[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the effect of medical conditions in the population of Korea on breast cancer risk in a case-control study.
The cases were 3242 women with incident, histologically confirmed breast cancer in two major hospitals interviewed between 2001 and 2007. The controls were 1818 women each admitted to either of those two hospitals for a variety of non-neoplastic conditions. Information on each disease was obtained from a standardized questionnaire by trained personnel. Odds ratios (ORs) for each disease were derived from multiple logistic regression adjusted for age, age of menarche, pregnancy, age of first pregnancy, and family history of breast cancer.
Among all of the incident breast cancer patients, pre-existing diabetes (OR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99 to 1.78), hypertension (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.83), thyroid diseases (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.58), and ovarian diseases (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.35) were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer when other factors were adjusted for. In a stratified analysis by menopausal status, pre-existing hypertension (pre-menopause OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.34 vs. post-menopause OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.44 to 2.43; p-heterogeneity <0.01) and ovarian disease (pre-menopause OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.91 to 9.24 vs. post-menopause OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.91; p-heterogeneity 0.01) showed significantly different risks of breast cancer.
Our results suggest the possibility that medical conditions such as hypertension affect breast cancer development, and that this can differ by menopausal status. Our study also indicates a possible correlation between ovarian diseases and breast cancer risk.
Journal of preventive medicine and public health = Yebang Uihakhoe chi. 11/2013; 46(6):346-352.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence indicates that sleep duration is associated with health outcomes. However, the relationship of sleep duration with long-term health is unclear. This study was designed to determine the relationship of sleep duration with mortality as a parameter for long-term health in a large prospective cohort study in Korea.
The study population included 13 164 participants aged over 20 years from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort study. Information on sleep duration was obtained through a structured questionnaire interview. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality were estimated using a Cox regression model. The non-linear relationship between sleep duration and mortality was examined non-parametrically using restricted cubic splines.
The HRs for all-cause mortality showed a U-shape, with the lowest point at sleep duration of 7 to 8 hours. There was an increased risk of death among persons with sleep duration of ≤5 hours (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.41) and of ≥10 hours (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.72). In stratified analysis, this relationship of HR was seen in women and in participants aged ≥60 years. Risk of cardiovascular disease-specific mortality was associated with a sleep duration of ≤5 hours (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.93). Risk of death from respiratory disease was associated with sleep duration at both extremes (≤5 and ≥10 hours).
Sleep durations of 7 to 8 hours may be recommended to the public for a general healthy lifestyle in Korea.
Journal of preventive medicine and public health = Yebang Ŭihakhoe chi. 09/2013; 46(5):271-81.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes and obesity each increases mortality, but recent papers have shown that lean Asian persons were at greater risk for mortality than were obese persons. The objective of this study is to determine whether an interaction exists between body mass index (BMI) and diabetes, which can modify the risk of death by cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Subjects who were over 20 years of age, and who had information regarding BMI, past history of diabetes, and fasting blood glucose levels (n=16 048), were selected from the Korea Multi-center Cancer Cohort study participants. By 2008, a total of 1290 participants had died; 251 and 155 had died of CVD and stroke, respectively. The hazard for deaths was calculated with hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) by Cox proportional hazard model.
Compared with the normal population, patients with diabetes were at higher risk for CVD and stroke deaths (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.56; HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.76; respectively). Relative to subjects with no diabetes and normal BMI (21 to 22.9 kg/m(2)), lean subjects with diabetes (BMI <21 kg/m(2)) had a greater risk for CVD and stroke deaths (HR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.57 to 5.09; HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.58 to 6.76; respectively), while obese subjects with diabetes (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) had no increased death risk (p-interaction <0.05). This pattern was consistent in sub-populations with no incidence of hypertension.
This study suggests that diabetes in lean people is more critical to CVD deaths than it is in obese people.
Journal of preventive medicine and public health = Yebang Ŭihakhoe chi. 11/2012; 45(6):394-401.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients often have preconceived notions about acne treatments before visiting dermatologists. The aim of this study was to explore the association between patients' beliefs regarding acne and physicians' suggestion for treatment modality in dermatology clinics. A cross-sectional, nationwide multicentre study was conducted. A total of 1,370 patients completed questionnaires about beliefs about acne treatment before seeking medical care, and 101 dermatologists assessed their acne severity and proposed treatment methods. We found that patients had preconceptions in understanding disease characteristics, assessing subjective acne severity and preferring specific treatment modalities. Dermatologists' determination of topical agents as first-line treatment was affected by disease severity and patients' preferences. They were also more likely to prescribe isotretinoin even in moderate acne compared to oral antibiotics and topical agents. Selections of physical treatments and light-based therapies were affected by patients' preferences, subjective self-evaluation and dermatologists' assessments. Thus, we suggest that acne treatment strategies should incorporate both patients' subjective perceptions and objective clinical practices into a management paradigm.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To correlate existing evaluation tools with clinical information on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients following age and to investigate genetic mutation and its relationship with clinical function.
The medical records of 121 children with DMD who had visited the pediatric rehabilitation clinic from 2006 to 2009 were reviewed. The mean patient age was 9.9±3.4 years and all subjects were male. Collected data included Brooke scale, Vignos scale, bilateral shoulder abductor and knee extensor muscles power, passive range of motion (PROM) of ankle dorsi-flexion, angle of scoliosis, peak cough flow (PCF), fractional shortening (FS), genetic abnormalities, and use of steroid.
The Brooke and Vignos scales were linearly increased with age (Brooke (y(1)), Vignos (y(2)), age (x), y(1)=0.345x-1.221, R(Brooke) (2)=0.435, y(2)=0.813x-3.079, R(Vignos) (2)=0.558, p<0.001). In relation to the PROM of ankle dorsi-flexion, there was a linear decrease in both ankles (right and left R(2)=0.364, 0.372, p<0.001). Muscle power, Cobb angle, PCF, and FS showed diversity in their degrees, irrespective of age. The genetic test for dystrophin identified exon deletions in 58.0% (69/119), duplications in 9.2% (11/119), and no deletions or duplications in 32.8% (39/119). Statistically, the genetic abnormalities and use of steroid were not definitely associated with functional scale.
The Brooke scale, Vignos scale and PROM of ankle dorsi-flexion were partially available to assess DMD patients. However, this study demonstrates the limitations of preexisting scales and clinical parameters incomprehensively reflecting functional changes of DMD patients.
Annals of rehabilitation medicine. 02/2012; 36(1):22-32.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is the main epigenetic modification that occurs at the early stages of carcinogenesis. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling to evaluate whether the DNA methylation state is different in the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of breast cancer. Twelve ER+/PR+ and 12 ER-/PR- breast cancer tissues were selected from the biorepository of the Seoul Breast Cancer Study for Infinium Methylation Assay. The difference of the DNA methylation state of 27 578 methylation sites in 14 000 genes between two groups was evaluated by Student's t-test. False discovery rate (FDR) was estimated to evaluate the probability of false positive associations. Of the 27 578 sites, 148 sites (0.54%) were significantly different between ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- breast cancers (P < 0.001); 93 hypermethylated and 55 hypomethylated. Five genes, FAM124B (P = 7.26 × 10(-7)), MANEAL (P = 3.38 × 10(-7)), ST6GALNAC1 (P = 2.85 × 10(-6)), NAV1 (P = 5.94 × 10(-6)) and PER1 (P = 6.45 × 10(-6)) remained significant after correction for multiple tests (FDR < 0.05). In a subsequent replication study for five genes, four of the five genes were validated; FAM124B and ST6GALNAC1 were significantly hypermethylated, and NAV1 and PER1 were significantly hypomethylated in ER+/PR+ breast cancers (P < 0.05). In the first genome-wide DNA methylation profiling according to the receptor status of breast cancer, we found that ER/PR status affects the DNA methylation state of FAM124B, ST6GALNAC1, NAV1 and PER1 in breast cancer.
Human Molecular Genetics 11/2010; 19(21):4273-7. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) cells exist under a constant state of oxidative stress with high levels of reactive oxygen species, which are removed by cellular antioxidant vitamins. We investigated the independent and combined effect of antioxidant vitamins intake and the ATM genotype or diplotype on the breast cancer risk. Analyses included 323 cases and age-matched controls who participated in the Korean Breast Cancer Study during 2001-2003 with complete dietary information. The vitamin A (P < 0.01) and α-tocopherol (P < 0.01) were associated with lower breast cancer risk as well as some water-soluble vitamins including vitamin B(2) (P = 0.01), vitamin C (P < 0.01), and folic acid (P = 0.02) intake. No five single nucleotide polymorphisms (ATM-5144A > T (rs228589), IVS21 + 1049T > C (rs664677), IVS33-55T > C (rs664982), IVS34+60G > A (rs664143), and 3393T > G (rs4585)) studied showed significant differences in their allele frequencies between the cases and controls. On the other hand, compared with the diploid of ATTGT/ATTGT, as the number of ATTGT haplotype decreased, the risk of breast cancer increased (P = 0.04). The association between ATM diplotype and the breast cancer risk was predominantly among women with low intake of antioxidant vitamins including vitamin A, vitamin C, and folic acid. This study suggested that some antioxidant vitamins intake may modify the effect of ATM diplotype on the breast cancer risk among Korean women.
Nutrition and Cancer 11/2010; 62(8):1087-94. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed a series of patients who had undergone laparoscopic partial nephrectomies (LPNs) and open partial nephrectomies (OPNs) to compare outcomes of the two procedures in patients with pathologic T1a renal cell carcinomas (RCCs).
From January 1998 to May 2009, 417 LPNs and 345 OPNs were performed on patients with small renal tumors in 15 institutions in Korea. Of the patients, 273 and 279 patients, respectively, were confirmed to have pT1a RCC. The cohorts were compared with respect to demographics, peri-operative data, and oncologic and functional outcomes.
The demographic data were similar between the groups. Although the tumor location was more exophytic (51% vs. 44%, p=0.047) and smaller (2.1 cm vs. 2.3 cm, p=0.026) in the LPN cohort, the OPN cohort demonstrated shorter ischemia times (23.4 min vs. 33.3 min, p<0.001). The LPN cohort was associated with less blood loss than the OPN cohort (293 ml vs. 418 ml, p<0.001). Of note, two patients who underwent LPNs had open conversions and nephrectomies were performed because of intra-operative hemorrhage. The decline in the glomerular filtration rate at the last available follow-up (LPN, 10.9%; and OPN, 10.6%) was similar in both groups (p=0.8). Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year local recurrence-free survival (RFS) were 96% after LPN and 94% after OPN (p=0.8).
The LPN group demonstrated similar rates of recurrence-free survival, complications, and postoperative GFR change compared with OPN group. The LPN may be an acceptable surgical option in patients with small RCC in Korea.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, which can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The prognostic factors for survival were not fully evaluated in Asian population. We investigated the prognostic factors for survival of SSc among Korean patients. A total of 243 SSc patients were enrolled from Seoul National University Hospital between 1972 and 2007. Age at onset, gender, cutaneous subset, autoantibody status, major organ involvement, and occurrence of malignancy were evaluated with all-cause mortality as the end point. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to retrieve the prognostic factors for survival. During the follow-up of 1,967 person-years, 33 patients died. Old age at onset (hazard ratio [HR] 7.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.9-28.1), diffuse cutaneous subset (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.9), presence of anti-Scl-70 antibody (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.1), forced vital capacity less than 70% (HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-6.2), and heart involvement (HR 4.2, 95% CI 1.7-10.2) were found to be significant risk factors for mortality in multivariate analysis. In Korean SSc patients, old age, diffuse cutaneous involvement, anti-Scl-70 antibody, and internal organ involvement are risk factors for mortality.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the population of patients with lung cancer increases, the expenditure on lung cancer treatment will become a huge economic burden in many countries. To support public health services for the treatment of lung cancer, the calculation of lung cancer-specific costs is important.
This study included newly diagnosed 76 lung cancer patients who had survived for at least 5 years after the diagnosis in a tertiary care hospital in South Korea. Direct medical costs were calculated from health care claims obtained from Seoul National University Hospital, which included out-of-pocket expenditures. Direct non-medical and indirect costs were calculated from national statistics.
Mean direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs amounted to $21,321, $6444 and $4943 respectively, based on an exchange rate of Korean Won 1200=US $1. The average cost for treatment of one lung cancer patient for all 5 years was $32,708. This constituted 44.7% of the per capita income during the same 5-year period.
The economic burden of lung cancer treatment is significant in Korea.
