M Kjellman

Karolinska University Hospital, Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (26)84.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant DNA methylation is a feature of human cancer affecting gene expression and tumor phenotype. Here, we quantified promoter methylation of candidate genes and global methylation in 44 small intestinal-neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) from 33 patients by pyrosequencing. Findings were compared with gene expression, patient outcome and known tumor copy number alterations. Promoter methylation was observed for WIF1, RASSF1A, CTNNB1, CXCL14, NKX2-3, P16, LAMA1, and CDH1. By contrast APC, CDH3, HIC1, P14, SMAD2, and SMAD4 only had low levels of methylation. WIF1 methylation was significantly increased (P = 0.001) and WIF1 expression was reduced in SI-NETs vs. normal references (P = 0.003). WIF1, NKX2-3, and CXCL14 expression was reduced in metastases vs. primary tumors (P<0.02). Low expression of RASSF1A and P16 were associated with poor overall survival (P = 0.045 and P = 0.011, respectively). Global methylation determined by pyrosequencing of LINE1 repeats was reduced in tumors vs. normal references, and was associated with loss in chromosome 18. The tumors fell into three clusters with enrichment of WIF1 methylation and LINE1 hypomethylation in Cluster I and RASSF1A and CTNNB1 methylation and loss in 16q in Cluster II. In Cluster III, these alterations were low-abundant and NKX2-3 methylation was low. Similar analyses in the SI-NET cell lines HC45 and CNDT2 showed methylation for CDH1 and WIF1 and/or P16, CXCL14, NKX2-3, LAMA1, and CTNNB1. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine reduced DNA methylation and increased expression of these genes in vitro. In conclusion, promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes is associated with suppressed gene expression and DNA copy number alterations in SI-NETs, and may be restored in vitro.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 04/2014; 9(7). · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have compared the microsomal protein composition of eight malignant and six benign adrenocortical tumors with proteomic methods. IGF2 had increased level in the malignant tumors, confirming previous microarray studies on the same material. Aldolase A, a glycolytic enzyme, also showed increased levels in the malignant tissue compared to the benign. Additionally, several proteins belonging to complex I in the mitochondrial respiration chain showed decreased levels in the malignant tissue. Taken together, this may indicate a shift in energy metabolism where glycolysis may be favored over tight coupling of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One of the complex I proteins that showed decreased levels in the malignant tissue was GRIM-19. This protein has been suggested as a tumor suppressive protein by being a negative regulator of STAT3. In summary, an analysis of the microsomal proteome in adrenocortical tumors identifies groups of proteins as well as specific proteins differentially expressed in the benign and malignant forms. These proteins shed light on the biology behind malignancy and could delineate future drug targets.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e87951. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are typically slow-growing tumors that have metastasized already at the time of diagnosis. The purpose of the present study was to further refine and define regions of recurrent copy number (CN) alterations (CNA) in SI-NETs. Genome-wide CNAs was determined by applying array CGH (a-CGH) on SI-NETs including 18 primary tumors and 12 metastases. Quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR) was used to confirm CNAs detected by a-CGH as well as to detect CNAs in an extended panel of SI-NETs. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was used to detect tumor groups with similar patterns of chromosomal alterations based on recurrent regions of CN loss or gain. The log rank test was used to calculate overall survival. Mann--Whitney U test or Fisher's exact test were used to evaluate associations between tumor groups and recurrent CNAs or clinical parameters. The most frequent abnormality was loss of chromosome 18 observed in 70% of the cases. CN losses were also frequently found of chromosomes 11 (23%), 16 (20%), and 9 (20%), with regions of recurrent CN loss identified in 11q23.1-qter, 16q12.2-qter, 9pter-p13.2 and 9p13.1-11.2. Gains were most frequently detected in chromosomes 14 (43%), 20 (37%), 4 (27%), and 5 (23%) with recurrent regions of CN gain located to 14q11.2, 14q32.2-32.31, 20pter-p11.21, 20q11.1-11.21, 20q12-qter, 4 and 5. qPCR analysis confirmed most CNAs detected by a-CGH as well as revealed CNAs in an extended panel of SI-NETs. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of recurrent regions of CNAs revealed two separate tumor groups and 5 chromosomal clusters. Loss of chromosomes 18, 16 and 11 and again of chromosome 20 were found in both tumor groups. Tumor group II was enriched for alterations in chromosome cluster-d, including gain of chromosomes 4, 5, 7, 14 and gain of 20 in chromosome cluster-b. Gain in 20pter-p11.21 was associated with short survival. Statistically significant differences were observed between primary tumors and metastases for loss of 16q and gain of 7. Our results revealed recurrent CNAs in several candidate regions with a potential role in SI-NET development. Distinct genetic alterations and pathways are involved in tumorigenesis of SI-NETs.
