Jukka Sirén

National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland

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Publications (14)53.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: IL-27 is a novel member of the IL-12 cytokine family. IL-27 has pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, and it controls the responses of adaptive immunity. It promotes the differentiation of naïve Th cells and suppresses the effector functions of Th17 cells. Biologically active IL-27 is a heterodimer composed of EBV-induced gene 3 (EBI3) and p28 proteins. We report that TLR-dependent expression of IL-27 in human macrophages is mediated by IFN-alpha. Stimulation of macrophages with agonists for TLR3 {polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]}, TLR4 (LPS), or TLR7/8 (R848) results in concurrent expression of EBI3 and p28. The p28 expression is inhibited with neutralizing anti-IFN-alpha antibodies. Unlike poly(I:C), LPS, and R848, TLR2 agonist (S)-[2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2RS)-propyl]-N-palmitoyl-(R)-Cys-(S)-Ser(S)-Lys4-OH trihydrochloride does not stimulate macrophages to produce IFN-alpha, and therefore, it is not able to turn on the expression of p28. There is an IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) in the p28 gene promoter. IFN-alpha enhances the expression of IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) in macrophages and induces binding of IRF-1 to the p28 ISRE site. The data provide a mechanistic basis for the IFN-alpha-mediated activation of IL-27. The data emphasize a role of IFN-alpha in immune responses, which rely on the recognition of pathogens by TLRs.
    Journal of Leukocyte Biology 12/2007; 82(5):1185-92. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of host cell antiviral responses is mediated by receptors detecting the presence of viruses. Here we have studied the role of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding molecules melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (mda-5), retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in measles virus (MV)-induced expression of antiviral cytokines and chemokines in human A549 lung epithelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We show that MV infection results in the activation of mda-5, RIG-I, and TLR3 gene expression that is followed by high expression of interferon (IFN)-beta, interleukin (IL)-28 and IL-29, CCL5, and CXCL10 genes. We also demonstrate that IFN-alpha and IFN-beta upregulate mda-5, RIG-I, and TLR3 gene expression in epithelial and endothelial cell lines. Forced expression of mda-5, but not that of RIG-I or TLR3, leads to enhanced IFN-beta promoter activity in MV-infected A549 cells. Our results suggest that IFN-inducible mda-5 is involved in MV-induced expression of antiviral cytokines.
    Microbes and Infection 08/2006; 8(8):2138-44. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of host cell antiviral responses is mediated by pattern recognition receptors. Cytoplasmic RNA helicases, retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (mda-5) have been identified to function as receptors for double-stranded RNA. Here we show that interferon (IFN)-alpha pretreatment enhances influenza A virus-induced expression of IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, interleukin (IL)-28 and IL-29 genes in human dendritic cells and epithelial cell lines. Both IFN-alpha and IFN-beta strongly enhanced RIG-I and mda-5 mRNA and protein expression in these cell types. Expression of RIG-I and mda-5 gene constructs, but not that of TLR3, lead to a dramatic enhancement of IFN-beta promoter driven transcription in influenza A virus-infected epithelial cells. Furthermore, dominant negative RIG-I gene construct inhibited influenza A virus-induced IFN-beta promoter activity. In conclusion, our results show that in epithelial cells influenza A virus-induced antiviral cytokine gene expression is triggered by RIG-I and mda-5, whose expression is positively regulated by IFN-alpha.
    Microbes and Infection 08/2006; 8(8):2013-20. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) play essential roles in host defence against microbial infections. In the present study, it is shown that human monocyte-derived macrophages and DCs express both type I and type III interferons (IFNs) [IFN-alpha, IFN-beta and interleukin 28 (IL-28), IL-29, respectively], tumour necrosis factor alpha and the chemokines CCL5 and CXCL10 after herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. The cytokine-inducing activity of HSV-1 was dependent on viability of the virus, because UV-inactivated virus did not induce a cytokine response. Pretreatment of the cells with IFN-alpha or IL-29 strongly enhanced the HSV-1-induced cytokine response. Both IFN-alpha and IL-29 decreased viral immediate-early (IE) gene infected-cell protein 27 (ICP27) transcription, suggesting that IL-29 possesses antiviral activity against HSV-1 comparable to that of IFN-alpha. Macrophage infection with HSV-1 lacking functional ICP27 (d27-1 virus) resulted in strongly enhanced cytokine mRNA expression and protein production. In contrast, viruses lacking functional IE genes ICP0 and ICP4 induced cytokine responses comparable to those of the wild-type viruses. The activation of transcription factors IRF-3 and NF-kappaB was strongly augmented when macrophages were infected with the ICP27 mutant virus. Altogether, the results demonstrate that HSV-1 both induces and inhibits the antiviral response in human cells and that the type III IFN IL-29, together with IFN-alpha, amplifies the antiviral response against the virus. It is further identified that viral IE-gene expression interferes with the antiviral response in human macrophages and ICP27 is identified as an important viral protein counteracting the early innate immune response.