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 08/2009; 68(2):299-304. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This multiinstitutional report assesses the oncologic efficacy of hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (HLRN) compared with open radical nephrectomy (ORN) in patients with localized clear cell renal-cell carcinoma (RCC).
We analyzed the data from 2561 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy at 26 institutions in Korea between June 1998 and December 2007 for localized RCC. One hundred ninety-seven patients with clear cell RCC in the HLRN group were compared with 917 patients with clear cell RCC in the ORN group. To evaluate the technical adequacy and oncologic outcome, we compared the operative time, estimated blood loss, and 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates.
The median follow-up was 36 months for the HLRN group and 27 months for the ORN group. The operative time was significantly longer in the HLRN group than in the ORN group (206.8 +/- 68.7 minutes vs. 179.1 +/- 61.5 minutes, p < 0.001), and blood loss was significantly lower in the HLRN group than in the ORN group (311.6 +/- 238.7 mL vs. 372.4 +/- 367.3 mL, p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in pathologic T stage and Fuhrman's nuclear grade in the two groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the 5-year overall (91.2% vs. 90.3%, p = 0.286) and disease-specific (95.2% vs. 92.1%, p = 0.222) survival rates between the HLRN and ORN groups.
Despite the longer operative time, HLRN was an effective and less-invasive treatment option for localized clear cell RCC. HLRN could achieve cancer control similar to that obtained with ORN.
Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 08/2009; 23(9):1485-9. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) induces cytotoxicity and angiogenesis, and may play a role in prostate carcinogenesis, potentially modulated by environmental exposures. We evaluated the association of prostate cancer with genetic polymorphisms in two genes related to intracellular NO: NOS2A [inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS); -2892T>C, Ex16 + 14C>T (S608L), IVS16 + 88T>G and IVS20 + 524G>A] and NOS3 [endothelial NOS; IVS1-762C>T, Ex7-43C>T (D258D), IVS7-26A>G, Ex8-63G>T (E298D) and IVS15-62G>T]. Prostate cancer cases (n = 1320) from the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial were frequency matched to controls (n = 1842), by age, race, time since initial screening and year of blood draw. An antioxidant score [range 3-12; low (3-7) versus high (8-12)] was created by summing the quartile levels of vitamin E, beta-carotene and lycopene, which were coded from 1 to 4, respectively. The global tests for all eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (excluding NOS2A-2892T>C, with low minor allele frequency) were statistically significant for prostate cancer (P = 0.005), especially for aggressive cancer (stage III-IV or Gleason score > or = 7) (P = 0.01). The NOS2A IVS16 + 88 GT/TT was associated with increased prostate cancer risk (odds ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.54), whereas the IVS20 + 524 AG/GG was associated with decreased risk (0.77, 0.66-0.90). The NOS3 IVS7-26GG was associated with increased prostate cancer risk (1.33, 1.07-1.64). All these SNPs showed significant associations with aggressive cancer and not for non-aggressive cancer. In the evaluation of effect modification, the effect of the NOS2A IVS16 + 88 GT/TT on aggressive cancer was stronger among subjects with higher antioxidant intake (1.61, 1.18-2.19; P(interaction) = 0.01). Our results suggest that NOS gene polymorphisms are genetic susceptibility factors for aggressive prostate cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate impact of knowledge, familiarity, and prejudice about mental illness as well as demographic factors on the social distance from mentally ill people, which is a proxy measure of discrimination.
To assess the impact of knowledge and familiarity, prejudice about mental illness and demographic factors on the social distance from mental illness, we conducted a telephone survey in South Korea with the responders being nationally representative people who were 18 years old or over (n=1040). Independent samples T-tests, one way ANOVA and linear regression analysis were performed to analyze the results of the survey.
The social distance from mental illness decreased as the knowledge and familiarity increased, but the social distance was increased as prejudice was increased. Prejudice had a greater impact on social distance than familiarity and knowledge. Females showed greater social distance than did males. A higher education level had a negative effect on social distance.
To reduce the social distance from mentally ill people, efforts to increase the familiarity about mental illness as well as efforts to educate people about mental illness are important.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 12/2008; 41(6):419-26.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the potential role of CASP8 genetic polymorphisms in the etiology of breast cancer in a case-control study, Korea.
