[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare measurements of lung tumor size between axial and multiplanar reformatted CT images, as well as to establish whether the difference between these measurements leads to a change in T stage. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Patients with lung tumors who underwent chest CT up to 31 days before lung resection between December 2010 and March 2012 were included. Axial, sagittal, and coronal CT images were evaluated by two independent readers (1 and 2) who were blinded to clinical data. In 89 patients, lung tumors categorized as T1a (54%), T1b (19%), T2a (24%), or T2b (3%) were analyzed. The longest tumor diameter using multiplanar reformatted CT was compared and correlated with axial CT alone and pathologic T stage. Statistical analysis included a Wilcoxon rank sum test to evaluate differences between measurements, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and kappa statistic to assess agreement. RESULTS. Prediction of T stage using axial CT alone compared with multiplanar reformatted CT agreed in 82% of patients for reader 1 (κ = 0.660 [95% CI, 0.531-0.789]) and 80% of patients for reader 2 (κ = 0.695 [95% CI, 0.572-0.818]). Prediction of T stage using multiplanar reformatted CT resulted in upstaging in 18% and 20% of patients (for readers 1 and 2, respectively). Interobserver agreement (ICC [95% CI]) was 0.900 (0.803-0.954) for axial, 0.874 (0.772-0.946) for sagittal, and 0.754 (0.556-0.921) for coronal planes. CONCLUSION. Radiologic measurement of lung tumor T stage was higher using multiplanar reformatted CT as compared with axial CT alone. When available, multiplanar reformatted CT should be used to measure tumor dimension and thus assign an accurate lung cancer T stage.
American Journal of Roentgenology 11/2013; 201(5):959-63. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For patients with resected stage II-III non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy improves survival over surgery alone. For cisplatin ineligible patients, there is no standard adjuvant option. We evaluated drug delivery and toxicity of docetaxel and vinorelbine in patients who could not receive cisplatin.
Patients with completely resected stage IB-III NSCLCs were treated with up to 4 cycles of docetaxel and vinorelbine at the recommended phase II dose. The primary endpoint was drug delivery compared to historical delivery of adjuvant cisplatin plus vinorelbine. Secondary endpoints were toxicity and feasibility.
Twenty-five patients were enrolled. Overall, 13/25 (52 %, 95 % CI 34-70) completed 4 cycles, and 19/25 (76 %, 95 % CI 60-87) completed ≥3 cycles. Twenty of 25 patients (80 %) experienced a Grade 3 or 4 adverse event.
Delivery of this dose and schedule of docetaxel and vinorelbine was difficult with a dose delivery comparable to cisplatin plus vinorelbine, and cisplatin plus docetaxel, used in this setting.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 08/2013; · 2.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context.-The diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer have changed dramatically in the past few years. The discovery of activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor and the use of drugs that successfully target those mutations are among the key advances that have led to a shift in the practice of oncology and pathology, with perhaps the greatest effect on the field of cytology. Objectives.-To present the perspective of a practicing thoracic pathologist and cytopathologist on the developments that have changed practice and to place those changes in a broader context. Data Sources.-Literature review, studies undertaken or participated in by the author, and personal experience. Conclusions.-Cytologists are in an ideal position to influence appropriate testing and treatment in the era of targeted therapy. Lung pathology has led the way in the era of targeted therapy, in no small part due to cytology.
Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 04/2013; · 2.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery of RET fusions in lung cancers has uncovered a new therapeutic target for patients whose tumors harbor these changes. In an unselected population of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), RET fusions are present in 1-2% of cases. This incidence rises substantially, however, in never-smokers with lung adenocarcinomas that lack other known driver oncogenes. While pre-clinical data provide experimental support for the use of RET inhibitors in the treatment of RET fusion-positive tumors, clinical data on response are lacking. We report preliminary data for the first three patients treated with the RET inhibitor cabozantinib on a prospective phase 2 trial for patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLCs (NCT01639508). Confirmed partial responses were observed in two patients, including one harboring a novel TRIM33-RET fusion. A third patient with a KIF5B-RET fusion has had prolonged stable disease approaching 8 months (31 weeks). All three patients remain progression-free on treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: All patients with EGFR mutant lung cancers eventually develop acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Smaller series have identified various mechanisms of resistance, but systematic evaluation of a large number of patients to definitively establish the frequency of various mechanisms has not been performed. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with lung adenocarcinomas and acquired resistance to erlotinib or gefitinib enrolled onto a prospective biopsy protocol and underwent a re-biopsy after the development of acquired resistance. Histology was reviewed. Samples underwent genotyping for mutations in EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, ERBB2, KRAS, MEK1, NRAS and PIK3CA, and FISH for MET and HER2. RESULTS: Adequate tumor samples for molecular analysis were obtained in 155 patients. Ninety-eight had second-site EGFR T790M mutations (63%, 95% CI 55-70%) and four had small cell transformation (3%, 95% CI 0-6%). MET amplification was seen in 4/75 (5%, 95% CI 1-13%). HER2 amplification was seen in 3/24 (13%, 95% CI 3-32%). We did not detect any acquired mutations in PIK3CA, AKT1, BRAF, ERBB2, KRAS, MEK1, or NRAS. (0/88, 0%, 95% CI 0-4%). Overlap among mechanisms of acquired resistance was seen in 4%. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest series reporting mechanisms of acquired resistance to EGFR TKI therapy. We identified EGFR T790M as the most common mechanism of acquired resistance, while MET amplification, HER2 amplification, and small cell histologic transformation occur less frequently. More comprehensive methods to characterize molecular alterations in this setting are needed to improve our understanding of acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs.
Clinical Cancer Research 03/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : EGFR and KRAS mutations are mutually exclusive and predict outcomes with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in patients with stage IV lung cancers. The clinical significance of these mutations in patients with resected stage I-III lung cancers is unclear.
: At our institution, resection specimens from patients with stage I-III lung adenocarcinomas are tested for the presence of EGFR or KRAS mutations during routine pathology analysis such that the results are available before consideration of adjuvant therapy. In a cohort of 1118 patients tested over 8 years, overall survival was analyzed using multivariate analysis to control for potential confounders, including age, sex, stage, and smoking history. The impact of adjuvant erlotinib or gefitinib was examined in an independent data set of patients exclusively with EGFR mutation, in which date of recurrence was recorded.
: In the overall population, we identified 227 KRAS (25%) and 222 EGFR (20%) mutations. Patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers had a lower risk of death compared with those without EGFR mutations, overall survival (OS) HR 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-0.76, p < 0.001). Patients with KRAS-mutant lung cancers had similar outcomes compared with individuals with KRAS wild-type tumors, OS HR 1.17 (95% CI: 0.87-1.57, p = 0.30). A separate data set includes only patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers identified over 10 years (n = 286). In patients with resected lung cancers and EGFR mutation, treatment with adjuvant erlotinib or gefitinib was associated with a lower risk of recurrence or death, disease-free survival HR 0.43 (95% CI: 0.26-0.72, p = 0.001), and a trend toward improved OS.
: Patients with resected stage I-III lung cancers and EGFR mutation have a lower risk of death compared with patients without EGFR mutation. This may be because of treatment with EGFR TKIs. Patients with, and without KRAS mutation have similar OS. These data support reflex testing of resected lung adenocarcinomas for EGFR mutation to provide prognostic information and identify patients for enrollment on prospective clinical trials of adjuvant EGFR TKIs.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 12/2012; 7(12):1815-22. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary large-cell carcinoma-a diagnostically and clinically controversial entity-is defined as a non-small-cell carcinoma lacking morphologic differentiation of either adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, but suspected to represent an end stage of poor differentiation of these tumor types. Given the recent advances in immunohistochemistry to distinguish adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and the recent insights that several therapeutically relevant genetic alterations are distributed differentially in these tumors, we hypothesized that immunophenotyping may stratify large-cell carcinomas into subsets with distinct profiles of targetable driver mutations. We therefore analyzed 102 large-cell carcinomas by immunohistochemistry for TTF-1 and ΔNp63/p40 as classifiers for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively, and correlated the resulting subtypes with nine therapeutically relevant genetic alterations characteristic of adenocarcinoma (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, MAP2K1/MEK1, NRAS, ERBB2/HER2 mutations and ALK rearrangements) or more common in squamous cell carcinoma (PIK3CA and AKT1 mutations). The immunomarkers classified large-cell carcinomas as variants of adenocarcinoma (n=62; 60%), squamous cell carcinoma (n=20; 20%) or marker-null (n=20; 20%). Genetic alterations were found in 38 cases (37%), including EGFR (n=1), KRAS (n=30), BRAF (n=2), MAP2K1 (n=1), ALK (n=3) and PIK3CA (n=1). All molecular alterations characteristic of adenocarcinoma occurred in tumors with immunoprofiles of adenocarcinoma or marker-null, but not in tumors with squamous immunoprofiles (combined mutation rate 50% vs 30% vs 0%, respectively; P<0.001), whereas the sole PIK3CA mutation occurred in a tumor with squamous profile (5%). Furthermore, marker-null large-cell carcinomas were associated with significantly inferior disease-free (P<0.001) and overall (P=0.001) survival. In conclusion, the majority (80%) of large-cell carcinomas can be classified by immunomarkers as variants of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, which stratifies these tumors into subsets with a distinct distribution of driver mutations and distinct prognoses. These findings have practical implications for diagnosis, predictive molecular testing and therapy selection.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 30 November 2012; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.195.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The mutually exclusive pattern of the major driver oncogenes in lung cancer suggests that other mutually exclusive oncogenes exist. We performed a systematic search for tyrosine kinase (TK) fusions by screening all TKs for aberrantly high RNA expression levels of the 3' kinase domain (KD) exons relative to more 5' exons. Methods: We studied 69 patients (including 5 never smokers and 64 current or former smokers) with lung adenocarcinoma negative for all major mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, MEK1, and HER2, and for ALK fusions (termed "pan-negative"). A NanoString-based assay was designed to query the transcripts of 90 TKs at two points: 5' to the KD and within the KD or 3' to it. Tumor RNAs were hybridized to the NanoString probes and analyzed for outlier 3' to 5' expression ratios. Presumed novel fusion events were studied by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and confirmatory RT-PCR and FISH. RESULTS: We identified 1 case each of aberrant 3' to 5' ratios in ROS1 and RET. RACE isolated a GOPC-ROS1 (FIG-ROS1) fusion in the former and a KIF5B-RET fusion in the latter, both confirmed by RT-PCR. The RET rearrangement was also confirmed by FISH. The KIF5B-RET patient was one of only 5 never smokers in this cohort. CONCLUSION: The KIF5B-RET fusion defines an additional subset of lung cancer with a potentially targetable driver oncogene enriched in never smokers with "pan-negative" lung adenocarcinomas. We also report for the first time in lung cancer the GOPC-ROS1 fusion previously characterized in glioma.
Clinical Cancer Research 10/2012; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histological subtyping of pulmonary adenocarcinoma has recently been updated based on predominant pattern, but data on reproducibility are required for validation. This study first assesses reproducibility in subtyping adenocarcinomas and then assesses further the distinction between invasive and non-invasive (wholly lepidic) pattern of adenocarcinoma, among an international group of pulmonary pathologists. Two ring studies were performed using a micro-photographic image-based method, evaluating selected images of lung adenocarcinoma histologic patterns. In the first study, 26 pathologists reviewed representative images of typical and 'difficult' histologic patterns. A total number of scores for the typical patterns combined (n=94) and the difficult cases (n=21) were 2444 and 546, respectively. The mean kappa score (±s.d.) for the five typical patterns combined and for difficult cases were 0.77±0.07 and 0.38±0.14, respectively. Although 70% of the observers identified 12-65% of typical images as single pattern, highest for solid and least for micropapillary, recognizing the predominant pattern was achieved in 92-100%, of the images except for micropapillary pattern (62%). For the second study on invasion, identified as a key problem area from the first study, 28 pathologists submitted and reviewed 64 images representing typical as well as 'difficult' examples. The kappa for typical and difficult cases was 0.55±0.06 and 0.08±0.02, respectively, with consistent subdivision by the same pathologists into invasive and non-invasive categories, due to differing interpretation of terminology defining invasion. In pulmonary adenocarcinomas with classic morphology, which comprise the majority of cases, there is good reproducibility in identifying a predominant pattern and fair reproducibility distinguishing invasive from in-situ (wholly lepidic) patterns. However, more precise definitions and better education on interpretation of existing terminology are required to improve recognition of purely in-situ disease, this being an area of increasing importance.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 20 July 2012; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.106.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EGFR mutation status is the best predictor of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIS) in primary lung adenocarcinoma. Approximately 70% of lung cancers are diagnosed in advanced stages where small biopsies and cytological specimens are the only source of material for both diagnosis and mutation testing. Specific antibodies that can detect mutant EGFR protein were evaluated for the detection of EGFR mutation by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in cytology and small biopsy specimens.
