[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Spontaneous abortion (SA) affects 11.2% of recognized pregnancies in Korea. Many studies have focused on the increased risk of SA in obese populations, but there are few studies that have focused on underweight (Body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2) women, especially in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the role of pre-pregnancy BMI at age 18–20 in later SA.
Among the women who were ever pregnant in the Health Examinees Study (HEXA), which was one of the cohorts studied in the KoGES (Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study) from 2004 to 2012 (N = 80,447), the likelihood of SA based on pre-pregnancy BMI, classified by the criteria for Asians (Underweight: <18.5 kg/m2; Normal range: 18.5-22.9 kg/m2; Overweight at risk: 23–24.9 kg/m2; Obese I: 25–29.9 kg/m2; Obese II: ≥30 kg/m2), was presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression models.
Being underweight or obese relative to the normal weight range was associated with a higher likelihood of SA (OR = 1.10 [95% CI = 1.05–1.15] in underweight women and OR = 1.06 [95% CI = 0.96–1.16] in obese women), and this effect was much greater in women who experienced recurrent SAs (for three or more SAs: OR = 1.29 [95% CI 1.14–1.46] in underweight women and OR = 1.39 [95% CI 1.09–1.78] in obese women). Obesity was associated with an increased likelihood of SA at a younger age (≤25 years), whereas underweight was associated with an increased OR of SA at an older age (≥26 years).
As this study was conducted with baseline data of original cohort which focused on other chronic diseases, recall for previous pregnancy-related information might be less accurate. However, this study shows strength in its large size and prospective potential.
Pre-pregnancy BMI at ages 18–20 years revealed a U-shaped association with SA, and underweight and obese women showed increased likelihood for SA during different age periods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Kappa is a widely used measure of agreement. However, it may not be straightforward in some situation such as sample size calculation due to the kappa paradox: high agreement but low kappa. Hence, it seems reasonable in sample size calculation that the level of agreement under a certain marginal prevalence is considered in terms of a simple proportion of agreement rather than a kappa value. Therefore, sample size formulae and nomograms using a simple proportion of agreement rather than a kappa under certain marginal prevalences are proposed.
A sample size formula was derived using the kappa statistic under the common correlation model and goodness-of-fit statistic. The nomogram for the sample size formula was developed using SAS 9.3.
The sample size formulae using a simple proportion of agreement instead of a kappa statistic and nomograms to eliminate the inconvenience of using a mathematical formula were produced.
A nomogram for sample size calculation with a simple proportion of agreement should be useful in the planning stages when the focus of interest is on testing the hypothesis of inter-observer agreement involving two raters and nominal outcome measures.
Annals of Epidemiology 09/2014; 24(9). DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.06.097 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In the Republic of Korea, cancer is the most common cause of death, and cancer incidence and mortality rates are the highest in East Asia. As alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic to humans, we estimated the burden of cancer related to alcohol consumption in the Korean population.
The cancer sites studied were those for which there is convincing evidence of a positive association with alcohol consumption: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, colon, rectum, liver, larynx and female breast. Sex- and cancer-specific population attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated based on: 1) the prevalence of alcohol drinkers among adults ≥20 years of age in 1989; 2) the average daily alcohol consumption (g/day) among drinkers in 1998; 3) relative risk (RR) estimates for the association between alcohol consumption and site-specific cancer incidence obtained either from a large Korean cohort study or, when more than one Korean study was available for a specific cancer site, meta-analyses were performed and the resulting meta-RRs were used; 4) national cancer incidence and mortality data from 2009.
Among men, 3% (2,866 cases) of incident cancer cases and 2.8% (1,234 deaths) of cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol consumption. Among women, 0.5% (464 cancer cases) of incident cancers and 0.1% (32 deaths) of cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol consumption. In particular, the PAF for alcohol consumption in relation to oral cavity cancer incidence among Korean men was 29.3%, and the PAFs for pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer incidence were 43.3% and 25.8%, respectively. Among Korean women, the PAF for colorectal cancer incidence was the highest (4.2%) and that for breast cancer incidence was only 0.2%. Avoiding alcohol consumption, or reducing it from the median of the highest 4th quartile of consumption (56.0 g/day for men, 28.0 g/day for women) to the median of the lowest quartile (2.80 g/day for men, 0.80 g/day for women), would reduce the burden of alcohol-related cancers in Korea.
A reduction in alcohol consumption would decrease the cancer burden and a significant impact is anticipated specifically for the cancers oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx among men in the Republic of Korea.
BMC Cancer 06/2014; 14(1):420. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-420 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Smoking is by far the most important cause of cancer that can be modified at the individual level. Cancer incidence and mortality rates in Korea are the highest among all Asian countries, and smoking prevalence in Korean men is one of the highest in developed countries. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and provide an evidence-based assessment of the burden of tobacco smoking-related cancers in the Korean population.
Sex- and cancer-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of ever-smoking and second-hand smoking in 1989 among Korean adults, respectively, and the relative risks were estimated from the meta-analysis of studies performed in the Korean population for ever-smoking and in the Asian population for passive smoking. National cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and national cancer mortality data from Statistics Korea for the year 2009 were used to estimate the cancer cases and deaths attributable to tobacco smoking.
Tobacco smoking was responsible for 20,239 (20.9%) cancer incident cases and 14,377 (32.9%) cancer deaths among adult men and 1,930 (2.1%) cancer incident cases and 1,351 (5.2%) cancer deaths among adult women in 2009 in Korea. In men, 71% of lung cancer deaths, 55%–72% of upper aerodigestive tract (oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and larynx) cancer deaths, 23% of liver, 32% of stomach, 27% of pancreas, 7% of kidney and 45% of bladder cancer deaths were attributable to tobacco smoking. In women the proportion of ever-smoking-attributable lung cancer was 8.1%, while that attributable to second-hand smoking among non-smoking women was 20.5%.
Approximately one in three cancer deaths would be potentially preventable through appropriate control of tobacco smoking in Korean men at the population level and individual level. For Korean women, more lung cancer cases and deaths were attributable to second-hand than ever-smoking. Effective control programs against tobacco smoking should be further developed and implemented in Korea to reduce the smoking-related cancer burden.
BMC Cancer 06/2014; 14(1):406. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-406 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The progression and complications of chronic kidney disease should differ depending on the cause (C), glomerular filtration rate category (G), and albuminuria (A). The KNOW-CKD (KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease), which is a prospective cohort study, enrolls subjects with chronic kidney disease stages 1 to 5 (predialysis).
Nine nephrology centers in major university hospitals throughout Korea will enroll approximately 2,450 adults with chronic kidney disease over a 5-year period from 2011 to 2015. The participating individuals will be monitored for approximately 10 years until death or until end-stage renal disease occurs. The subjects will be classified into subgroups based on the following specific causes of chronic kidney disease: glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, polycystic kidney disease, and others. The eligible subjects will be evaluated at baseline for socio-demographic information, detailed personal/family history, office BP, quality of life, and health behaviors. After enrollment in the study, thorough assessments, including laboratory tests, cardiac evaluation and radiologic imaging, will be performed according to the standardized protocol. The biospecimen samples will be collected regularly. A renal event is defined by >50% decrease in estimated GFR (eGFR) from the baseline values, doubling of serum creatinine, or end-stage renal disease. The primary composite outcome consists of renal events, cardiovascular events, and death. As of September 2013, 1,470 adult chronic kidney disease subjects were enrolled in the study, including 543 subjects with glomerulonephritis, 317 with diabetic nephropathy, 294 with hypertensive nephropathy and 249 with polycystic kidney disease.
As the first large-scale chronic kidney disease cohort study to be established and maintained longitudinally for up to 10 years, the KNOW-CKD will help to clarify the natural course, complication profiles, and risk factors of Asian populations with chronic kidney disease.
No. NCT01630486 at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea.
Gender- and cancer site-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 1992-1995 from a large-scale prospective cohort study, the prevalence of low physical activity in 1989 from a Korean National Health Examination Survey, and pooled relative risk estimates from Korean epidemiological studies. The overall PAF was then estimated using 2009 national cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Excess body weight was responsible for 1,444 (1.5%) and 2,004 (2.2%) cancer cases among men and women, respectively, in 2009 in Korea. Among men, 6.8% of colorectal, 2.9% of pancreatic, and 16.0% of kidney cancer was attributable to excess body weight. In women, 6.6% of colorectal, 3.9% of pancreatic, 18.7% of kidney, 8.2% of postmenopausal breast, and 32.7% of endometrial cancer was attributable to excess body weight. Low leisure-time physical activity accounted for 8.8% of breast cancer, whereas the PAF for overall cancer was low (0.1% in men, 1.4% in women). Projections suggest that cancers attributable to obesity will increase by 40% in men and 16% in women by 2020.
With a significantly increasing overweight and physically inactive population, and increasing incidence of breast and colorectal cancers, Korea faces a large cancer burden attributable to these risk factors. Had the obese population of Korea remained stable, a large portion of obesity-related cancers could have been avoided. Efficient cancer prevention programs that aim to reduce obesity- and physical inactivity-related health problems are essential in Korea.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e90871. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090871 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the effect of medical conditions in the population of Korea on breast cancer risk in a case-control study.
The cases were 3242 women with incident, histologically confirmed breast cancer in two major hospitals interviewed between 2001 and 2007. The controls were 1818 women each admitted to either of those two hospitals for a variety of non-neoplastic conditions. Information on each disease was obtained from a standardized questionnaire by trained personnel. Odds ratios (ORs) for each disease were derived from multiple logistic regression adjusted for age, age of menarche, pregnancy, age of first pregnancy, and family history of breast cancer.
Among all of the incident breast cancer patients, pre-existing diabetes (OR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99 to 1.78), hypertension (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.83), thyroid diseases (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.58), and ovarian diseases (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.35) were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer when other factors were adjusted for. In a stratified analysis by menopausal status, pre-existing hypertension (pre-menopause OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.34 vs. post-menopause OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.44 to 2.43; p-heterogeneity <0.01) and ovarian disease (pre-menopause OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.91 to 9.24 vs. post-menopause OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.91; p-heterogeneity 0.01) showed significantly different risks of breast cancer.
Our results suggest the possibility that medical conditions such as hypertension affect breast cancer development, and that this can differ by menopausal status. Our study also indicates a possible correlation between ovarian diseases and breast cancer risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence indicates that sleep duration is associated with health outcomes. However, the relationship of sleep duration with long-term health is unclear. This study was designed to determine the relationship of sleep duration with mortality as a parameter for long-term health in a large prospective cohort study in Korea.
The study population included 13 164 participants aged over 20 years from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort study. Information on sleep duration was obtained through a structured questionnaire interview. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality were estimated using a Cox regression model. The non-linear relationship between sleep duration and mortality was examined non-parametrically using restricted cubic splines.
The HRs for all-cause mortality showed a U-shape, with the lowest point at sleep duration of 7 to 8 hours. There was an increased risk of death among persons with sleep duration of ≤5 hours (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.41) and of ≥10 hours (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.72). In stratified analysis, this relationship of HR was seen in women and in participants aged ≥60 years. Risk of cardiovascular disease-specific mortality was associated with a sleep duration of ≤5 hours (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.93). Risk of death from respiratory disease was associated with sleep duration at both extremes (≤5 and ≥10 hours).
Sleep durations of 7 to 8 hours may be recommended to the public for a general healthy lifestyle in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In 2006 Emergency Medical Services Index (EMSI), which summarizes the performance of regional emergency medical services system, was developed. This study assesses the performance of the EMSI to help determine whether EMSI can be used as evaluation tool. Methods: To build a composite score of the EMSI from predefined 24 indicators, 3 normalized values were calculated for each indicator, the normalized values of each indicator were weighted using 4 weighting methods, and the weighted values were aggregated into the final composite score using 2 aggregation schemes. The performance of EMSI was evaluated using 3 criteria: discrimination, construct validity, and sensitivity. Discrimination was the proportion of regions that did not include the overall median rank in the 5th to 95th percentiles rank interval, which was calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. Construct validity was a correlation among the alternative EMSIs. Sensitivity of EMSIs was evaluated by total shift of quartile membership and changes of 5th to 95th percentile intervals. Results: The total discrimination performance of the EMSI was 50.0%. Correlation coefficients between EMSIs using standardized values and those using rescaled values ranged from 0.621 to 0.997. Variation of the quartile membership of regions ranged from 0.0% to 75.0%. The total change in the 5th to 95th percentile intervals ranged from -19 to +17 places. Conclusion: The results suggested that the EMSI could be used as a tool for evaluating quality of regional EMS system and for identifying the areas for quality improvement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes and obesity each increases mortality, but recent papers have shown that lean Asian persons were at greater risk for mortality than were obese persons. The objective of this study is to determine whether an interaction exists between body mass index (BMI) and diabetes, which can modify the risk of death by cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Subjects who were over 20 years of age, and who had information regarding BMI, past history of diabetes, and fasting blood glucose levels (n=16 048), were selected from the Korea Multi-center Cancer Cohort study participants. By 2008, a total of 1290 participants had died; 251 and 155 had died of CVD and stroke, respectively. The hazard for deaths was calculated with hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) by Cox proportional hazard model.
Compared with the normal population, patients with diabetes were at higher risk for CVD and stroke deaths (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.56; HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.76; respectively). Relative to subjects with no diabetes and normal BMI (21 to 22.9 kg/m(2)), lean subjects with diabetes (BMI <21 kg/m(2)) had a greater risk for CVD and stroke deaths (HR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.57 to 5.09; HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.58 to 6.76; respectively), while obese subjects with diabetes (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) had no increased death risk (p-interaction <0.05). This pattern was consistent in sub-populations with no incidence of hypertension.
This study suggests that diabetes in lean people is more critical to CVD deaths than it is in obese people.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients often have preconceived notions about acne treatments before visiting dermatologists. The aim of this study was to explore the association between patients' beliefs regarding acne and physicians' suggestion for treatment modality in dermatology clinics. A cross-sectional, nationwide multicentre study was conducted. A total of 1,370 patients completed questionnaires about beliefs about acne treatment before seeking medical care, and 101 dermatologists assessed their acne severity and proposed treatment methods. We found that patients had preconceptions in understanding disease characteristics, assessing subjective acne severity and preferring specific treatment modalities. Dermatologists' determination of topical agents as first-line treatment was affected by disease severity and patients' preferences. They were also more likely to prescribe isotretinoin even in moderate acne compared to oral antibiotics and topical agents. Selections of physical treatments and light-based therapies were affected by patients' preferences, subjective self-evaluation and dermatologists' assessments. Thus, we suggest that acne treatment strategies should incorporate both patients' subjective perceptions and objective clinical practices into a management paradigm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To correlate existing evaluation tools with clinical information on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients following age and to investigate genetic mutation and its relationship with clinical function.
The medical records of 121 children with DMD who had visited the pediatric rehabilitation clinic from 2006 to 2009 were reviewed. The mean patient age was 9.9±3.4 years and all subjects were male. Collected data included Brooke scale, Vignos scale, bilateral shoulder abductor and knee extensor muscles power, passive range of motion (PROM) of ankle dorsi-flexion, angle of scoliosis, peak cough flow (PCF), fractional shortening (FS), genetic abnormalities, and use of steroid.
The Brooke and Vignos scales were linearly increased with age (Brooke (y(1)), Vignos (y(2)), age (x), y(1)=0.345x-1.221, R(Brooke) (2)=0.435, y(2)=0.813x-3.079, R(Vignos) (2)=0.558, p<0.001). In relation to the PROM of ankle dorsi-flexion, there was a linear decrease in both ankles (right and left R(2)=0.364, 0.372, p<0.001). Muscle power, Cobb angle, PCF, and FS showed diversity in their degrees, irrespective of age. The genetic test for dystrophin identified exon deletions in 58.0% (69/119), duplications in 9.2% (11/119), and no deletions or duplications in 32.8% (39/119). Statistically, the genetic abnormalities and use of steroid were not definitely associated with functional scale.
The Brooke scale, Vignos scale and PROM of ankle dorsi-flexion were partially available to assess DMD patients. However, this study demonstrates the limitations of preexisting scales and clinical parameters incomprehensively reflecting functional changes of DMD patients.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine 02/2012; 36(1):22-32. DOI:10.5535/arm.2012.36.1.22
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) cells exist under a constant state of oxidative stress with high levels of reactive oxygen species, which are removed by cellular antioxidant vitamins. We investigated the independent and combined effect of antioxidant vitamins intake and the ATM genotype or diplotype on the breast cancer risk. Analyses included 323 cases and age-matched controls who participated in the Korean Breast Cancer Study during 2001-2003 with complete dietary information. The vitamin A (P < 0.01) and α-tocopherol (P < 0.01) were associated with lower breast cancer risk as well as some water-soluble vitamins including vitamin B(2) (P = 0.01), vitamin C (P < 0.01), and folic acid (P = 0.02) intake. No five single nucleotide polymorphisms (ATM-5144A > T (rs228589), IVS21 + 1049T > C (rs664677), IVS33-55T > C (rs664982), IVS34+60G > A (rs664143), and 3393T > G (rs4585)) studied showed significant differences in their allele frequencies between the cases and controls. On the other hand, compared with the diploid of ATTGT/ATTGT, as the number of ATTGT haplotype decreased, the risk of breast cancer increased (P = 0.04). The association between ATM diplotype and the breast cancer risk was predominantly among women with low intake of antioxidant vitamins including vitamin A, vitamin C, and folic acid. This study suggested that some antioxidant vitamins intake may modify the effect of ATM diplotype on the breast cancer risk among Korean women.
