kg). The testis was collected from each mouse at 6, 12 and 24h after Cd administration. Testicular hemorrhages by evaluating morphology, hemoglobin content and histological parameters in the 3 types of mice were elevated by Cd injection in a time-dependent manner. The degree of hemorrhage in Cd-injected MT-I/II null mice was similar to that in the wild-type mice. In contrast, hemorrhage in the MT-III null mice was attenuated compared with that in wild-type mice and MT-I/II null mice. Cd levels, MT-I and MT-II mRNA levels and Cd-binding molecules in the testis were similar between MT-III null mice and wild-type mice. In microarray analysis, high expression of purine-nucleoside phosphorylase 2 (Pnp2), retinal degeneration 3 (Rd3), and cadherin-like 24 (Cdh24) was revealed in the testis of MT-III null mice under normal or Cd-treated conditions. MT-III null mice were found to show attenuation of Cd-induced severe testicular toxicity. These results suggest the lack of MT-III contributes to protection of testis from Cd. In addition, regulation of Pnp2, Rd3, and Cdh24 mRNA levels may involve the sensitivity of MT-III null mice to Cd.
    Life sciences 10/2010; 87(17-18):545-50. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate acute lung toxicity caused by Asian sand dust. Simulated Asian sand dust collected from the Tennger desert in China (CJ-2 particles) and Asian sand dust collected from the atmosphere in Japan (Tottori particles) were used. Saline suspensions of 50, 200, 800, and 3,000 µg Asian sand dust were intratracheally instilled to ICR mice. Localized accumulation of the dust particles was observed in the bronchioles and the alveoli of the lung tissues; acute inflammatory changes characterized by infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils were observed around the particles. Degenerated alveolar walls and bronchial epithelial cells, as well as a weakened positive immunolabeling for laminin, were observed to be associated with particle attachment. Positive immunolabelings for interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α inducible nitric oxide synthase, and dimeric copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase were observed mainly in the inflammatory cells in the lesions; these findings were not observed in the controls or in areas lacking lesions. These results suggest that Asian sand dust particles caused damage to the lung tissue through a direct physical effect. In addition, secondary released cytokines and oxidative stress generated in the lesion may be involved in the development of the acute lung toxicity.
    Toxicologic Pathology 09/2010; 38(7):1099-110. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathological findings associated with scuticociliatosis in farmed Japanese flounder in Japan are described. Ten moribund fishes, farmed in Tottori Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, showed cutaneous ulcers, darkened skin, fin and tail rot, exophthalmia and alterations in swimming behaviour. Histopathologically, severe epidermal degeneration and necrosis, hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, myositis, myelitis, encephalitis associated with heavy accumulation of scuticociliates in the periorbital cavity and optic nerve fiber were observed. Moreover, masses of ciliates were found to feed on the host tissues such as skeletal muscles, gills and brain, causing severe degenerative changes associated with abundant neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltration. These findings suggest that the present scuticociliate, Miamiensis avidus, is a highly invasive and destructive pathogen infecting Japanese flounder and capable of developing systemic fatal infection.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 05/2010; 72(10):1359-62. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine whether intracellular metallothionein (MT) protects against benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced forestomach and lung carcinogenesis. Ten-week-old male MT-I/II null mice and wild-type mice were orally administered B[a]P at a dose of 100 or 250 mg/kg twice a week for 4 weeks. B[a]P-induced mortality was higher in the MT-I/II null mice than in the wild-type mice. The incidence of tumors in the forestomach and lung was 78.6% and 7.1% in the wild-type mice treated with 100 mg/kg B[a]P, respectively. In the MT-I/II null mice treated with B[a]P, tumor incidence in the forestomach and lung was 100% and 33.3%, respectively. The tumor area in the forestomach and lung in the MT-I/II null mice treated with B[a]P was greater than that of wild-type mice. These results suggest that MT acts as a biological protective factor against carcinogenesis induced by B[a]P.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 01/2010; 35(2):225-30. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the sensitivity of metallothionein (MT)-III null mice to cadmium (Cd)-induced acute hepatotoxicity. MT-I/II null mice were also used to compare Cd toxicities between MT-III null mice and MT-I/II null mice. Male MT-I/II null mice, MT-III null mice and wild-type mice were given s.c. injection of Cd (5-20 micromol/kg) and then the blood and liver were collected from each mouse under ether anesthesia at 2 days after the administration. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities elevated by injection of Cd were significantly higher in the MT-I/II null mice than in the wild-type mice. In the MT-III null mice, ALT and AST activities were not elevated following the injection of Cd. Further, marked morphological changes such as necrosis of hepatocytes, severe hemorrhage and congestion were observed by injection of Cd in both MT-I/II null mice and wild-type mice, whereas the degree of injury was found to be more extensive in MT-I/II null mice. In contrast, only occasional damage was observed in the liver of MT-III null mice treated with the same dose of Cd. These morphological observations were consistent with the results of ALT and AST activities. In the present study, it was clearly found that MT-III null mice were resistant to Cd hepatotoxicity, although MT-I/II null mice were sensitive to its toxicity. MT-III may be an accelerative factor in Cd-induced acute hepatotoxicity.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 01/2010; 35(2):209-15. · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • T. Akiyama, M. Naota, A. Shimada
    Journal of Comparative Pathology 11/2009; 141(4):308-308. · 1.10 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
275.20 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Azabu University
      Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1992–2013
    • Tottori University
      • Faculty of Agriculture
      TTJ, Tottori, Japan
  • 2011
    • Gifu Pharmaceutical University
      Gihu, Gifu, Japan
  • 2010
    • Aichi Gakuin University
      • School of Pharmacy
      Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan
  • 2001–2009
    • National Institute for Environmental Studies
      • Center for Environmental Health Sciences
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 1999–2005
    • St. Marianna University School of Medicine
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Kawasaki, Kanagawa-ken, Japan
  • 1998–2000
    • Hokkaido University
      • Laboratory of Comparative Pathology
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan