[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated chronic kidney disease (CKD) have become major public health problems. Little is known about the influence of diet on the incidence or progression of CKD among individuals with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between (healthy) diet, alcohol, protein, and sodium intake, and incidence or progression of CKD among individuals with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS All 6213 individuals with type 2 diabetes without macroalbuminuria from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) were included in this observational study. Recruitment spanned from January 2002 to July 2003, with prospective follow-up through January 2008. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Chronic kidney disease was defined as new microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria or glomerular filtration rate decline of more than 5% per year at 5.5 years of follow-up. We assessed diet using the modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI). The analyses were adjusted for known risk factors, and competing risk of death was considered. RESULTS After 5.5 years of follow-up, 31.7% of participants had developed CKD and 8.3% had died. Compared with participants in the least healthy tertile of mAHEI score, participants in the healthiest tertile had a lower risk of CKD (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.84) and lower risk of mortality (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.48-0.78). Participants consuming more than 3 servings of fruits per week had a lower risk of CKD compared with participants consuming these food items less frequently. Participants in the lowest tertile of total and animal protein intake had an increased risk of CKD compared with participants in the highest tertile (total protein OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05-1.30). Sodium intake was not associated with CKD. Moderate alcohol intake reduced the risk of CKD (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.87) and mortality (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE A healthy diet and moderate intake of alcohol may decrease the incidence or progression of CKD among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Sodium intake, within a wide range, and normal protein intake are not associated with CKD. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00153101.
JAMA Internal Medicine 08/2013; 173(18). DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.9051 · 13.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report blood pressure control in the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial, a placebo-controlled trial of hypertensive (systolic blood pressure (SBP) 160-199 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <110 mm Hg) participants over the age of 80 years, given treatment in three steps: indapamide slow release 1.5 mg alone, indapamide plus 2 mg perindopril and indapamide plus 4 mg perindopril. The difference in control between participants with combined systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH, DBP90 mm Hg) and those with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, DBP<90 mm Hg) is determined together with the effects of increments in the treatment regimen. At 2 years, the active treatment lowered blood pressure by 16.5/6.9 mm Hg more than that on placebo in participants with SDH and by 19.3/4.8 mm Hg more in those with ISH. The 2-year falls in pressure on placebo alone were 13.2/8.5 mm Hg in SDH and 8.2/1.5 mm Hg in ISH participants. With full titration of active treatment, 62% of SDH participants achieved goal SBP (<150 mm Hg) by 2 years and 71% of those with ISH. The corresponding results for DBP control (<80 mm Hg) were 40 and 78%. The addition of active perindopril 2 mg roughly doubled the percentage controlled, as did increasing to 4 from 2 mg. Blood pressure control was good with ISH and better than with SDH. The fall in SBP accounted for the observed 30% reduction in strokes, but the 21% reduction in total mortality and 64% reduction in heart failure were greater than predicted.
Journal of human hypertension 03/2011; 26(3):157-63. DOI:10.1038/jhh.2011.10 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self or home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) is increasingly popular. Its prognostic value and clinical interest in the diagnosis and follow-up of hypertension are well established. In addition, experts widely agree on the fact that it improves hypertension management and therapeutic compliance. In particular, HBPM often allows to detect white coat hypertension (to be confirmed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement). Unfortunately, a large part of HBPM devices in the European Union have not fulfilled independent validation criteria. Furthermore, many patients buy and use such devices without medical supervision. This consensus document summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of HBPM and the conditions of a proper use, in agreement with the recent European and American guidelines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The maternally imprinted insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene is an important fetal growth factor and is also suggested to have postnatal metabolic effects. In this study, we examined whether common polymorphisms in IGF2 (6815_6819delAGGGC, 1156T>C and 820G>A (ApaI)) and a microsatellite marker in the close vicinity of IGF2 were linked to or associated with birth weight and adult metabolic risk factors.
Polymorphisms were genotyped in 199 monozygotic complete twin pairs, 109 dizygotic complete twin pairs, 15 single twins, 231 mothers and 228 fathers recruited from the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey. Conventional and parent-of-origin specific linkage and association analyses were carried out with birth weight, adult body height and parameters quantifying obesity, insulin sensitivity and dyslipidaemia measured at adult age (mean age 25 years).
In the parent-of-origin specific association analysis, in which only the paternally inherited allele was incorporated, the 1156T>C SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) showed significant association with IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) levels (T and C (mean (95% CI)): 13.2 (12.1-14.3) and 16.2 (14.6-18.0) ng ml(-1), P=0.002). No linkage was observed in either the conventional or in the parent-of-origin specific linkage analysis.