    BMC Cancer 10/2013; 13(1):505. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the ProMIS™ simulator could serve as a training platform for the da Vinci® surgical system and if this constellation could prove construct validity. The da Vinci system was connected to the ProMIS simulator, which registered objective data concerning how the surgeon performed in the box environment related to time, path, and smoothness. Five experienced robotic surgeons passed four different surgical tasks with progressive difficulty. A novice group-constituted of 13 consultants and 6 residents, none of them with any previous experience in the da Vinci system-passed the same tasks and the data were compared with the results from the expert group. A statistically significant difference between experts and novices was demonstrated in all tasks concerning time and smoothness. For the parameter path, significant difference was only noted in the more complex tasks. Our study showed that ProMis could differentiate between experienced robotic surgeons and novices, thereby proving construct validity. Smoothness appeared to be the most sensitive objective parameter in our study. Tasks with high complexity are recommended when designing the program for robotic training.
    Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 11/2010; 25(2):345-50. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgery is the only curative treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism. Focused surgical techniques are being practiced with increasing frequency. Preoperative imaging, such as scintigraphy, is a prerequisite for focused surgery. There is controversy about which preoperative imaging method should be used. The sensitivity reported for parathyroid scintigraphy varies considerably. This study was designed to determine the accuracy of the preoperative imaging routinely used at our institution. This retrospective study included consecutive patients who underwent a routine dual-phase sestamibi-SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) scintigraphy and subsequent operation with follow-up. Scintigraphy results were evaluated by comparing the results to surgical findings and histopathology. Two hundred and sixty-four individuals entered the study. Sensitivity for scintigraphy was 84%, specificity 91%, positive predictive value 91%, and negative predictive value 84%. Sestamibi-SPECT scintigraphy is a sensitive preoperative modality with high positive predictive value. Scintigraphy is a good indicator for when to perform a focused surgical approach and could often correctly guide the actual operation.
    Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 10/2009; 394(5):811-5. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumours in the adrenocortex are common human tumours. Malignancy is however, rare, the yearly incidence being 0.5-2 per million inhabitants, but associated with a very aggressive behaviour. Adrenocortical tumours are often associated with altered hormone production with a variety of clinical symptoms. The aggressiveness of carcinomas together with the high frequency of adenomas calls for a deeper understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms and an improvement of the diagnostic possibilities. Microarray gene expression analysis was performed in tumours of adrenocortex with emphasis on malignancy as well as hormonal activity. The sample set consisted of 17 adenomas, 11 carcinomas and 4 histological normal adrenocortexes. RNA from these was hybridised according to a reference design on microarrays harbouring 29 760 human cDNA clones. Confirmation was performed with quantitative real time-PCR and western blot analysis. Unsupervised clustering to reveal relationships between samples based on the entire gene expression profile resulted in two subclusters; carcinomas and non-cancer specimens. A large number of genes were accordingly found to be differentially expressed comparing carcinomas to adenomas. Among these were IGF2, FGFR1 and FGFR4 in growth factor signalling the most predominant and also the USP4, UBE2C and UFD1L in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Moreover, two subgroups of carcinomas were identified with different survival outcome, suggesting that survival prediction can be made on the basis of gene expression profiles. Regarding adenomas with aldosterone overproduction, OSBP and VEGFB were among the most up-regulated genes compared with the other samples. Adrenocortical carcinomas are associated with a distinct molecular signature apparent in their gene expression profiles. Differentially expressed genes were identified associated with malignancy, survival as well as hormonal activity providing a resource of candidate genes for an exploration of possible drug targets and diagnostic and prognostic markers.
    European Journal of Endocrinology 06/2009; 161(1):141-52. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Distinguishing between adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas is often difficult. Our aim was to investigate the differences in transcriptional profiles between benign and malignant adrenocortical neoplasms using complementary DNA microarray techniques. We studied 7 patients with adrenocortical carcinomas and 13 with adenomas. Histopathology was reviewed in all patients; clinical follow-up was at least 1 year. Hybridizations were performed in duplicate against RNA reference. Expression levels were analyzed in the R environment for statistical computing with the use of aroma, limma, statistics, and class packages. Transcriptional profiles were homogeneous among adenomas, while carcinomas were much more heterogeneous. Hierarchical clustering and self-organizing maps could separate clearly carcinomas from adenomas. Among genes that were most significantly upregulated in carcinomas were 2 ubiquitin-related genes (USP4 and UFD1L) and several insulinlike growth factor-related genes (IGF2, IGF2R, IGFBP3 and IGFBP6). Among genes that were most significantly downregulated in carcinomas were a cytokine gene (CXCL10), several genes related to cell metabolism (RARRES2, ALDH1A1, CYBRD1 and GSTA4), and the cadherin 2 gene (CDH2). Through the use of cDNA arrays, adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas appear to be clearly distinguishable on the basis of their specific molecular signature. The biologic importance of the up- and downregulated genes is yet to be determined.
    Surgery 01/2006; 138(6):1087-94. · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Medical Genetics - EUR J MED GENET. 01/2005; 48(4):527-528.
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    ABSTRACT: Several types of endocrine tumors show frequent somatic deletions of the distal part of chromosome arm 11q, where the tumor-suppressor gene SDHD (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit D), constitutionally mutated in paragangliomas of the head and neck, is located. In this study, we screened 18 midgut carcinoids, 7 Merkel cell carcinomas, 46 adrenal pheochromocytomas (37 sporadic and 9 familial), and 7 abdominal paragangliomas for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and/or mutations at the SDHD gene locus. LOH was detected in 5 out of 8 (62%) informative midgut carcinoids, in 9 out of 30 (30%) sporadic pheochromocytomas, in none of the familial pheochromocytomas (0%), and in 1 out of 6 (17%) abdominal paragangliomas. No sequence variants were detected in the pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas. However, two constitutional putative missense mutations, H50R and G12S, were detected in two midgut carcinoids, which were both associated with LOH of the other allele. The same sequence variants were also detected in two Merkel cell carcinomas. In addition, the S68S polymorphism was found to coexist with the G12S sequence variant in both cases. In conclusion, we show that alterations of the SDHD gene seem to be involved in the tumorigenesis of both midgut carcinoids and Merkel cell carcinomas.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 08/2002; 34(3):325-32. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequent and generalized chromosomal imbalances that are characteristic of adrenocortical carcinomas suggest that incomplete chromosome segregation often takes place in these tumors. As a step towards elucidating the mechanism behind the multiple numerical chromosomal aberrations, we have evaluated a series of 14 such tumors for centrosome abnormalities using immunohistochemical detection of the gamma-tubulin centrosome component. The proportion of cells with more than the expected number of 2 centrosomes was moderately increased in the 4 adenomas (1-7%), while a high increase was observed in the 10 carcinomas (1-19%), as compared to the normal reference tissues (0.3%) (p<0.001). Similarly, the centrosome amplification tended to be more pronounced in the carcinomas where the aberrant cells carried 3 or 4 positive signals in 9 of the 10 tumors, and 6 signals were recorded in one tumor, while in the adenomas more than 3 signals was only recorded in one of the 4 cases. The findings demonstrate that centrosome amplifications occur frequently in both adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas, thus supporting its role in driving the tumor development as opposed to being a consequence of it. Furthermore, the more pronounced occurrence in the malignant form as well as in the larger tumors, offers one likely explanation for the increasing generalized aneuploidy observed during the tumor development, and points to new therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring normal centrosome function.
    International Journal of Oncology 06/2002; 20(6):1161-5. · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • M Kjellman, C Larsson, M Bäckdahl
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    ABSTRACT: The increasing occurrence of incidentally discovered benign adrenocortical tumors has become a clinical dilemma because of the difficulties in differentiating them from their malignant counterpart. Adrenocortical tumors are associated with familial cancer syndromes such as the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, the Carney complex, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and the McCune-Albright syndrome. Genetic events are known to take place on the chromosomal and gene level in sporadic adrenocortical tumors.
    World Journal of Surgery 08/2001; 25(7):948-56. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenomas of the adrenal cortex cause different disorders depending on the main steroid synthesized and released. The aim of this research is to increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of steroidogenesis in adrenocortical disorders by comparing the release of steroids from adrenocortical adenomas in vitro with the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of steroid synthesizing enzymes. Fourteen patients with adrenal tumors were included in the present study; nine were diagnosed with primary aldosteronism and three with Cushing's syndrome. Two patients had an adrenal tumor discovered on computed tomography (CT) during workup for an unrelated disease. Serum cortisol, plasma aldosterone, and urinary catecholamines were normal. Tissue was taken for in vitro steroid release, and aldosterone and cortisol in the medium after a 1-hour incubation were determined. Oligonucleotide probes with sequences complementary to mRNAs encoding for the steroid synthesizing enzymes 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 18-hydroxylase (CYP11B2), 17 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP17), and 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) were synthesized (Genset, Paris, France) and in situ hybridization was performed. Moderate expression of CYP11B2 and low expression of CYP11B1 were seen in the zona glomerulosa. The zona fasciculata of the control adrenals expressed a high signal of CYP11B1, whereas the expression of CYP11B2 was very low. There was considerable variation in aldosterone release from the aldosteronomas, whereas the tumors from the Cushing patients showed no detectable release of aldosterone. In contrast, tumors from patients with primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, and no hyperfunction all had the ability to synthesize and release cortisol in vitro. The highest cortisol release was found in tumors from patients with Cushing's syndrome, but also the nonhyperfunctioning tumors and some of the aldosteronomas released significant amounts of cortisol. The two patients with highest release of aldosterone in vitro showed the highest expression of CYP11B2 and the lowest expression of CYP11B1 and CYP17. The remaining aldosteronomas had low expression of CYP11B2, similar to the two other groups. Expression of CYP11B1 was high as expected in the Cushing adenomas, but also the two nonhyperfunctioning tumors and some of the aldosteronomas showed a moderate expression. Adenomas from Cushing's syndrome, nonhyperfunctioning adenomas, and some of the aldosterone-producing adenomas had moderate to high expression of CYP17. This paper presents new means for functional characterization of adrenocortical tumors. Diagnosis of an aldosteronoma is often difficult, and with the advent of these methods it is possible to determine the functional capacity of a tumor, once it is removed. This is of special interest if the patient remains hypertensive postoperatively, and it is not clear whether the patient indeed had a functioning tumor.
    World Journal of Surgery 08/2001; 25(7):957-66. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine tumors occurring in the lung or in the digestive tract where they are further subclassified as foregut, midgut, or hindgut carcinoids. To gain a better understanding of the genetic basis of the different types of carcinoid tumors, we have characterized numerical imbalances in a series of midgut carcinoids, and compared the results to previous findings in carcinoids from the lung. Numerical imbalances were revealed in 16 of the 18 tumors, and the most commonly detected aberrations were losses of 18q22-qter (67%), 11q22-q23 (33%), and 16q21-qter (22%), and gain of 4p14-qter (22%). The total number of alterations found in the metastases was significantly higher than in the primary tumors, indicating the accumulation of acquired genetic changes in the tumor progression. Losses of 18q and 11q were present both in primary tumors and metastases, whereas loss of 16q and gain of 4 were only detected in metastases. Furthermore, the pattern of comparative genomic hybridization alterations varied depending on the total number of detected alterations. Taken together, the findings would suggest a progression of numerical imbalances, in which loss of 18q and 11q represent early events, and loss of 16q and gain of 4p are late events in the tumor progression of midgut carcinoids. When compared to previously published comparative genomic hybridization abnormalities in lung carcinoids, loss of 11q was found to occur in both tumor types, whereas loss of 18q and 16q and gain of 4 were not revealed in lung carcinoids. The results indicate that inactivation of a putative tumor suppressor gene in 18q22-qter represents a frequent and early event that is specific for the development of midgut carcinoids.