Nutrition and Cancer 11/2010; 62(8):1087-94. DOI:10.1080/01635581.2010.492088 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is the main epigenetic modification that occurs at the early stages of carcinogenesis. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling to evaluate whether the DNA methylation state is different in the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of breast cancer. Twelve ER+/PR+ and 12 ER-/PR- breast cancer tissues were selected from the biorepository of the Seoul Breast Cancer Study for Infinium Methylation Assay. The difference of the DNA methylation state of 27 578 methylation sites in 14 000 genes between two groups was evaluated by Student's t-test. False discovery rate (FDR) was estimated to evaluate the probability of false positive associations. Of the 27 578 sites, 148 sites (0.54%) were significantly different between ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- breast cancers (P < 0.001); 93 hypermethylated and 55 hypomethylated. Five genes, FAM124B (P = 7.26 × 10(-7)), MANEAL (P = 3.38 × 10(-7)), ST6GALNAC1 (P = 2.85 × 10(-6)), NAV1 (P = 5.94 × 10(-6)) and PER1 (P = 6.45 × 10(-6)) remained significant after correction for multiple tests (FDR < 0.05). In a subsequent replication study for five genes, four of the five genes were validated; FAM124B and ST6GALNAC1 were significantly hypermethylated, and NAV1 and PER1 were significantly hypomethylated in ER+/PR+ breast cancers (P < 0.05). In the first genome-wide DNA methylation profiling according to the receptor status of breast cancer, we found that ER/PR status affects the DNA methylation state of FAM124B, ST6GALNAC1, NAV1 and PER1 in breast cancer.
Human Molecular Genetics 11/2010; 19(21):4273-7. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddq351 · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed a series of patients who had undergone laparoscopic partial nephrectomies (LPNs) and open partial nephrectomies (OPNs) to compare outcomes of the two procedures in patients with pathologic T1a renal cell carcinomas (RCCs).
From January 1998 to May 2009, 417 LPNs and 345 OPNs were performed on patients with small renal tumors in 15 institutions in Korea. Of the patients, 273 and 279 patients, respectively, were confirmed to have pT1a RCC. The cohorts were compared with respect to demographics, peri-operative data, and oncologic and functional outcomes.
The demographic data were similar between the groups. Although the tumor location was more exophytic (51% vs. 44%, p=0.047) and smaller (2.1 cm vs. 2.3 cm, p=0.026) in the LPN cohort, the OPN cohort demonstrated shorter ischemia times (23.4 min vs. 33.3 min, p<0.001). The LPN cohort was associated with less blood loss than the OPN cohort (293 ml vs. 418 ml, p<0.001). Of note, two patients who underwent LPNs had open conversions and nephrectomies were performed because of intra-operative hemorrhage. The decline in the glomerular filtration rate at the last available follow-up (LPN, 10.9%; and OPN, 10.6%) was similar in both groups (p=0.8). Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year local recurrence-free survival (RFS) were 96% after LPN and 94% after OPN (p=0.8).
The LPN group demonstrated similar rates of recurrence-free survival, complications, and postoperative GFR change compared with OPN group. The LPN may be an acceptable surgical option in patients with small RCC in Korea.