Incident breast cancer cases confirmed histologically (n = 1,599) were recruited from two hospitals in Seoul during 2001-2005. Control subjects (n = 1,536) were selected from the Health Examinee Cohort from Seoul and Gyeonggi Province surrounding Seoul, Korea. Three SNPs (D302H D > H, 5'-UTR C > T, and K337K G > A) were genotyped by the primer extension assay. The CASP8 D302H, which was not polymorphic in 48 samples, was excluded in further genotyping. Odds ratios and 95% confidential intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression model adjusted for age at enrollment, education, age at first full-term pregnancy, cigarette smoking, and family history of breast cancer.
The 5'-UTR T allele containing genotypes (CT/TT) were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, compared with those with the CC genotype (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.95-1.34; and OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.04-2.10, respectively; P-trend = 0.02). When stratified by the estrogen and progesterone receptor status, the association between the 5'-UTR T allele and breast cancer risk was prominent in ER(+) and PR(+) cases among pre-menopausal women (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.00-1.72 and OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.06-1.85, respectively), whereas the association was found prominent in ER(-) or PR(-) cases (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 0.93-1.87 and OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.04-1.94, respectively) among post-menopausal women.
Our results thus suggest that the CASP8 5'-UTR C > T are associated with breast cancer risks and the effect may be modified by estrogen and progesterone receptor status.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 08/2008; 110(2):387-93. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trifluralin, 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-trifluoromethylaniline, is a 2,6-dinitro herbicide widely used to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in agricultural settings. The association between trifluralin use and common cancer incidence was evaluated among 50,127 private and commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Poisson regression was used to examine internal dose-response relationships, while controlling for important lifestyle factors and other agricultural exposures. Two metrics of exposure (lifetime days and intensity-weighted lifetime days) were used in exposure-response analyses with non-exposed applicators, as well as applicators in the lowest tertile of exposure, as reference groups. Incident cancers were identified through state tumor registries from enrollment in 1993 through 2002. Trifluralin exposure was not associated with cancer incidence overall among 51% of private and commercial applicators (n=25,712) who had used trifluralin. However, there was an excess of colon cancer in the exposure category of higher half of highest tertile (rate ratios (RR) of 1.76 (95% CI=1.05-2.95) using the non-exposed as a referent and 1.93 (95% CI=1.08-3.45) using those with the lowest tertile of exposure as the referent). There was also a non-significantly elevated risk for kidney cancer and bladder cancer in the highest exposure group, although only the kidney cancer finding was consistent across exposure metrics. Although there was a possible link between trifluralin exposure and colon cancer, small numbers and inconsistencies in dose-response and subgroup analyses indicate that this may be a chance finding.
Environmental Research 07/2008; 107(2):271-6. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to evaluate the reproducibility of a questionnaire concerned with reproductive history and to ascertain which characteristics of the subjects (age, the visit-revisit intervals, education and chronic disease) are associated with good reliability in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort (KMCC) study.
A total of 19,688 participants were enrolled between 1993 and 2004. Among them, we selected 386 participants who were aged 40 or more and who re-visited within 8 years after the first visit. Reliability was measured by the percent agreement according to error range for the continuous variables and the percent agreement and kappa statistics for the categorical variables.
The pregnancy histories were reliable (kappa=0.67) and the reasons for being menopausal among the postmenopausal women were also reliable (kappa=0.92). The percent agreement of the breast-feeding history was high (96.1%), although the kappa statistic was low. For the continuous variables, when the error range of one variable was considered to be reliable, the percent agreement of the age at menarche and the age at the first full term pregnancy was good (69.4% and 83.6%), whereas that of the age at menopause was low (51.5%). The factors associated with high reliability were a younger age, the presence of chronic disease and a short visit-revisit time interval.
The agreements for parity, the reasons for menopause, and the breastfeeding history in the reproductive history questionnaire used in the KMCC were relatively good. The questionnaire for the menarche age and the menopausal age might have lower reliability due to the difference between Korean age and American age. To obtain reliable information, more attention should be given to the items in questionnaire-based surveys, and especially for surveying old-aged women.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 06/2008; 41(3):181-5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the accuracy of several preoperative tests in predicting lymph node (LN) metastases and the feasibility of doing a routine lymphadenectomy in clinical stage-I endometrial cancer.
