[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. The breast cancer prognosis is particularly poor in case of tumors overexpressing the oncoprotein HER2/neu. A new nanobioconjugate of the Polycefin(TM) family of anti-cancer drugs based on biodegradable and non-toxic polymalic acid (PMLA) was engineered for a multi-pronged attack on HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells. An antibody cytokine fusion protein consisting of the immunostimulatory cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) genetically fused to an antibody specific for human HER2/neu [anti-HER2/neu IgG3-(IL-2)] was covalently attached to the PMLA backbone to target HER2/neu expressing tumors and ensuring the delivery of IL-2 to the tumor microenvironment. Antisense oligonucleotides (AON) were conjugated to the nanodrug to inhibit the expression of vascular tumor protein laminin-411 in order to block tumor angiogenesis. It is shown that the nanobioconjugate was capable of specifically binding human HER2/neu and retaining the biological activity of IL-2. We also showed the uptake of the nanobioconjugate by HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells and enhanced tumor targeting in vivo. In addition, the nanobioconjugate was capable of eliciting anti-tumor activity in immunocompetent mice bearing D2F2/E2 murine mammary tumors that express human HER2/neu. Both IgG1 and IgG2a levels were significantly increased in animals treated with the PMLA-fusion nanobioconjugate compared to animals treated with the antibody-cytokine fusion protein alone or control animals, indicative of the induction of a humoral (TH2) and cell-mediated (TH1) immune responses. Animal survival in vivo was significantly longer after treatment with leading nanobioconjugate with fusion [anti-HER2/neu IgG3-(IL-2)] antibody, p<0.05. The combination of these molecules on a single polymeric platform is expected to act through direct elimination of cancer cells, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, and orchestration of a potent immune response against tumor.
Journal of Controlled Release 06/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA), often found at high levels in the serum of PCa patients, has been used as a marker for PCa detection and as a target of immunotherapy. The murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody AR47.47, specific for human PSA, has been shown to enhance antigen presentation by human dendritic cells and induce both CD4 and CD8 T-cell activation when complexed with PSA. In this study, we explored the properties of a novel mouse/human chimeric anti-PSA IgE containing the variable regions of AR47.47 as a potential therapy for PCa. Our goal was to take advantage of the unique properties of IgE in order to trigger immune activation against PCa. METHODS: Binding characteristics of the antibody were determined by ELISA and flow cytometry. In vitro degranulation was determined by the release of beta-hexosaminidase from effector cells. In vivo degranulation was monitored in human FcepsilonRIalpha transgenic mice using the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. These mice were also used for a vaccination study to determine the in vivo anti-cancer effects of this antibody. Significant differences in survival were determined using the Log Rank test. In vitro T-cell activation was studied using human dendritic cells and autologous T cells. RESULTS: The anti-PSA IgE, expressed in murine myeloma cells, is properly assembled and secreted, and binds the antigen and FcepsilonRI. In addition, this antibody is capable of triggering effector cell degranulation in vitro and in vivo when artificially cross-linked, but not in the presence of the natural soluble antigen, suggesting that such an interaction will not trigger systemic anaphylaxis. Importantly, the anti-PSA IgE combined with PSA also triggers immune activation in vitro and in vivo and significantly prolongs the survival of human FcepsilonRIalpha transgenic mice challenged with PSA-expressing tumors in a prophylactic vaccination setting. CONCLUSIONS: The anti-PSA IgE exhibits the expected biological properties and is capable of triggering immune activation and anti-tumor protection. Further studies on this antibody as a potential PCa therapy are warranted.