This study suggests that paternally inherited alleles of a common polymorphism in the IGF2 gene affect IGFBP1 levels.
International journal of obesity (2005) 06/2009; 33(9):962-70. DOI:10.1038/ijo.2009.126 · 5.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Children born small for gestational age are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The satiety signal leptin that regulates food intake and energy expenditure might be a possible molecular link, as umbilical cord leptin levels are positively correlated with birth weight. In the present study, we examined whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leptin (LEP; 19G>A) gene and its receptor (LEPR; Q223R and K109R) are associated with birth weight and adult metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes in twins.
SNPs were genotyped in 396 monozygotic and 232 dizygotic twins (286 men and 342 women, mean age 25 years) recruited from the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey. Data were analysed using linear mixed models.
The LEPR K109R SNP was associated with birth weight (KK, KR and RR (95% confidence interval, CI): 2511 (2465-2557), 2575 (2516-2635) and 2726 (2606-2845) gram; P(additive)=0.001). Also the LEPR Q223R SNP showed a significant association with weight at birth (QQ, QR and RR (95% CI): 2492 (2431-2554), 2545 (2495-2595) and 2655 (2571-2740) gram; P(additive)=0.003). Furthermore, an interaction between the LEPR K109R and the Q223R SNP on birth weight was observed (P=0.014). G allele carriers of the LEP 19G>A SNP had higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels compared to 19A homozygotes (GX vs AA (95% CI): 1.62 (1.58-1.66) vs 1.49 (1.40-1.58) mmol l(-1); P(recessive)=0.013).
This study indicates that leptin may act as a growth-promoting signal during fetal development, and suggests a possible role for the LEPR in explaining the inverse relationship between birth weight and the development of metabolic diseases in adulthood. Additionally, these results suggest that the LEP 19G>A SNP affect HDL cholesterol levels.
International journal of obesity (2005) 12/2008; 32(11):1745-1746. DOI:10.1038/ijo.2008.92 · 5.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier studies have demonstrated the interaction between ADD1 and ACE in relation to arterial properties. We investigated whether arterial characteristics might also be related to interactions of ADD1 with other renin-angiotensin system genes. Using a family-based sampling frame, we randomly recruited 1064 Flemish subjects (mean age, 43.6 years; 50.4% women). By means of a wall-tracking ultrasound system, we measured the properties of the carotid, femoral and brachial arteries. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, we assessed the multiple gene effects of ADD1 (Gly460Trp), AGT (C-532T and G-6A) and AT1R (A1166C). In ADD1 Trp allele carriers, but not in ADD1 GlyGly homozygotes (P-value for interaction < or =0.014), femoral cross-sectional compliance was significantly higher (0.74 vs 0.65 mm(2) kPa(-1); P=0.020) in carriers of the AT1R C allele than in AT1R AA homozygotes, with a similar trend for femoral distensibility (11.3 vs 10.2 x 10(-3) kPa(-1); P=0.055). These associations were independent of potential confounding factors, including age. Family-based analyses confirmed these results. Brachial diameter (4.35 vs 4.18 mm) and plasma renin activity (PRA) (0.23 vs 0.14 ng ml(-1) h(-1)) were increased (P< or =0.005) in AGT CG haplotype homozygotes compared with non-carriers, whereas the opposite was true for brachial distensibility (12.4 vs 14.4 x 10(-3) kPa(-1); P=0.011). There was no interaction between AGT and any other gene in relation to the measured phenotypes. ADD1 and AT1R interactively determine the elastic properties of the femoral artery. There is a single-gene effect of the AGT promoter haplotypes on brachial properties and PRA.
Journal of Human Hypertension 10/2008; 23(1):55-64. DOI:10.1038/jhh.2008.113 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To quantify the relative risk reductions achieved with different regimens to lower blood pressure in younger and older adults.
Meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses used to compare the effects on the primary outcome between two age groups (<65 v > or =65 years). Evidence for an interaction between age and the effects of treatment sought by fitting age as a continuous variable and estimating overall effects across trials.
Primary outcome: total major cardiovascular events.
31 trials, with 190 606 participants, were included. The meta-analyses showed no clear difference between age groups in the effects of lowering blood pressure or any difference between the effects of the drug classes on major cardiovascular events (all P> or =0.24). Neither was there any significant interaction between age and treatment when age was fitted as a continuous variable (all P>0.09). The meta-regressions also showed no difference in effects between the two age groups for the outcome of major cardiovascular events (<65 v > or =65; P=0.38).
Reduction of blood pressure produces benefits in younger (<65 years) and older (> or =65 years) adults, with no strong evidence that protection against major vascular events afforded by different drug classes varies substantially with age.