We reviewed 132 patients with clinical stage-I endometrial cancer. The preoperative tests used to predict LN metastases were serum CA-125 level, histologic type and grade, LN status assessed by pelvic magnetic resonance image (MRI) or computed tomography (CT), and depth of myometrial invasion assessed only by pelvic MRI. The cutoff value of the serum CA-125 level was determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine which tests are good predictors of LN metastases.
Of 132 patients, 13 (9.8%) had LN metastases. On univariate logistic regression analysis, a high CA-125 level and preoperative LN evaluation by pelvic MRI or CT were significant predictors for LN metastases (OR=17.41, 95% CI: 4.36-69.56 and OR=14.30, 95% CI: 4.02-50.63, respectively). However, on multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and all preoperative tests, a high CA-125 level was the most significant predictor (OR=13.73, 95% CI: 2.03-92.73). Among the 97 patients with no significant predictor of LN metastases, pelvic LN metastases were observed in 3 patients (3.1%) and para-aortic LN metastases were observed in 1 patient (1.1%). Surgical complications were mild (lymphocele, n=9; lymphedema, n=2; wound problem, n=2).
Considering the importance of LN metastases as an indicator of prognosis, and the relatively low surgical risk of lymphadenectomy, clinicians should cautiously consider routine lymphadenectomy in patients with clinical stage-I endometrial cancer.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 05/2008; 14(4):CR183-9. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1A) is activated by low oxygen condition tension, a key regulator of the gene involved in the cellular response to hypoxia. Tumors exhibiting extensive hypoxia are more aggressive than tumors oxygenized better.
To evaluate the potential role of the polymorphisms of HIF-1A in the etiology of breast cancer, histologically confirmed incident breast cancer cases (n=1599) and control subjects (n=1536) were recruited.
Two selected SNPs (Ex15+197C>T and P582S) were not associated with overall breast cancer risk (TT vs. CC: OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.6-1.5, Ser/Ser vs. Pro/Pro: OR=5.5, 95% CI=0.7-45.4, respectively). However, when stratified analyses were performed, significant associations were observed between Ser/Ser genotype at codon 582 and breast cancer risk among women with larger tumor size (>2 cm) (OR=10.1, 95% CI=1.1-91.1) or without lymph node involvement (OR=9.3, 95% CI=1.1-79.4), although confidence intervals were wide.
Our findings support the hypothesis that the HIF-1Alpha P582S variant may confer susceptibility to subgroups of breast cancer in Korean women. However, further study is warranted due to low statistical power caused by very low minor allele frequencies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various perinatal factors, including birth weight, birth order, maternal age, gestational age, twin status, and parental smoking, have been postulated to affect breast cancer risk in daughters by altering the hormonal environment of the developing fetal mammary glands. Despite ample biologic plausibility, epidemiologic studies to date have yielded conflicting results. We investigated the associations between perinatal factors and subsequent breast cancer risk through meta-analyses.
We reviewed breast cancer studies published from January 1966 to February 2007 that included data on birth weight, birth order, maternal age, gestational age, twin status, and maternal or paternal smoking. Meta-analyses using random effect models were employed to summarize the results.
We found that heavier birth weights were associated with increased breast cancer risk, with studies involving five categories of birth weight identifying odds ratios (ORs) of 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.48) for 4,000 g or more and 1.15 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.26) for 3,500 g to 3,999 g, relative to a birth weight of 2,500 to 2,599 g. These studies provided no support for a J-shaped relationship of birthweight to risk. Support for an association with birthweight was also derived from studies based on three birth weight categories (OR 1.15 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.31] for > or =4,000 g relative to <3,000 g) and two birth weight categories (OR 1.09 [95% CI 1.02 to 1.18] for > or =3,000 g relative to <3,000 g). Women born to older mothers and twins were also at some increased risk, but the results were heterogeneous across studies and publication years. Birth order, prematurity, and maternal smoking were unrelated to breast cancer risk.
Our findings provide some support for the hypothesis that in utero exposures reflective of higher endogenous hormone levels could affect risk for development of breast cancer in adulthood.
Breast cancer research: BCR 02/2008; 10(1):R8. · 5.87 Impact Factor