Maureen F Zakowski

Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (103)669.11 Total impact

  • Cancer Research 08/2015; 75(15 Supplement):610-610. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-610 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the imaging appearances of diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) on computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: Electronic medical records were searched for patients with pathology-proven DIPNECH who had a CT available for review. Eleven patients were included. Results: The most common finding on CT was small pulmonary nodules which were present in all patients and were multiple (≥5) in 7/11 patients. Other CT findings included mosaic pattern attenuation and bronchial wall thickening/bronchiectasis. Conclusion: DIPNECH should be considered as a diagnostic possibility when multiple small pulmonary nodules are identified on CT, particularly if there is an associated carcinoid tumor.
    Clinical Imaging 10/2014; 39(2). DOI:10.1016/j.clinimag.2014.10.017 · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Identifying high-grade features in patients with pancreatic mucinous neoplasms (MNs) is important for patient management. The reproducibility of MN cytology grading has been evaluated to a limited extent. In the current study, the authors evaluated interobserver variability in grading MNs and the identification of neoplastic mucin in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration specimens.METHODSA 54-case grading set was created from histologically confirmed MNs (44 MNs) and nonmucinous lesions with abundant gastrointestinal contamination (10 nonmucinous lesions). Six observers received a tutorial, reviewed prescreened slides, and recorded: 1) a diagnosis according to a 6-tiered system (TS) (nondiagnostic, atypical [ATP], mucinous cyst low grade [MCLG], mucinous cyst high grade, suspicious for adenocarcinoma, and positive for adenocarcinoma); 2) the cyst fluid carcinoembryonic antigen diagnosis (CEADX); and 3) the presence of neoplastic musin. Interobserver agreement (IOA) was evaluated by calculation of kappa coefficients (Kappa). Diagnostic accuracy was not evaluated.RESULTSThe IOA was lowest for the 6-TS (Kappa, 0.13; P<.001). The CEADX was available for 18 cases (33%), including 6 of 24 MCLG cases (25%). CEADX modestly improved IOA for combined tiers of the 6-TS with ATP and MCLG as separate categories. The highest IOA was noted with a 3-TS (nondiagnostic, ATP/MCLG, and mucinous cyst high grade/suspicious for adenocarcinoma/positive for adenocarcinoma [Kappa, 0.28; P<.001]) and various 4-TS (Kappa, 0.22-0.23). IOA was found to be low for neoplastic mucin (Kappa = 0.15; P<.001).CONCLUSIONS In a study using simulated cytology practice, observers demonstrated fair IOA for grading MNs and low IOA for identifying neoplastic mucin. Knowledge of the cyst fluid CEA level was found to modestly improve the IOA for low-grade lesions. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer Cytopathology 10/2014; 123(1). DOI:10.1002/cncy.21492 · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • 39th ESMO Congress (ESMO); 09/2014
  • A.M. Litvak · T. Iyriboz · M. Zakowski · K. Woo · L. Krug · C. Rudin · M. Pietanza
    39th ESMO Congress (ESMO); 09/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We describe clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics of never-smoker patients with small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs). We identified cases of SCLCs evaluated at our institution from 2005 to 2012. We collected smoking history, demographic, treatment, and survival data. EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, ALK testing, RB protein expression, and next generation sequencing were performed on available samples. Two percent (23 of 1040) of patients with SCLCs were never-smokers. Eighty-three percent (19 of 23) had de novo SCLCs, whereas 17% had SCLC transformation as acquired resistance to erlotinib after treatment for EGFR-mutant lung carcinomas. Median survival from SCLC diagnosis was 23 months. Of de novo SCLCs, ALK rearrangement, KRAS mutations, EGFR mutations, and RB loss were identified in zero of five, zero of eight, two of eight, and six of seven, respectively. Two de novo samples underwent next generation sequencing. One had mutations in p53 and RB1 with amplification in TERT, and a second had mutations in CBL and GNAS with amplification in MYCL1. Two percent of patients with SCLCs are never-smokers. Although transformation to SCLC can rarely occur in acquired resistance to erlotinib, 83% of never-smokers with SCLCs had de novo SCLC. RB loss was noted in 86% of cases. Multiplexed genotyping can be performed on tissues to identify potentially actionable oncogenic drivers.