    Journal of General Virology 06/2006; 87(Pt 5):1099-108. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial cells of the lung are the primary targets for respiratory viruses. Virus-carried single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 8, whereas dsRNA is bound by TLR3 and a cytoplasmic RNA helicase, retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I). This recognition leads to the activation of host cell cytokine gene expression. Here we have studied the regulation of influenza A and Sendai virus-induced alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), IFN-beta, interleukin-28 (IL-28), and IL-29 gene expression in human lung A549 epithelial cells. Sendai virus infection readily activated the expression of the IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IL-28, and IL-29 genes, whereas influenza A virus-induced activation of these genes was mainly dependent on pretreatment of A549 cells with IFN-alpha or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha induced the expression of the RIG-I, TLR3, MyD88, TRIF, and IRF7 genes, whereas no detectable TLR7 and TLR8 was seen in A549 cells. TNF-alpha also strongly enhanced IKK epsilon mRNA and protein expression. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of RIG-I (deltaRIG-I) or IKK epsilon, but not that of TLR3, enhanced the expression of the IFN-beta, IL-28, and IL-29 genes. Furthermore, a dominant-negative form of RIG-I inhibited influenza A virus-induced IFN-beta promoter activity in TNF-alpha-pretreated cells. In conclusion, IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha enhanced the expression of the components of TLR and RIG-I signaling pathways, but RIG-I was identified as the central regulator of influenza A virus-induced expression of antiviral cytokines in human lung epithelial cells.
    Journal of Virology 05/2006; 80(7):3515-22. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of host innate immune responses was studied in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SCV)-infected human A549 lung epithelial cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs). In all cell types, SCV-specific subgenomic mRNAs were seen, whereas no expression of SCV proteins was found. No induction of cytokine genes (alpha interferon [IFN-alpha], IFN-beta, interleukin-28A/B [IL-28A/B], IL-29, tumor necrosis factor alpha, CCL5, or CXCL10) or IFN-alpha/beta-induced MxA gene was seen in SCV-infected A549 cells, macrophages, or DCs. SCV also failed to induce DC maturation (CD86 expression) or enhance major histocompatibility complex class II expression. Our data strongly suggest that SCV fails to activate host cell cytokine gene expression in human macrophages and DCs.
    Journal of Virology 12/2005; 79(21):13800-5. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) respond to microbial infections by undergoing phenotypic maturation and by producing multiple cytokines. In the present study, we analyzed the ability of influenza A and Sendai viruses to induce DC maturation and activate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta), and IFN-like interleukin-28A/B (IFN-lambda2/3) and IL-29 (IFN-lambda1) gene expression in human monocyte-derived myeloid DCs (mDC). The ability of influenza A virus to induce mDC maturation or enhance the expression of TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha/beta, interleukin-28 (IL-28), and IL-29 genes was limited, whereas Sendai virus efficiently induced mDC maturation and enhanced cytokine gene expression. Influenza A virus-induced expression of TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IL-28, and IL-29 genes was, however, dramatically enhanced when cells were pretreated with IFN-alpha. IFN-alpha priming led to increased expression of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR7, TLR8, MyD88, TRIF, and IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) genes and enhanced influenza-induced phosphorylation and DNA binding of IRF3. Influenza A virus also enhanced the binding of NF-kappaB to the respective NF-kappaB elements of the promoters of IFN-beta and IL-29 genes. In mDC IL-29 induced MxA protein expression and possessed antiviral activity against influenza A virus, although this activity was lower than that of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta. Our results show that in human mDCs viruses can readily induce the expression of IL-28 and IL-29 genes whose gene products are likely to contribute to the host antiviral response.
    Journal of Virology 09/2005; 79(15):9608-17. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TLRs play a critical role in early innate immune response to virus infection. TLR3 together with TLR7 and TLR8 constitute a powerful system to detect genetic material of RNA viruses. TLR3 has been shown to bind viral dsRNA whereas TLR7 and TLR8 are receptors for viral single-stranded RNA. In this report we show that TLR7 or TLR8 are not expressed in human epithelial A549 cells or in HUVECs. Accordingly, A549 cells and HUVECs were unresponsive to TLR7/8 ligand R848. TLR3 was expressed at a higher level in HUVECs than in A549 cells. The TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) up-regulated IFN-beta, IL-28, IL-29, STAT1, and TLR3 expression in HUVECs but not in A549 cells. An enhanced TLR3 expression by transfection or by IFN-alpha stimulation conferred poly(I:C) responsiveness in A549 cells. Similarly, IFN-alpha pretreatment strongly enhanced poly(I:C)-induced activation of IFN-beta, IL-28, and IL-29 genes also in HUVECs. In conclusion, our results suggest that IFN-alpha-induced up-regulation of TLR3 expression is involved in dsRNA activated antiviral response in human epithelial and endothelial cells.