Assessment of EGFR mutation status was performed by using antibodies specific to the two major forms of mutant EGFR, exon 21 L858R and exon 19 deletion (15bp). The study was performed in 145 lung adenocarcinomas, including cytology material, core biopsy, and decalcified bone biopsy. Stains were scored as negative (0), 1+ (weak and focal), 2+ (moderate intensity and focal), and 3+ (strong and diffuse). The result of the IHC stains was correlated with mutations status determined by standard molecular methods.
Validation using clinical material showed deletions in exon 19 were detected in 35% and L858R mutation in 17.6% of all cases by standard molecular methods. A cutoff value of 2+ was used as positive by IHC. No wild type cases were immunoreactive. The positive predictive value (PPV) and specificity for both antibodies was 100%. The antibodies performed well in cytology, core biopsies and decalcified bone biopsies.
Immunostaining to detect specific mutant EGFR shows a good correlation with mutation analysis and can be used as a screening method to identify patients for TKI therapy. IHC methodology is potentially useful when molecular analysis is not available and for use in small biopsies when material is too scant for molecular tests. Importantly mutation specific antibodies are useful in determining EGFR status in tissues obtained from bone biopsy as decalcification processes used in molecular based studies often result in DNA degradation hindering mutation detection.
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 04/2012; 77(2):299-305. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is persistent controversy as to whether EGFR and KRAS mutations occur in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC). We hypothesized that the reported variability may reflect difficulties in the pathologic distinction of true SQCC from adenosquamous carcinoma (AD-SQC) and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma due to incomplete sampling or morphologic overlap. The recent development of a robust immunohistochemical approach for distinguishing squamous versus glandular differentiation provides an opportunity to reassess EGFR/KRAS and other targetable kinase mutation frequencies in a pathologically homogeneous series of SQCC.
Ninety-five resected SQCCs, verified by immunohistochemistry as ΔNp63(+)/TTF-1(-), were tested for activating mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, NRAS, AKT1, ERBB2/HER2, and MAP2K1/MEK1. In addition, all tissue samples from rare patients with the diagnosis of EGFR/KRAS-mutant "SQCC" encountered during 5 years of routine clinical genotyping were reassessed pathologically.
The screen of 95 biomarker-verified SQCCs revealed no EGFR/KRAS [0%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0%-3.8%], four PIK3CA (4%; 95% CI, 1%-10%), and one AKT1 (1%; 95% CI, 0%-5.7%) mutations. Detailed morphologic and immunohistochemical reevaluation of EGFR/KRAS-mutant "SQCC" identified during clinical genotyping (n = 16) resulted in reclassification of 10 (63%) cases as AD-SQC and five (31%) cases as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma morphologically mimicking SQCC (i.e., adenocarcinoma with "squamoid" morphology). One (6%) case had no follow-up.
Our findings suggest that EGFR/KRAS mutations do not occur in pure pulmonary SQCC, and occasional detection of these mutations in samples diagnosed as "SQCC" is due to challenges with the diagnosis of AD-SQC and adenocarcinoma, which can be largely resolved by comprehensive pathologic assessment incorporating immunohistochemical biomarkers.
Clinical Cancer Research 02/2012; 18(4):1167-76. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic alpha polypeptide (PIK3CA) encodes the p110α subunit of the mitogenic signaling protein phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PIK3CA mutations in the helical binding domain and the catalytic subunit of the protein have been associated with tumorigenesis and treatment resistance in various malignancies. Characteristics of patients with PIK3CA-mutant lung adenocarcinomas have not been reported. We examined epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Kirsten rate sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), PIK3CA, v-akt murine thymoma vial oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), v-ras neuroblastoma viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung to identify driver mutations. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records of individuals with mutations in PIK3CA. Twenty-three of 1,125 (2%, 95% CI: 1-3) patients had a mutation in PIK3CA, 12 in exon 9 (10 E545K and 2 E542K), and 11 in exon 20 (3 H1047L and 8 H1047R). The patients (57% women) had a median age of 66 at diagnosis (range: 34-78). Eight patients (35%) were never smokers. Sixteen of 23 (70%, 95% CI: 49-86) had coexisting mutations in other oncogenes-10 KRAS, 1 MEK1, 1 BRAF, 1 ALK rearrangement, and 3 EGFR exon 19 deletions. We conclude that PIK3CA mutations occur in lung adenocarcinomas, usually concurrently with EGFR, KRAS, and ALK. The impact of PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of targeted therapies such as erlotinib and crizotinib is unknown. Given the high frequency of overlapping mutations, comprehensive genotyping should be carried out on tumor specimens from patients enrolling in clinical trials of PI3K and other targeted therapies.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 12/2011; 11(2):485-91. · 5.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare preoperative size of stage I and stage II lung adenocarcinoma as measured by Computed Tomography (CT) and as assessed on gross pathology specimens.