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 06/2014; 9(6):892-6. DOI:10.1097/JTO.0000000000000142 · 5.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare measurements of lung tumor size between axial and multiplanar reformatted CT images, as well as to establish whether the difference between these measurements leads to a change in T stage. Materials and methods: Patients with lung tumors who underwent chest CT up to 31 days before lung resection between December 2010 and March 2012 were included. Axial, sagittal, and coronal CT images were evaluated by two independent readers (1 and 2) who were blinded to clinical data. In 89 patients, lung tumors categorized as T1a (54%), T1b (19%), T2a (24%), or T2b (3%) were analyzed. The longest tumor diameter using multiplanar reformatted CT was compared and correlated with axial CT alone and pathologic T stage. Statistical analysis included a Wilcoxon rank sum test to evaluate differences between measurements, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and kappa statistic to assess agreement. Results: Prediction of T stage using axial CT alone compared with multiplanar reformatted CT agreed in 82% of patients for reader 1 (κ = 0.660 [95% CI, 0.531-0.789]) and 80% of patients for reader 2 (κ = 0.695 [95% CI, 0.572-0.818]). Prediction of T stage using multiplanar reformatted CT resulted in upstaging in 18% and 20% of patients (for readers 1 and 2, respectively). Interobserver agreement (ICC [95% CI]) was 0.900 (0.803-0.954) for axial, 0.874 (0.772-0.946) for sagittal, and 0.754 (0.556-0.921) for coronal planes. Conclusion: Radiologic measurement of lung tumor T stage was higher using multiplanar reformatted CT as compared with axial CT alone. When available, multiplanar reformatted CT should be used to measure tumor dimension and thus assign an accurate lung cancer T stage.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 11/2013; 201(5):959-63. DOI:10.2214/AJR.12.10033 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Ajit Paintal · Kirtee Raparia · Maureen F Zakowski · Ritu Nayar
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in effusion specimens is controversial. At the study institution (Northwestern University), a primary diagnosis of MM is made on fluid cytology specimens. In an effort to estimate the practice at other institutions, a survey was disseminated regarding cytologic diagnosis of MM. The authors also evaluated their own institution's experience with primary cytologic diagnosis of MM. Patients with MM at the study institution were identified from 1992 through 2011. Fluid cytology specimens preceding histologic diagnoses were reviewed. A survey was sent to a number of cytology laboratories to assess practice patterns regarding the diagnosis of MM. At the study institution, 20 cases of MM had effusion specimens preceding the diagnostic histologic material. In 6 cases (30%), a definitive diagnosis of MM was rendered via cytology alone. There were no false-positive diagnoses of MM. Of 55 laboratories that responded to the survey, 36 reported making a definitive diagnosis of MM after cytologic analysis. Almost all laboratories (35) willing to diagnose MM in effusions reported performing immunohistochemistry to distinguish adenocarcinoma from MM. A smaller proportion (18) of these laboratories reported doing additional immunohistochemistry or fluorescence in situ hybridization for p16 to help distinguish benign from malignant mesothelial proliferations. Those who do not definitively diagnose MM in fluid specimens state inability to identify invasion and overlap with reactive mesothelial proliferation as factors supporting their practice. Most respondents (32) felt that the clinicians at their institution would manage a patient based on a cytologic diagnosis of MM. The majority of respondents reported making a definitive diagnosis of MM in effusion cytology specimens. The diagnosis of MM in effusions, although not sensitive, is extremely specific. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer Cytopathology 09/2013; 121(12). DOI:10.1002/cncy.21342 · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • Maureen F Zakowski