BMC Cancer 04/2013; 13(1):195. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, few rodent models of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS-NHL) exist. In these studies, a novel mouse/human xenograft model of AIDS-associated Burkitt lymphoma (AIDS-BL) was created by injecting cells of the human AIDS-BL cell line, 2F7, intraperitoneally into NOD-SCID mice. Mice developed tumors in the peritoneal cavity, with metastases to the spleen, thymus, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Expression of the chemokine receptor, CXCR5, was greatly elevated in vivo on BL tumor cells in this model, as shown by flow cytometry. CXCL13 is the ligand for CXCR5, and serum and ascites levels of murine, but not human, CXCL13 showed a striking elevation in tumor-bearing mice, with levels as high as 200,000 pg/ml in ascites, as measured by ELISA. As shown by immunohistochemistry, murine CXCL13 was associated with macrophage-like tumor-infiltrating cells that appeared to be histiocytes. Blocking CXCR5 on 2F7 cells with neutralizing antibodies prior to injection into the mice substantially delayed tumor formation. The marked elevations in tumor cell CXCR5 expression and in murine CXCL13 levels seen in the model may potentially identify an important link between tumor-interacting histiocytes and tumor cells in AIDS-BL. These results also identify CXCL13 as a potential biomarker for this disease, which is consistent with previous studies showing that serum levels of CXCL13 were elevated in human subjects who developed AIDS-lymphoma. This mouse model may be useful for future studies on the interactions of the innate immune system and AIDS-BL tumor cells, as well as for the assessment of potential tumor biomarkers for this disease.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e72414. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously developed an antibody-avidin fusion protein (ch128.1Av) that targets the human transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and exhibits direct cytotoxicity against malignant B cells in an iron-dependent manner. ch128.1Av is also a delivery system and its conjugation with biotinylated saporin (b-SO6), a plant ribosome-inactivating toxin, results in a dramatic iron-independent cytotoxicity, both in malignant cells that are sensitive or resistant to ch128.1Av alone, in which the toxin effectively inhibits protein synthesis and triggers caspase activation. We have now found that the ch128.1Av/b-SO6 complex induces a transcriptional response consistent with oxidative stress and DNA damage, a response that is not observed with ch128.1Av alone. Furthermore, we show that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine partially blocks saporin-induced apoptosis suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to DNA damage and ultimately saporin-induced cell death. Interestingly, the toxin was detected in nuclear extracts by immunoblotting, suggesting the possibility that saporin might induce direct DNA damage. However, confocal microscopy did not show a clear and consistent pattern of intranuclear localization. Finally, using the long-term culture-initiating cell assay we found that ch128.1Av/b-SO6 is not toxic to normal human hematopoietic stem cells suggesting that this critical cell population would be preserved in therapeutic interventions using this immunotoxin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five New World (NW) arenaviruses cause human hemorrhagic fevers. Four of these arenaviruses are known to enter cells by binding human transferrin receptor 1 (hTfR1). Here we show that the fifth arenavirus, Chapare virus, similarly uses hTfR1. We also identify an anti-hTfR1 antibody, ch128.1, which efficiently inhibits entry mediated by the glycoproteins of all five viruses, as well as replication of infectious Junín virus. Our data indicate that all NW hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses utilize a common hTfR1 apical-domain epitope and suggest that therapeutic agents targeting this epitope, including ch128.1 itself, can be broadly effective in treating South American hemorrhagic fevers.
Journal of Virology 01/2012; 86(7):4024-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although most monoclonal antibodies developed for cancer therapy are of the IgG class, antibodies of the IgE class have certain properties that make them attractive as cancer therapeutics. These properties include the superior affinity for the Fc epsilon receptors (FcεRs), the low serum level of IgE that minimizes competition of endogenous IgE for FcεR occupancy, and the ability to induce a broad and vigorous immune response through the interaction with multiple cells including mast cells, basophils, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and eosinophils. Tumor-targeted IgE antibodies are expected to harness the allergic response against tumors and activate a secondary, T-cell-mediated immune response. Importantly, the IgE antibody can be used for passive immunotherapy and as an adjuvant of cancer vaccines. However, there are important limitations in the use of animal models including the fact that human IgE does not interact with rodent FcεRs and that there is a different cellular distribution of FcεRs in humans and rodents. Despite these limitations, different murine models have been used with success to evaluate the in vivo anti-cancer activity of several IgE antibodies. These models include wild-type immunocompetent animals bearing syngeneic tumors, xenograft models using immunocompromised mice bearing human tumors and reconstituted with human effector cells, and human FcεRIα transgenic mice bearing syngeneic tumors. In addition, non-human primates such as cynomolgus monkeys can be potentially used for toxicological and pharmacokinetic studies. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of these models and their use in evaluating the in vivo properties of IgE antibodies for cancer therapy.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 12/2011; 61(9):1535-46. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast and ovarian cancer are two of the leading causes of cancer deaths among women in the United States. Overexpression of the HER2/neu oncoprotein has been reported in patients affected with breast and ovarian cancers, and is associated with poor prognosis. To develop a novel targeted therapy for HER2/neu expressing tumors, we have constructed a fully human IgE with the variable regions of the scFv C6MH3-B1 specific for HER2/neu. This antibody was expressed in murine myeloma cells and was properly assembled and secreted. The Fc region of this antibody triggers in vitro degranulation of rat basophilic cells expressing human FcεRI (RBL SX-38) in the presence of murine mammary carcinoma cells that express human HER2/neu (D2F2/E2), but not the shed (soluble) antigen (ECD(HER2)) alone. This IgE is also capable of inducing passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in a human FcεRIα transgenic mouse model, in the presence of a cross-linking antibody, but not in the presence of soluble ECD(HER2). Additionally, IgE enhances antigen presentation in human dendritic cells and facilitates cross-priming, suggesting that the antibody is able to stimulate a secondary T-cell anti-tumor response. Furthermore, we show that this IgE significantly prolongs survival of human FcεRIα transgenic mice bearing D2F2/E2 tumors. We also report that the anti-HER2/neu IgE is well tolerated in a preliminary study conducted in Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus) monkeys. In summary, our results suggest that this IgE should be further explored as a potential therapeutic against HER2/neu overexpressing tumors, such as breast and ovarian cancers.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 11/2011; 61(7):991-1003. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of antibodies have been developed that induce lethal iron deprivation (LID) by targeting the transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1/CD71) and either neutralizing transferrin (Tf) binding, blocking internalization of the receptor and/or inducing its degradation. We have developed recombinant antibodies targeting human TfR1 (ch128.1 and ch128.1Av), which induce receptor degradation and are cytotoxic to certain malignant B-cells. We now show that internalization of TfR1 bound to these antibodies can lead to its sequestration and degradation, as well as reduced Tf uptake, and the induction of a transcriptional response consistent with iron deprivation, which is mediated in part by downstream targets of p53. Cells resistant to these antibodies do not sequester and degrade TfR1 after internalization of the antibody/receptor complex, and accordingly maintain their ability to internalize Tf. These findings are expected to facilitate the rational design and clinical use of therapeutic agents targeting iron import via TfR1 in hematopoietic malignancies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditional cancer therapy can be successful in destroying tumors, but can also cause dangerous side effects. Therefore, many targeted therapies are in development. The transferrin receptor (TfR) functions in cellular iron uptake through its interaction with transferrin. This receptor is an attractive molecule for the targeted therapy of cancer since it is upregulated on the surface of many cancer types and is efficiently internalized. This receptor can be targeted in two ways: 1) for the delivery of therapeutic molecules into malignant cells or 2) to block the natural function of the receptor leading directly to cancer cell death.
In the present article we discuss the strategies used to target the TfR for the delivery of therapeutic agents into cancer cells. We provide a summary of the vast types of anti-cancer drugs that have been delivered into cancer cells employing a variety of receptor binding molecules including Tf, anti-TfR antibodies, or TfR-binding peptides alone or in combination with carrier molecules including nanoparticles and viruses.
Targeting the TfR has been shown to be effective in delivering many different therapeutic agents and causing cytotoxic effects in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
The extensive use of TfR for targeted therapy attests to the versatility of targeting this receptor for therapeutic purposes against malignant cells. More advances in this area are expected to further improve the therapeutic potential of targeting the TfR for cancer therapy leading to an increase in the number of clinical trials of molecules targeting this receptor. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Transferrins: molecular mechanisms of iron transport and disorders.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2011; 1820(3):291-317. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional approaches for the detection of antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity rely on quantification of the release of traceable compounds from target cells or flow cytometry analysis of population-wide phenomena. We report a new method for the direct imaging and quantification of ADCC of cancer cells. The proposed method using imaging flow cytometry combines the statistical power of flow cytometry with the analytical advantages of cell imaging, providing a novel and more comprehensive perspective of effector/target cell interactions during ADCC events. With this method we can quantify and show in detail the morphological changes in target and effector cells, their apoptotic index, the physical interaction between effector and target cells, and a directional transfer of cytosolic contents from effector to target cells. As a model system we used the therapeutic anti-CD20 antibody rituximab to target CFSE labeled Ramos human Burkitt's lymphoma cells, to CMTPX-labeled human monocytic U-937 effector cells. We expect that similar studies using different effector and target cell populations may contribute to the pre-clinical evaluation of therapeutic antibodies and help to identify mechanisms that could be beneficial in the immunotherapy of cancer.