47 patients diagnosed with stage I or II lung adenocarcinoma were evaluated. Institutional Review Board permission was obtained. Tumor contours were delineated using a semi-automated segmentation algorithm and adjusted based on a radiologist's input. Based on the tumor perimeter, maximal in-plane tumor diameter was calculated automatically. The largest single diameter from the pathology gross report was utilized. A paired t-test was used to examine the measurement difference between CT and pathology.
The mean largest diameter of the tumors at CT and pathology was 29.53 mm and 24.04 mm, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean CT measurement and mean pathology measurement of 5.49 mm (standard deviation 9.08 mm, p<0.001). The percent relative difference between the two measurements was 18.3% (standard deviation 28.2%).
There is a statistically significant difference between the tumor diameter as measured by CT and on pathology gross specimen. These differences could have implications in the treatment and prognosis of patients with early stage lung adenocarcinoma.
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 09/2011; 75(3):332-5. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) have distinct oncogenic mutations and divergent therapeutic responses, which is driving the heightened emphasis on accurate pathologic subtyping of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The relative feasibility and accuracy of NSCLC subtyping by small biopsy versus cytology is not well established, particularly in current practice where immunohistochemistry (IHC) is becoming routinely used to aid in this distinction.
Concurrent biopsy and cytology specimens obtained during a single procedure and diagnosed as NSCLC during a 2-year period (n = 101) were reviewed. Concordance of diagnoses in the two methods was assessed. Accuracy was determined based on subsequent resection or autopsy diagnosis (n = 21) or IHC for thyroid transcription factor 1 and p63 on a subset of cases (n = 43).
The distribution of definitive versus favored versus unclassified categories (reflecting the degree of diagnostic certainty) was similar for biopsy (71% versus 23% versus 6%, respectively) and cytology (69% versus 19% versus 12%, respectively), p = 0.29. When results from paired specimens were combined, the rate of definitive diagnoses by at least one method was increased to 84% and the unclassified rate was decreased to 4%. NSCLC subtype concordance between biopsy and cytology was 93%. Kappa coefficient (95% confidence interval) for agreement between methods was 0.88 (0.60-0.89) for adenocarcinoma and 0.76 (0.63-0.89) for SQCC. In pairs with discordant diagnoses (n = 7) the correct tumor type was identified with a similar frequency by biopsy (n = 4) and cytology (n = 3). Factors contributing to mistyping were poor differentiation, necrosis, low cellularity, and lack of supporting IHC. All concordant diagnoses for which verification was available (n = 57) were correct. IHC was used more frequently to subtype NSCLC in biopsy than cytology (32% versus 6%; p = 0.0001).
Small biopsy and cytology achieve comparable rates of definitive and accurate NSCLC subtyping, and the optimal results are attained when the two modalities are considered jointly. The lower requirement for IHC in cytology highlights the strength of cytomorphology in NSCLC subtyping. Whenever clinically feasible, obtaining parallel biopsy and cytology specimens is encouraged.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 08/2011; 6(11):1849-56. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tumour genotyping is crucial to guide treatment decisions regarding the use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients may not be able to obtain tumour testing, either because tissue is limited and/or tests are not routinely offered. Here, we aimed to build a model-based nomogram to allow for prediction of the presence of EGFR mutations in NSCLC. We retrospectively collected clinical and pathological data on 3,006 patients with NSCLC who had their tumours genotyped for EGFR mutations at five institutions worldwide. Variables of interest were integrated in a multivariate logistic regression model. In the 2,392 non-Asian patients with lung adenocarcinomas, the most important predictors of harbouring EGFR mutation were: lower tobacco smoking exposure (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.37-0.46), longer time interval between smoking cessation and diagnosis (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.71-2.80), advanced stage (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.18-2.13), and papillary (OR 4.57, 95% CI 3.14-6.66) or bronchioloalveolar (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.98-4.06) histologically predominant subtype. A nomogram was established and showed excellent discriminating accuracy: the concordance index on an independent validation dataset was 0.84. As clinical practices transition to incorporating genotyping as part of routine care, this nomogram could be highly useful to predict the presence of EGFR mutations in lung adenocarcinoma in non-Asian patients when mutational profiling is not available or possible.
European Respiratory Journal 07/2011; 39(2):366-72. · 6.36 Impact Factor