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer have changed dramatically in the past few years. The discovery of activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor and the use of drugs that successfully target those mutations are among the key advances that have led to a shift in the practice of oncology and pathology, with perhaps the greatest effect on the field of cytology. Objectives: To present the perspective of a practicing thoracic pathologist and cytopathologist on the developments that have changed practice and to place those changes in a broader context. Data sources: Literature review, studies undertaken or participated in by the author, and personal experience. Conclusions: Cytologists are in an ideal position to influence appropriate testing and treatment in the era of targeted therapy. Lung pathology has led the way in the era of targeted therapy, in no small part due to cytology.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 04/2013; 137(12). DOI:10.5858/arpa.2013-0029-RA · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of RET fusions in lung cancers has uncovered a new therapeutic target for patients whose tumors harbor these changes. In an unselected population of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), RET fusions are present in 1-2% of cases. This incidence rises substantially, however, in never-smokers with lung adenocarcinomas that lack other known driver oncogenes. While pre-clinical data provide experimental support for the use of RET inhibitors in the treatment of RET fusion-positive tumors, clinical data on response are lacking. We report preliminary data for the first three patients treated with the RET inhibitor cabozantinib on a prospective phase 2 trial for patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLCs (NCT01639508). Confirmed partial responses were observed in two patients, including one harboring a novel TRIM33-RET fusion. A third patient with a KIF5B-RET fusion has had prolonged stable disease approaching 8 months (31 weeks). All three patients remain progression-free on treatment.
    Cancer Discovery 03/2013; 3(6). DOI:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-13-0035 · 19.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: All patients with EGF receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung cancers eventually develop acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Smaller series have identified various mechanisms of resistance, but systematic evaluation of a large number of patients to definitively establish the frequency of various mechanisms has not been conducted. Experimental design: Patients with lung adenocarcinomas and acquired resistance to erlotinib or gefitinib enrolled onto a prospective biopsy protocol and underwent a rebiopsy after the development of acquired resistance. Histology was reviewed. Samples underwent genotyping for mutations in EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, ERBB2, KRAS, MEK1, NRAS and PIK3CA, and FISH for MET and HER2. Results: Adequate tumor samples for molecular analysis were obtained in 155 patients. Ninety-eight had second-site EGFR T790M mutations [63%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 55%-70%] and four had small cell transformation (3%, 95% CI, 0%-6%). MET amplification was seen in 4 of 75 (5%; 95% CI, 1%-13%). HER2 amplification was seen in 3 of 24 (13%; 95% CI, 3%-32%). We did not detect any acquired mutations in PIK3CA, AKT1, BRAF, ERBB2, KRAS, MEK1, or NRAS (0 of 88, 0%; 95% CI, 0%-4%). Overlap among mechanisms of acquired resistance was seen in 4%. Conclusions: This is the largest series reporting mechanisms of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy. We identified EGFR T790M as the most common mechanism of acquired resistance, whereas MET amplification, HER2 amplification, and small cell histologic transformation occur less frequently. More comprehensive methods to characterize molecular alterations in this setting are needed to improve our understanding of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs.