Journal of immunological methods 03/2011; 368(1-2):54-63. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biodegradable nanopolymers are believed to offer great potential in cancer therapy. Here, we report the characterization of a novel, targeted, nanobiopolymeric conjugate based on biodegradable, nontoxic, and nonimmunogenic PMLA [poly(β-l-malic acid)]. The PMLA nanoplatform was synthesized for repetitive systemic treatments of HER2/neu-positive human breast tumors in a xenogeneic mouse model. Various moieties were covalently attached to PMLA, including a combination of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (AON) directed against HER2/neu mRNA, to block new HER2/neu receptor synthesis; anti-HER2/neu antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin), to target breast cancer cells and inhibit receptor activity simultaneously; and transferrin receptor antibody, to target the tumor vasculature and mediate delivery of the nanobiopolymer through the host endothelial system. The results of the study showed that the lead drug tested significantly inhibited the growth of HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by enhanced apoptosis and inhibition of HER2/neu receptor signaling with suppression of Akt phosphorylation. In vivo imaging analysis and confocal microscopy demonstrated selective accumulation of the nanodrug in tumor cells via an active delivery mechanism. Systemic treatment of human breast tumor-bearing nude mice resulted in more than 90% inhibition of tumor growth and tumor regression, as compared with partial (50%) tumor growth inhibition in mice treated with trastuzumab or AON, either free or attached to PMLA. Our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for use of the PMLA nanoplatform for combination cancer therapy.
Cancer Research 02/2011; 71(4):1454-64. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu)-expressing breast cancer patients with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against HER2/neu improves the outcome of chemotherapy. In cases in which remission is observed, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) seems to be one of the main mechanisms of anti-HER2/neu mAb action, implicating Fc gamma receptors (Fc gamma Rs) in this tumoricidal activity. In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that anti-HER2/neu-mediated ADCC is mainly accomplished by polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN). C5a, a cleavage product of the complement component C5, modulates Fc gamma R expression via upregulation of activating and downregulation of inhibitory Fc gamma Rs. C5a also recruits PMNs to sites of inflammation and increases PMN survival. To enhance the recruitment and activation of C5a receptor-bearing cells into the tumor microenvironment, we developed antibody fusion proteins composed of a human IgG3 anti-HER2/neu antibody genetically fused to C5a [anti-HER2/neu IgG3-(C5a)] or to its derivative, C5a(desArg) [anti-HER2/neu IgG3-(C5a(desArg))]. Both fusion proteins were expressed, properly assembled, and secreted by murine myeloma cells, and displayed chemotactic activity on human PMN. Under comparable conditions, anti-HER2/neu IgG3-(C5a(desArg)) increased the survival of PMN more efficiently than anti-HER2/neu IgG3-(C5a) or C5a(desArg). Surprisingly, incubation of the fusion proteins with breast cancer cells that overexpress HER2/neu (SK-BR-3) induced cell death at a dose at which the anti-HER2/neu IgG3 antibody was innocuous. In the presence of human peripheral blood leukocytes as effector cells, both fusion proteins induced tumor cell death more efficiently than anti-HER2/neu IgG3. These data suggest that anti-HER2/neu IgG3-(C5a) and anti-HER2/neu IgG3-(C5a(desArg)) fusion proteins possess novel properties that could be useful in cancer immunotherapy.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 08/2010; 9(8):2175-85. · 5.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable disease of malignant plasma cells. Recent therapeutic advancements have resulted in improved response rates, however, there is no improvement in overall survival, therefore, new therapeutics are needed. Since the transferrin receptor is upregulated on the surface of MM cells, we previously developed an antibody fusion protein consisting of an IgG3 specific for the human transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, CD71) genetically fused to avidin at its carboxy-terminus (ch128.1Av). We have previously shown that ch128.1Av exhibits intrinsic cytotoxicity against certain malignant B-cells by disrupting the cycling of the TfR and decreasing TfR cell surface expression resulting in lethal iron starvation. In addition, ch128.1Av can sensitize malignant cells to apoptosis induced by gambogic acid, a herbal drug used in Chinese medicine. In this study, we hypothesized that ch128.1Av may also sensitize drug-resistant malignant B-cells to chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting key survival pathways. In this study we show that ch128.1Av sensitizes malignant B-cells to apoptosis induced by cisplatin (CDDP). The sensitization by ch128.1Av resulted in the inhibition of the constitutively activated Akt and NF-kappaB survival/antiapoptotic pathways and downstream decreased expression of antiapoptotic gene products such as BclxL and survivin. The direct role of the inhibition of the Akt and NF-kappaB pathways by ch128.1Av in CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity was demonstrated by the use of specific chemical inhibitors and siRNA which mimicked the effects of ch128.1Av. Overall, this study provides evidence of the therapeutic potential of ch128.1Av as a chemo-sensitizing agent in drug-resistant tumor cells.