Korean journal of urology 07/2010; 51(7):467-71. DOI:10.4111/kju.2010.51.7.467
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, which can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The prognostic factors for survival were not fully evaluated in Asian population. We investigated the prognostic factors for survival of SSc among Korean patients. A total of 243 SSc patients were enrolled from Seoul National University Hospital between 1972 and 2007. Age at onset, gender, cutaneous subset, autoantibody status, major organ involvement, and occurrence of malignancy were evaluated with all-cause mortality as the end point. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to retrieve the prognostic factors for survival. During the follow-up of 1,967 person-years, 33 patients died. Old age at onset (hazard ratio [HR] 7.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.9-28.1), diffuse cutaneous subset (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.9), presence of anti-Scl-70 antibody (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.1), forced vital capacity less than 70% (HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-6.2), and heart involvement (HR 4.2, 95% CI 1.7-10.2) were found to be significant risk factors for mortality in multivariate analysis. In Korean SSc patients, old age, diffuse cutaneous involvement, anti-Scl-70 antibody, and internal organ involvement are risk factors for mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the population of patients with lung cancer increases, the expenditure on lung cancer treatment will become a huge economic burden in many countries. To support public health services for the treatment of lung cancer, the calculation of lung cancer-specific costs is important.
This study included newly diagnosed 76 lung cancer patients who had survived for at least 5 years after the diagnosis in a tertiary care hospital in South Korea. Direct medical costs were calculated from health care claims obtained from Seoul National University Hospital, which included out-of-pocket expenditures. Direct non-medical and indirect costs were calculated from national statistics.
Mean direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs amounted to $21,321, $6444 and $4943 respectively, based on an exchange rate of Korean Won 1200=US $1. The average cost for treatment of one lung cancer patient for all 5 years was $32,708. This constituted 44.7% of the per capita income during the same 5-year period.
The economic burden of lung cancer treatment is significant in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This multiinstitutional report assesses the oncologic efficacy of hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (HLRN) compared with open radical nephrectomy (ORN) in patients with localized clear cell renal-cell carcinoma (RCC).
We analyzed the data from 2561 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy at 26 institutions in Korea between June 1998 and December 2007 for localized RCC. One hundred ninety-seven patients with clear cell RCC in the HLRN group were compared with 917 patients with clear cell RCC in the ORN group. To evaluate the technical adequacy and oncologic outcome, we compared the operative time, estimated blood loss, and 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates.
The median follow-up was 36 months for the HLRN group and 27 months for the ORN group. The operative time was significantly longer in the HLRN group than in the ORN group (206.8 +/- 68.7 minutes vs. 179.1 +/- 61.5 minutes, p < 0.001), and blood loss was significantly lower in the HLRN group than in the ORN group (311.6 +/- 238.7 mL vs. 372.4 +/- 367.3 mL, p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in pathologic T stage and Fuhrman's nuclear grade in the two groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the 5-year overall (91.2% vs. 90.3%, p = 0.286) and disease-specific (95.2% vs. 92.1%, p = 0.222) survival rates between the HLRN and ORN groups.
Despite the longer operative time, HLRN was an effective and less-invasive treatment option for localized clear cell RCC. HLRN could achieve cancer control similar to that obtained with ORN.
Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 08/2009; 23(9):1485-9. DOI:10.1089/end.2009.0375 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4, 4'-bipyridinium dichloride) is a nonselective herbicide that is extremely toxic after acute exposure. It was once widely used in North America and is still used in some countries, including the United States. Although there is little firm evidence that paraquat is a carcinogen, previous studies have suggested a potential relationship with some cancers. This prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the association between lifetime paraquat exposure and cancer incidence among licensed pesticide applicators with 9.1 years of median follow-up. The lifetime ever-use of paraquat was evaluated in 56,224 subjects at baseline and exposure-response relationship was evaluated in 24,667 subjects (44%) who provided detailed information on total life-time paraquat exposure in a second questionnaire. Among the total subjects, the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in the exposed group was marginally elevated (Relative risk [RR], 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-2.23) compared to the non-exposed group. However, among the 24,667 applicators who supplied total life-time exposure days, the highest tertile of lifetime exposure-days (LE) and intensity-weighted lifetime exposure-days (IWLE) was not significantly associated with NHL risk (RR, 1.57; 95%CI, 0.57-4.23 for LE; RR, 1.42; 95%CI, 0.40-4.71 for IWLE, respectively) and there was no significant exposure-response trend (p-trend > 0.1). There was some suggestion of a possible link between paraquat exposure and NHL risk in humans, but the inconsistency in exposure level trend suggests that this could be a chance finding.
International journal of occupational and environmental health 07/2009; 15(3):274-81. DOI:10.1179/oeh.2009.15.3.274 · 1.37 Impact Factor