    Clinical Cancer Research 03/2013; 19(8). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-2246 · 8.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In contrast to other primary epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung adenocarcinomas, insertions in exon 20 of EGFR have been generally associated with resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Their molecular spectrum, clinicopathologic characteristics, and prevalence are not well established. Tumors harboring EGFR exon 20 insertions were identified through an algorithmic screen of 1,500 lung adenocarcinomas. Cases were first tested for common mutations in EGFR (exons 19 and 21) and KRAS (exon 2) and, if negative, further analyzed for EGFR exon 20 insertions. All samples underwent extended genotyping for other driver mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2/HER2, NRAS, PIK3CA, MEK1, and AKT by mass spectrometry; a subset was evaluated for ALK rearrangements. We identified 33 EGFR exon 20 insertion cases [2.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-3.1], all mutually exclusive with mutations in the other genes tested (except PIK3CA). They were more common among never-smokers (P < 0.0001). There was no association with age, sex, race, or stage. Morphologically, tumors were similar to those with common EGFR mutations but with frequent solid histology. Insertions were highly variable in position and size, ranging from 3 to 12 bp, resulting in 13 different insertions, which, by molecular modeling, are predicted to have potentially different effects on erlotinib binding. EGFR exon 20 insertion testing identifies a distinct subset of lung adenocarcinomas, accounting for at least 9% of all EGFR-mutated cases, representing the third most common type of EGFR mutation after exon 19 deletions and L858R. Insertions are structurally heterogeneous with potential implications for response to EGFR inhibitors. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(2); 1-10. ©2012 AACR.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 01/2013; 12(2). DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-12-0620 · 5.68 Impact Factor
  • Maureen F Zakowski · Marluce Bibbo
    Acta cytologica 12/2012; 56(6):587-9. DOI:10.1159/000345183 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : EGFR and KRAS mutations are mutually exclusive and predict outcomes with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in patients with stage IV lung cancers. The clinical significance of these mutations in patients with resected stage I-III lung cancers is unclear. : At our institution, resection specimens from patients with stage I-III lung adenocarcinomas are tested for the presence of EGFR or KRAS mutations during routine pathology analysis such that the results are available before consideration of adjuvant therapy. In a cohort of 1118 patients tested over 8 years, overall survival was analyzed using multivariate analysis to control for potential confounders, including age, sex, stage, and smoking history. The impact of adjuvant erlotinib or gefitinib was examined in an independent data set of patients exclusively with EGFR mutation, in which date of recurrence was recorded. : In the overall population, we identified 227 KRAS (25%) and 222 EGFR (20%) mutations. Patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers had a lower risk of death compared with those without EGFR mutations, overall survival (OS) HR 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-0.76, p < 0.001). Patients with KRAS-mutant lung cancers had similar outcomes compared with individuals with KRAS wild-type tumors, OS HR 1.17 (95% CI: 0.87-1.57, p = 0.30). A separate data set includes only patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers identified over 10 years (n = 286). In patients with resected lung cancers and EGFR mutation, treatment with adjuvant erlotinib or gefitinib was associated with a lower risk of recurrence or death, disease-free survival HR 0.43 (95% CI: 0.26-0.72, p = 0.001), and a trend toward improved OS. : Patients with resected stage I-III lung cancers and EGFR mutation have a lower risk of death compared with patients without EGFR mutation. This may be because of treatment with EGFR TKIs. Patients with, and without KRAS mutation have similar OS. These data support reflex testing of resected lung adenocarcinomas for EGFR mutation to provide prognostic information and identify patients for enrollment on prospective clinical trials of adjuvant EGFR TKIs.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 12/2012; 7(12):1815-22. DOI:10.1097/JTO.0b013e31826bb7b2 · 5.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary large-cell carcinoma-a diagnostically and clinically controversial entity-is defined as a non-small-cell carcinoma lacking morphologic differentiation of either adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, but suspected to represent an end stage of poor differentiation of these tumor types. Given the recent advances in immunohistochemistry to distinguish adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and the recent insights that several therapeutically relevant genetic alterations are distributed differentially in these tumors, we hypothesized that immunophenotyping may stratify large-cell carcinomas into subsets with distinct profiles of targetable driver mutations. We therefore analyzed 102 large-cell carcinomas by immunohistochemistry for TTF-1 and ΔNp63/p40 as classifiers for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively, and correlated the resulting subtypes with nine therapeutically relevant genetic alterations characteristic of adenocarcinoma (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, MAP2K1/MEK1, NRAS, ERBB2/HER2 mutations and ALK rearrangements) or more common in squamous cell carcinoma (PIK3CA and AKT1 mutations). The immunomarkers classified large-cell carcinomas as variants of adenocarcinoma (n=62; 60%), squamous cell carcinoma (n=20; 20%) or marker-null (n=20; 20%). Genetic alterations were found in 38 cases (37%), including EGFR (n=1), KRAS (n=30), BRAF (n=2), MAP2K1 (n=1), ALK (n=3) and PIK3CA (n=1). All molecular alterations characteristic of adenocarcinoma occurred in tumors with immunoprofiles of adenocarcinoma or marker-null, but not in tumors with squamous immunoprofiles (combined mutation rate 50% vs 30% vs 0%, respectively; P<0.001), whereas the sole PIK3CA mutation occurred in a tumor with squamous profile (5%). Furthermore, marker-null large-cell carcinomas were associated with significantly inferior disease-free (P<0.001) and overall (P=0.001) survival. In conclusion, the majority (80%) of large-cell carcinomas can be classified by immunomarkers as variants of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, which stratifies these tumors into subsets with a distinct distribution of driver mutations and distinct prognoses. These findings have practical implications for diagnosis, predictive molecular testing and therapy selection.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 30 November 2012; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.195.