    The Journal of Immunology 05/2005; 174(7):4289-94. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate host cell activation by various microbial components. TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 are the receptors that have been associated with virus-induced immune response. We have previously reported that all these TLRs, except TLR9, are expressed at mRNA levels in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Here we have studied TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7/8 ligand-induced IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IL-28, and IL-29 expression in human macrophages. IFN-alpha pretreatment of macrophages was required for efficient TLR3 and TLR4 agonist-induced activation of IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IL-28, and IL-29 genes. TLR7/8 agonist weakly activated IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IL-28, and IL-29 genes, whereas TLR2 agonist was not able to activate these genes. IFN-alpha enhanced TLR responsiveness in macrophages by up-regulating the expression of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7. IFN-alpha also enhanced the expression of TLR signaling molecules MyD88, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta, IkappaB kinase-epsilon, receptor interacting protein 1, and IFN regulatory factor 7. Furthermore, the activation of transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 by TLR3 and TLR4 agonists was dependent on IFN-alpha pretreatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that IFN-alpha sensitizes cells to microbial recognition by up-regulating the expression of several TLRs as well as adapter molecules and kinases involved in TLR signaling.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2005; 174(4):1932-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NK cells participate in innate immune responses by secreting gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and by destroying virus-infected cells. Here the interaction between influenza A or Sendai virus-infected macrophages and NK cells has been studied. A rapid, cell-cell contact-dependent production of IFN-gamma from NK cells cultured with virus-infected macrophages was observed. Expression of the MHC class I-related chain B (MICB) gene, a ligand for NK cell-activating receptor NKG2D, was upregulated in virus-infected macrophages suggesting a role for MICB in the activation of the IFN-gamma gene in NK cells. IL12Rbeta2, IL18R and T-bet mRNA synthesis was enhanced in NK cells cultured with virus-infected macrophages. Upregulation of these genes was dependent on macrophage-derived IFN-alpha. In contrast to IL12Rbeta2, expression of WSX-1/TCCR, a receptor for IL27, was reduced in NK cells in response to virus-induced IFN-alpha. In conclusion, these results show that virus-infected macrophages activate NK cells via cytokines and direct cellular interactions and further emphasize the role of IFN-alpha in the activation of innate immunity.
    Journal of General Virology 09/2004; 85(Pt 8):2357-64. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most efficient antigen-presenting cells and thus, have a major role in regulating host immune responses. In the present study, we have analyzed the ability of Gram-positive, pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes and nonpathogenic Lactobacillus rhamnosus to induce the maturation of human monocyte-derived DCs. Stimulation of DCs with S. pyogenes resulted in strong expression of DC costimulatory molecules CD80, CD83, and CD86 accompanied with a T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine and chemokine response. S. pyogenes also induced interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12 production at mRNA and protein levels. In addition, IL-23 and IL-27 subunits p40, p19, p28, and EBI3 were induced at mRNA level. In contrast, L. rhamnosus-stimulated DCs showed only moderate expression of costimulatory molecules and produced low levels of cytokines and chemokines. Furthermore, no production of IL-2 or IL-12 family cytokines was detected. Bacteria-induced DC maturation and especially cytokine and chemokine production were reduced when bacteria were heat-inactivated. Our results show that human monocyte-derived DCs respond differently to different Gram-positive bacteria. Although pathogenic S. pyogenes induced a strong Th1-type response, stimulation with nonpathogenic L. rhamnosus resulted in development of semi-mature DCs characterized by moderate expression of costimulatory molecules and low cytokine production.
    Journal of Leukocyte Biology 06/2004; 75(5):764-71. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NK and T cell-derived IFN-gamma is a key cytokine that stimulates innate immune responses and directs adaptive T cell response toward Th1 type. IL-15, IL-18, and IL-21 have significant roles as activators of NK and T cell functions. We have previously shown that IL-15 and IL-21 induce the expression of IFN-gamma, T-bet, IL-12R beta 2, and IL-18R genes both in NK and T cells. Now we have studied the effect of IL-15, IL-18, and IL-21 on IFN-gamma gene expression in more detail in human NK and T cells. IL-15 clearly activated IFN-gamma mRNA expression and protein production in both cell types. IL-18 and IL-21 enhanced IL-15-induced IFN-gamma gene expression. IL-18 or IL-21 alone induced a modest expression of the IFN-gamma gene but a combination of IL-21 and IL-18 efficiently up-regulated IFN-gamma production. We also show that IL-15 activated the binding of STAT1, STAT3, STAT4, and STAT5 to the regulatory sites of the IFN-gamma gene. Similarly, IL-21 induced the binding of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT4 to these elements. IL-15- and IL-21-induced STAT1 and STAT4 activation was verified by immunoprecipitation with anti-phosphotyrosine Abs followed by Western blotting with anti-STAT1 and anti-STAT4 Abs. IL-18 was not able to induce the binding of STATs to IFN-gamma gene regulatory sites. IL-18, however, activated the binding of NF-kappa B to the IFN-gamma promoter NF-kappa B site. Our results suggest that both IL-15 and IL-21 have an important role in activating the NK cell-associated innate immune response.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2003; 170(11):5464-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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