[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Olive tree is one of the main allergy sources in Mediterranean countries. The identification of the allergenic repertoire from olive pollen has been essential for the development of rational strategies of standardization, diagnosis, and immunotherapy, all of them focused to increase the life quality of the patients. From its complex allergogram, twelve allergens -Ole e 1 to Ole e 12- have been identified and characterized to date. Most of them have been cloned and produced as recombinant forms, whose availability have allowed analyzing their three-dimensional structures, mapping their T-cell and B-cell epitopes, and determining the precise allergenic profile of patients for a subsequent patient-tailored immunotherapy. Protein mutant, hypoallergenic derivatives, or recombinant fragments have been also useful experimental tools to analyze the immune recognition of allergens. To test these molecules before using them for clinic purposes, a mouse model of allergic sensitizations has been used. This model has been helpful for assaying different prophylactic approaches based on tolerance induction by intranasal administration of allergens or hypoallergens, used as free or integrated in different delivery systems, and their findings suggest a promising utilization as nasal vaccines. Exosomes -nanovesicles isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of tolerogenic mice- have shown immunomodulatory properties, being able to protect mice against sensitization to Ole e 1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. METHODS: Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. RESULTS: The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut) but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. CONCLUSIONS: The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.
Clinical and translational allergy. 12/2012; 2(1):23.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work investigates the resistance to proteolysis and heating of the yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) allergens Sin a 1 (2S albumin), Sin a 3 (nonspecific lipid transfer protein, LTP), and Sin a 4 (profilin) to explain their potential capability to induce primary sensitization at the gastrointestinal level. Sin a 1 and Sin a 3 resisted gastric digestion showing no reduction of the IgE reactivity. Intestinal digestion of Sin a 1 and Sin a 3 produced a limited proteolysis but retained significant IgE-binding reactivity. Sin a 1 was stable after heating, and although Sin a 3 was modified, most of its structure was recovered after cooling back. These two allergens would be therefore able to sensitize by ingestion. Sin a 4 was completely digested by gastric treatment and its conformational structure markedly modified at 85 °C. Thus, this allergen can be described as a nonsensitizing mustard allergen.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 05/2012; · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant DNA technology offers several approaches to convert allergens into hypoallergenic derivatives that can represent the basis of novel, safer and more effective forms of allergy vaccines. In this context, we used a new strategy for the design of a hypoallergenic derivative of Ole e 1, the main allergen of olive pollen. By screening a cDNA library from birch pollen, the clone BB18, encoding the birch counterpart of Ole e 1, was identified. In this study, BB18 has been produce in Pichia pastoris as a recombinant protein and immunologically characterized. The well-established non-allergenic properties of BB18 were used to generate a genetic variant of Ole e 1, named OB(55-58), by site-direct mutagenesis of four residues (E(55)V(56)G(57)Y(58)) in an IgE/IgG epitope of Ole e 1 by the corresponding ones in BB18 (SDSE). OB(55-58) was expressed in P. pastoris, purified to homogeneity and analyzed for IgE-reactivity by means of ELISA using sera from olive pollen allergic patients and rat basophil activation assay. T cell reactivity was assayed in a mouse model of Ole e 1 sensitization. The mutant OB(55-58) exhibited an impaired IgE reactivity, but not affected T cell reactivity, compared to wild type rOle e 1. This study emphasizes the usefulness of BB18 as a tool for epitope mapping and for engineering hypoallergenic derivatives of Ole e 1 as vaccine candidates for allergy prevention and treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study of cross-reactivity in allergy is key to both understanding. the allergic response of many patients and providing them with a rational treatment In the present study, protein microarrays and a co-sensitization graph approach were used in conjunction with an allergen microarray immunoassay. This enabled us to include a wide number of proteins and a large number of patients, and to study sensitization profiles among members of the LTP family. Fourteen LTPs from the most frequent plant food-induced allergies in the geographical area studied were printed into a microarray specifically designed for this research. 212 patients with fruit allergy and 117 food-tolerant pollen allergic subjects were recruited from seven regions of Spain with different pollen profiles, and their sera were tested with allergen microarray. This approach has proven itself to be a good tool to study cross-reactivity between members of LTP family, and could become a useful strategy to analyze other families of allergens.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e50799. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cross-reactivity among plant food allergens belonging to the nonspecific lipid transfer protein (LTP) family is well known. In contrast, the relationship among these allergens and their putative homologs from olive (Ole e 7) and Parietaria (Par j 1) pollen has not been clarified.
Sera with specific IgE to LTP allergens were obtained from peach-, mustard- and olive pollen-allergic patients. Purified LTP allergens from foods (peach, apple, mustard and wheat) and pollens (olive, mugwort and Parietaria) were tested by ELISA and ELISA-inhibition assays.
Plant food LTP-allergic patients showed a significantly higher number of sera (89-100 vs. 33-64%) with specific IgE and mean specific IgE levels (0.30-1.56 vs. 0.21-0.34 OD units) to the 4 food LTP allergens tested than to olive Ole e 7 and Parietaria Par j 1 pollen. ELISA-inhibition assays indicated cross-inhibition between food LTP allergens but no cross-reactivity between these allergens and Ole e 7 and Par j 1, or, even more, between the LTP allergens from olive and Parietaria pollen.
LTP allergens from olive and Parietaria pollen cross-react neither with allergenic LTPs from plant foods nor between themselves. Therefore, both pollens do not seem to be related with the LTP syndrome.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 06/2011; 156(3):291-6. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Profilins are commonly involved in polysensitization of allergic patients; therefore, appropriate markers should be used in component-resolved diagnosis.
To evaluate the immunological equivalence between profilins from pollens and plant-derived foods, to be used in component-resolved diagnosis.
Specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies against pollen and fruit profilins, as well as sera from patients allergic to mustard, melon, or olive pollen, were used. Purified profilins from mustard seeds, fruit melon, and chenopod and birch pollen were assayed in immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and ELISA inhibition assays.
Significant correlation was found in the response of purified profilins by ELISA and immunoblotting for both specific IgG and IgE. The highest levels of IgE binding were obtained for olive pollen-allergic patients, which could be related to the route of sensitization. The responses of individual patients to profilins were also similar and independent of the sensitizing source. The inhibition between pairs of allergens was generally higher than 70%, indicating that profilins share most of the IgE epitopes. Modeling of mimotopes in the conformational structure of the implicated profilins supports their strong cross-reactivity obtained experimentally.
No correlation exists between the level of IgE response of individual patients to specific profilins and the corresponding theoretical sensitizing source, suggesting that the sensitization could be attributable to any profilin present in the environment of the patients. This would bear out the use of most profilins as a common marker for polysensitization in component-resolved diagnosis and for therapeutic approaches.
Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 05/2011; 106(5):429-35. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosomes represent a new family of bioactive nanovesicles (30-100 nm in diameter) secreted by different cell types whose appealing features can be exploited for designing vaccines in the context of several human diseases. We previously reported the potential of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)-derived tolerogenic exosomes (Exo(Tol)) to be used as a nasal allergy vaccine in a mouse model of sensitization to Ole e 1, the main allergen of olive pollen. The aim of the study was to investigate whether such nanovesicles specific to Ole e 1 can also prevent the sensitization to other unrelated allergen, as Bet v 1 from birch pollen. Exo(Tol) were isolated from BALF of mice tolerized against Ole e 1 and used in a prophylactic approach. BALB/c mice were intranasally pretreated with Exo(Tol) one week before sensitization/challenge with Bet v 1, and the magnitude of allergen-specific response was analyzed. Intranasal pretreatment with Exo(Tol) resulted in significant inhibition of both specific IgE and IgG1 antibodies levels. Moreover, T cells from mice pretreated with Exo(Tol) showed a reduction in IL-5 and IL-13 (Th2 cytokines) production. Lung inflammatory response triggered by unrelated allergen-challenge was also significantly reduced after pretreatment: perivascular/peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration, eosinophilia and mucus secretion. In conclusion, Exo(Tol) specific to Ole e 1, in addition to inhibit specific immune response to this allergen, blocked the allergic response to a second unrelated allergen such as Bet v 1. The in vivo "bystander suppression" that we herein describe for Exo(Tol) may have implications for the treatment of allergy based on mucosal tolerance induction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen is a main cause of allergy in Mediterranean areas and North America. A novel allergen, Ole e 11, has been detected by proteomic techniques. Protein bands binding IgE from allergic sera were excised from a 2D electrophoresis gel and analysed by Edman degradation and MALDI-TOF MS. Four peptides were sequenced and used for designing primers to clone the cDNA codifying the protein. Ole e 11 consists of a 342 amino acid length polypeptide with a molecular mass of 37.4 kDa and a pI of 7.8. The allergen was identified as a pectin methylesterase and showed low identity with other members of this family from foods such as those from carrot (23%), orange (25%) and tomato (24%), and higher identity with those from Arabidopsis thaliana (57%) and Salsola kali (54%) pollen. The protein was overproduced in Pichia pastoris, purified, and characterized as an active enzyme. CD analysis rendered 3%alpha-helix, 50%beta-sheet and 27%beta-turns for its secondary structure, which is in agreement with other pectin methylesterase structures. The recombinant protein was demonstrated to be immunologically equivalent to the natural form by immunoblotting, indirect ELISA and inhibition experiments, using polyclonal antiserum and sera from olive pollen allergic patients. The prevalence fluctuated between 55.9% and 75.6% in three different allergic populations. The availability of this new olive pollen allergen could improve the component-resolved diagnosis. Its allergenic relevance is stepped up by the biotechnological use of these enzymes to improve organoleptic properties in processing foods and further confirms the need to include it in an accurate diagnosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A considerable number of pollen-allergic patients develops allergy to plant foods, which has been attributed to cross-reactivity between food and pollen allergens. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences among pollen-allergic patients with and without plant food allergy.