    Modern Pathology 11/2012; 27(1). DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2012.195 · 6.19 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 11/2012; 84(3):S579. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.07.1544 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The mutually exclusive pattern of the major driver oncogenes in lung cancer suggests that other mutually exclusive oncogenes exist. We conducted a systematic search for tyrosine kinase fusions by screening all tyrosine kinases for aberrantly high RNA expression levels of the 3' kinase domain (KD) exons relative to more 5' exons. Methods: We studied 69 patients (including five never smokers and 64 current or former smokers) with lung adenocarcinoma negative for all major mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, MEK1, HER2, and for ALK fusions (termed "pan-negative"). A NanoString-based assay was designed to query the transcripts of 90 tyrosine kinases at two points: 5' to the KD and within the KD or 3' to it. Tumor RNAs were hybridized to the NanoString probes and analyzed for outlier 3' to 5' expression ratios. Presumed novel fusion events were studied by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and confirmatory reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and FISH. Results: We identified one case each of aberrant 3' to 5' ratios in ROS1 and RET. RACE isolated a GOPC-ROS1 (FIG-ROS1) fusion in the former and a KIF5B-RET fusion in the latter, both confirmed by RT-PCR. The RET rearrangement was also confirmed by FISH. The KIF5B-RET patient was one of only five never smokers in this cohort. Conclusion: The KIF5B-RET fusion defines an additional subset of lung cancer with a potentially targetable driver oncogene enriched in never smokers with "pan-negative" lung adenocarcinomas. We also report in lung cancer the GOPC-ROS1 fusion originally discovered and characterized in a glioma cell line.
    Clinical Cancer Research 10/2012; 18(24). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0838 · 8.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The molecular epidemiology of most EGFR and KRAS mutations in lung cancer remains unclear. Experimental design: We genotyped 3,026 lung adenocarcinomas for the major EGFR (exon 19 deletions and L858R) and KRAS (G12, G13) mutations and examined correlations with demographic, clinical, and smoking history data. Results: EGFR mutations were found in 43% of never smokers and in 11% of smokers. KRAS mutations occurred in 34% of smokers and in 6% of never smokers. In patients with smoking histories up to 10 pack-years, EGFR predominated over KRAS. Among former smokers with lung cancer, multivariate analysis showed that, independent of pack-years, increasing smoking-free years raise the likelihood of EGFR mutation. Never smokers were more likely than smokers to have KRAS G > A transition mutation (mostly G12D; 58% vs. 20%, P = 0.0001). KRAS G12C, the most common G > T transversion mutation in smokers, was more frequent in women (P = 0.007) and these women were younger than men with the same mutation (median 65 vs. 69, P = 0.0008) and had smoked less. Conclusions: The distinct types of KRAS mutations in smokers versus never smokers suggest that most KRAS-mutant lung cancers in never smokers are not due to second-hand smoke exposure. The higher frequency of KRAS G12C in women, their younger age, and lesser smoking history together support a heightened susceptibility to tobacco carcinogens.