International Journal of Oncology 05/2010; 36(5):1299-307. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma brucei, a parasitic protist with a single flagellum, is the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. Propulsion of T. brucei was long believed to be by a drill-like, helical motion. Using millisecond differential interference-contrast microscopy and analyzing image sequences of cultured procyclic-form and bloodstream-form parasites, as well as bloodstream-form cells in infected mouse blood, we find that, instead, motility of T. brucei is by the propagation of kinks, separating left-handed and right-handed helical waves. Kink-driven motility, previously encountered in prokaryotes, permits T. brucei a helical propagation mechanism while avoiding the large viscous drag associated with a net rotation of the broad end of its tapering body. Our study demonstrates that millisecond differential interference-contrast microscopy can be a useful tool for uncovering important short-time features of microorganism locomotion.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2009; 106(46):19322-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeted gene transduction in vivo is the ultimate preferred method for gene delivery. We previously developed targeting lentiviral vectors that specifically recognize cell surface molecules with conjugated antibodies and mediate targeted gene transduction both in vitro and in vivo. Although effective in some experimental settings, the conjugation of virus with antibodies is mediated by the interaction between protein A and the Fc region of antibodies, which is not as stable as covalent conjugation. We have now developed a more stable conjugation strategy utilizing the interaction between avidin and biotin.
We inserted the biotin-adaptor-peptide, which was biotinylated by secretory biotin ligase at specific sites, into our targeting envelope proteins, enabling conjugation of the pseudotyped virus with avidin, streptavidin or neutravidin.
When conjugated with avidin-antibody fusion proteins or the complex of avidin and biotinylated targeting molecules, the vectors could mediate specific transduction to targeted cells recognized by the targeting molecules. When conjugated with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, transduction by the vectors was targeted to the locations of magnets.
This targeting vector system can be used for broad applications of targeted gene transduction using biotinylated targeting molecules or targeting molecules fused with avidin.
The Journal of Gene Medicine 06/2009; 11(8):655-63. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The highly aggressive cancer syndrome of female mice carrying a p53 knockout allele and a rat HER-2/neu (Neu) transgene (BALB-p53Neu) can be prevented by a cell vaccine presenting three components: Neu, interleukin (IL)-12 production, and allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles (Triplex cell vaccine). Here we tested a second-generation Triplex DNA-based vaccine (Tri-DNA), consisting of the combination of three gene components (a transmembrane-extracellular domain fragment of the Neu gene, IL-12 genes, and the H-2D(q) allogeneic MHC gene), carried by separate plasmids. The Tri-DNA vaccine was at least as effective as the Triplex cell vaccine for cancer immunoprevention, giving a similar delay in the onset of mammary cancer and complete protection from salivary cancer. Both vaccines induced anti-Neu antibodies of the murine IgG2a isotype at similar levels. The Tri-DNA vaccine gave more restricted immunostimulation, consisting of a fully helper T cell type 1 (Th1)-polarized response, with effective production of interferon (IFN)-gamma in response to the vaccine but no spontaneous production, and no induction of anti-Neu IgG3 antibodies. On the other hand, the Triplex cell vaccine induced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, a strong increase in spontaneous IFN-gamma production, and high levels of IgG3 antibodies recognizing Neu-positive syngeneic cells. In conclusion, the Tri-DNA vaccine is as effective as Triplex cell vaccine, exploiting a more restricted immune stimulation.
Human gene therapy 03/2009; 20(5):453-64. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-Rh alloantibodies are used in research and clinic laboratories to define the Rh antigenic profile of human blood samples. IgM anti-Rh antibodies directly agglutinate Rh-positive RBCs. Anti-Rh antibodies of the IgG isotype bind to Rh antigens with a higher intrinsic affinity than IgM and sensitize RBCs, but do not induce direct hemagglutination. The aim of this work was to produce IgG anti-Rh possessing direct hemagglutinating properties of IgM. To achieve this goal, recombinant antibody technology was used to construct genes encoding Ig light and heavy chains that will form polymers with anti-Rh specificity. Expression vectors and liposome-mediated DNA transfer were used to generate transfectomas secreting human recombinant IgG3 anti-Rh. ELISA, SDS-PAGE, and hemagglutination were used to identify and characterize the recombinant antibody produced. Thus, a recombinant polymeric IgM-like IgG3 anti-Rh antibody was produced that directly agglutinates RBCs with specificity identical to that of the parent non-agglutinating IgG. The results obtained suggest that the technology used here to generate polymeric IgM-like IgG3 anti-Rh antibodies can be applied to produce Rh blood typing reagents. This approach might also be used to develop reagents for which cell surface antigen binding and agglutination or aggregation is required.
Journal of Immunological Methods 11/2008; 340(1):1-10. · 2.23 Impact Factor