Eight hundred and six patients were recruited from 8 different hospitals. Each clinical research group included 100 patients (50 plant food-allergic patients and 50 pollen-allergic patients). Diagnosis of pollen allergy was based on typical case history of pollen allergy and positive skin prick tests. Diagnosis of plant-food allergy was based on clear history of plant-food allergy, skin prick tests and/or plant-food challenge tests. A panel of 28 purified allergens from pollens and/or plant foods was used to quantify specific IgE (ADVIA-Centaur® platform).
Six hundred and sixty eight patients (83%) of the 806 evaluated had pollen allergy: 396 patients with pollen allergy alone and 272 patients with associated food and pollen allergies. A comparison of both groups showed a statistically significant increase in the food and pollen allergy subgroup in frequency of: (1) asthma (47 vs. 59%; p < 0.001); (2) positive skin test results to several pollens: Plantago, Platanus, Artemisia, Betula, Parietaria and Salsola (p < 0.001); (3) sensitization to purified allergens: Pru p 3, profilin, Pla a 1 - Pla a 2, Sal k 1, PR-10 proteins and Len c 1.
Results showed relevant and significant differences between both groups of pollen-allergic patients depending on whether or not they suffered from plant-derived food allergy.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 01/2010; 153(2):182-92. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosomes are nanovesicles originating from multivesicular bodies that are secreted by a variety of cell types. The dual capability of exosomes to promote immunity or to induce tolerance has prompted their clinical use as vehicles for vaccination against different human diseases. In the present study, the effect of allergen-specific exosomes from tolerized mice on the development of allergen-induced allergic response was determined using a mouse model. Mice were tolerized by respiratory exposure to the olive pollen allergen Ole e 1. Exosome-like vesicles were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the animals by the well-established filtration and ultracentrifugation procedure, characterized by electron microscopy, Western blot, and FACS analyses, and assessed in a prophylactic protocol. To this end, BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with tolerogenic exosomes or naive exosomes as control, 1 wk before sensitization/challenge to Ole e 1. Blood, lungs, and spleen were collected and analyzed for immune responses. Intranasal administration of tolerogenic exosomes inhibited the development of IgE response, Th2 cytokine production, and airway inflammation--cardinal features of allergy--and maintained specific long-term protection in vivo. This protective effect was associated with a concomitant increase in the expression of the regulatory cytokine TGF-beta. These observations demonstrate that exosomes can induce tolerance and protection against allergic sensitization in mice. Thus, exosome-based vaccines could represent an alternative to conventional therapy for allergic diseases in humans.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2008; 181(2):1519-25. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ole e 9 is an olive pollen allergen belonging to group 2 of pathogenesis-related proteins. The protein is composed of two immunological independent domains: an N-terminal domain (NtD) with 1,3-beta-glucanase activity, and a C-terminal domain (CtD) that binds 1,3-beta-glucans. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of CtD-Ole e 9 (101 amino acids), which consists of two parallel alpha-helices forming an angle of approximately 55 degrees , a small antiparallel beta-sheet with two short strands, and a 3-10 helix turn, all connected by long coil segments, resembling a novel type of folding among allergens. Two regions surrounded by aromatic residues (F49, Y60, F96, Y91 and Y31, H68, Y65, F78) have been localized on the protein surface, and a role for sugar binding is suggested. The epitope mapping of CtD-Ole e 9 shows that B-cell epitopes are mainly located on loops, although some of them are contained in secondary structural elements. Interestingly, the IgG and IgE epitopes are contiguous or overlapped, rather than coincident. The three-dimensional structure of CtD-Ole e 9 might help to understand the underlying mechanism of its biochemical function and to determine possible structure-allergenicity relationships.
Protein Science 03/2008; 17(2):371-6. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two EF-hand calcium-binding allergens (polcalcins) occur in the pollen of a wide variety of unrelated plants as highly cross-reactive allergenic molecules. We report the expression, purification, immunological characterization, and the 1.75-A crystal structure of recombinant Che a 3 (rChe a 3), the polcalcin from the weed Chenopodium album. The three-dimensional structure of rChe a 3 resembles an alpha-helical fold that is essentially identical with that of the two EF-hand allergens from birch pollen, Bet v 4, and timothy grass pollen, Phl p 7. The extensive cross-reactivity between Che a 3 and Phl p 7 is demonstrated by competition experiments with IgE Abs from allergic patients as well as specific Ab probes. Amino acid residues that are conserved for the two EF-hand allergen family were identified in multiple sequence alignments of polcalcins from 15 different plants. Next, the three-dimensional structures of rChe a 3, rPhl p 7, and rBet v 4 were used to identify conserved amino acids with high surface exposition to visualize surface patches as potential targets for the polyclonal IgE Ab response of allergic patients. The essentially identical three-dimensional structures of rChe a 3, rPhl p 7, and rBet v 4 explain the extensive cross-reactivity of allergic patients IgE Abs with two EF-hand allergens from unrelated plants. In addition, analyzing the three-dimensional structures of cross-reactive Ags for conserved and surface exposed amino acids may be a first approach to mapping the conformational epitopes on disease-related Ags that are recognized by polyclonal patient Abs.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2008; 180(4):2313-21. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucosal tolerance induction with vaccines based on peptides representing T-cell epitopes of allergens is a promising way for treating allergic diseases. Ole e 1 is the main allergen of olive pollen, which is an important cause of allergy in Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the peptide T109-K130 containing a dominant T-cell epitope of Ole e 1, to modulate the allergen-specific immune response in a prophylactic mouse model. Mice were intranasally treated with the peptide 1 week prior to sensitization with Ole e 1. Blood, lungs and spleens were collected and analysed for immune response. Intranasal pretreatment of mice with the peptide led to suppress serum specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody levels, and markedly reduced proliferative T-cell response and Th2-cytokine production, but increased IFN-gamma secretion in spleen cell cultures. Increased mRNA IL-10 levels were observed in lungs from pretreated mice. Pathologic alterations of the lung associated with airway inflammation (peribronchial/perivascular infiltrates, eosinophilia and mucus production) were significantly suppressed after pretreatment. Similar results were obtained when mice were sensitized 10 weeks after treatment. Our results demonstrate that intranasal administration of a single T-cell peptide protects mice against subsequent sensitization to the allergen, possibly via IFN-gamma and IL-10. This study emphasizes the usefulness of nasal peptide T-based vaccines against allergy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among allergenic spices, mustard represents 1 of the most important in terms of allergenic potency and widespread use. An 11S globulin (Sin a 2) has been isolated from yellow mustard seeds and identified as a new major allergen.
Cloning and sequencing a cDNA encoding a Sin a 2 subunit and producing the allergen as a recombinant protein.
Sin a 2 subunit-encoding cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. The allergen was produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and used for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and inhibition experiments. Sera from patients with mustard allergy and an anti-polyhistidine monoclonal antibody were used.
Sin a 2-specific cDNA comprises an open reading frame that encodes a protein of 510 amino acids, in which the first 23 residues correspond to the signal peptide. Sequence alignment with other allergenic 11S globulins showed levels of sequence identity ranging between 27% and 38%. Three peptides described as epitopes in Ara h 3 were moderately conserved in Sin a 2. Approximately 87% of the IgE binding to natural Sin a 2 was inhibited by the recombinant allergen using sera from patients with mustard allergy.
The recombinant 11S globulin from yellow mustard seeds produced in E coli retained the IgE-binding capability of the natural allergen.
The availability of Sin a 2 sequence and its recombinant production could help to develop future therapeutic approaches and might well open new investigation lines to resolve whether 11S globulins are proteins implicated in cross-reactivity processes involving mustard seeds.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 06/2007; 119(5):1189-96. · 12.05 Impact Factor