    Clinical Cancer Research 09/2012; 18(22). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-3265 · 8.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of HER2 (ERBB2) have been described in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and are mutually exclusive with EGFR and KRAS mutations. The prevalence, clinicopathologic characteristics, prognostic implications, and molecular heterogeneity of HER2-mutated lung ADCs are not well established in U.S. patients. Lung ADC samples (N = 1,478) were first screened for mutations in EGFR (exons 19 and 21) and KRAS (exon 2), and negative cases were then assessed for HER2 mutations (exons 19-20) using a sizing assay and mass spectrometry. Testing for additional recurrent point mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, PIK3CA, MEK1, and AKT was conducted by mass spectrometry. ALK rearrangements and HER2 amplification were assessed by FISH. We identified 25 cases with HER2 mutations, representing 6% of EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative specimens. Small insertions in exon 20 accounted for 96% (24/25) of the cases. Compared with insertions in EGFR exon 20, there was less variability, with 83% (20/24) being a 12 bp insertion causing duplication of amino acids YVMA at codon 775. Morphologically, 92% (23/25) were moderately or poorly differentiated ADC. HER2 mutation was not associated with concurrent HER2 amplification in 11 cases tested for both. HER2 mutations were more frequent among never-smokers (P < 0.0001) but there were no associations with sex, race, or stage. HER2 mutations identify a distinct subset of lung ADCs. Given the high prevalence of lung cancer worldwide and the availability of standard and investigational therapies targeting HER2, routine clinical genotyping of lung ADC should include HER2. Clin Cancer Res; 18(18); 4910-8. ©2012 AACR.
    Clinical Cancer Research 07/2012; 18(18):4910-8. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0912 · 8.72 Impact Factor
  • Adnan Hasanovic · Daphne Ang · Andre L Moreira · Maureen F Zakowski
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    ABSTRACT: EGFR mutation status is the best predictor of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIS) in primary lung adenocarcinoma. Approximately 70% of lung cancers are diagnosed in advanced stages where small biopsies and cytological specimens are the only source of material for both diagnosis and mutation testing. Specific antibodies that can detect mutant EGFR protein were evaluated for the detection of EGFR mutation by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in cytology and small biopsy specimens. Assessment of EGFR mutation status was performed by using antibodies specific to the two major forms of mutant EGFR, exon 21 L858R and exon 19 deletion (15bp). The study was performed in 145 lung adenocarcinomas, including cytology material, core biopsy, and decalcified bone biopsy. Stains were scored as negative (0), 1+ (weak and focal), 2+ (moderate intensity and focal), and 3+ (strong and diffuse). The result of the IHC stains was correlated with mutations status determined by standard molecular methods. Validation using clinical material showed deletions in exon 19 were detected in 35% and L858R mutation in 17.6% of all cases by standard molecular methods. A cutoff value of 2+ was used as positive by IHC. No wild type cases were immunoreactive. The positive predictive value (PPV) and specificity for both antibodies was 100%. The antibodies performed well in cytology, core biopsies and decalcified bone biopsies. Immunostaining to detect specific mutant EGFR shows a good correlation with mutation analysis and can be used as a screening method to identify patients for TKI therapy. IHC methodology is potentially useful when molecular analysis is not available and for use in small biopsies when material is too scant for molecular tests. Importantly mutation specific antibodies are useful in determining EGFR status in tissues obtained from bone biopsy as decalcification processes used in molecular based studies often result in DNA degradation hindering mutation detection.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 04/2012; 77(2):299-305. DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2012.04.004 · 3.96 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
669.11 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Department of Medicine
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1994–2014
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2006–2011
    • Cornell University
      Итак, New York, United States