    American Journal Of Pathology 06/2001; 158(5):1803-8. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In earlier studies a high-molecular-weight (HMW) insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) peptide was identified in adult human pancreas and localized to the insulin-producing B-cells. This peptide has now been investigated in neoplastic insulin cells. Forty endocrine pancreatic tumours and 17 pancreatic adenocarcinomas of ductal type were included in the study. All cases were investigated with immunohistochemical techniques using antibodies to IGF-II, insulin, pro-insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastrin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Frozen tissue from nine tumours and two normal pancreatic glands was extracted, gel separated, and quantified using radioimmunoassay. The tumours were also investigated by in situ hybridization. IGF-II-immunoreactive cells were found in nearly all the 18 insulin-producing tumours (16/18), in a minority of the other endocrine tumours, but not in pancreatic adenocarcinomas. All extracts from the endocrine tumours showed varying amounts of IGF-II and had different molecular-weight forms. The immunohistochemical and radioimmunoassay findings are both based on immunological binding and were further confirmed by Northern blot and in situ hybridization. These results show that IGF-II is expressed in insulin-producing tumours as well as in pancreatic tumours producing other peptides, in contrast to normal pancreatic islets where IGF-II is found exclusively in insulin-producing cells.
    Apmis 03/2001; 109(2):127-40. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to investigate changes in DNA copy numbers in 25 paraffin-embedded samples of pancreatic endocrine tumors from 23 patients. Insulin was the dominant hormone in 12, glucagon in 7, somatostatin in 1, and pancreatic polypeptide in 2 tumors. One to 15 (mean, 8.1) changes in DNA copy numbers were observed in 22 of the 25 tumors. The most recurrent aberration, found in 68% of the tumors, involved gains in chromosome 7 with a minimal overlapping region at 7q11.2. Other frequent gains included chromosomes 19 (60%) and 14 (56%). Chromosome arm 20q was amplified in 48% of the cases with the minimal overlapping region of 20q11.1-13.1. The two most frequent DNA losses were found at 11q21-22 in 32% and at 11p13-15 in 24% of the cases. The amplified chromosomal regions contain several candidate genes that may be involved in islet cell tumorigenesis. The regions with most frequent losses are likely to contain still uncharacterized tumor suppressor genes. Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 10/2000; 29(1):83-7. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas are rare, catecholamine-producing tumors that arise from the chromaffin cells derived from the neural crest. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to screen for copy number changes in 23 pheochromocytomas and 11 abdominal paragangliomas. The pattern of copy number changes was similar between pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, with the most consistent finding being loss of 1cen-p31, which was detected in 28/34 tumors (82%). Losses were also found on 3q22-25 (41%), 11p (26%), 3p13-14 (24%), 4q (21%), 2q (15%), and 11q22-23 (15%), and gains were detected on 19p (26%), 19q (24%), 17q24-qter (21%), 11cen-q13 (15%), and 16p (15%). Losses of 1p and 3q were detected in the majority of tumors, whereas gains of 19p and q, 17q, and 16p were seen only in tumors with six or more CGH alterations. This progression of genetic events did not correspond with the conversion to a malignant phenotype. CGH alterations involving chromosome 11 were more frequent in the malignant tumors, compared with the benign tumors (9/12 versus 3/16). In summary, we propose that pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas, which share many clinical features, also have a common genetic origin and that the loss of 1cen-p31 represents an early and important event in tumor development.
    American Journal Of Pathology 03/2000; 156(2):651-9. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive breast cancer varies widely in biologic aggressiveness, from fairly indolent tumors to rapidly disseminating carcinomas. Matrix metalloproteinases have enzymatic activity and assist in tumor invasion by degrading basement membranes and extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer EMMPRIN is thought to stimulate fibroblasts to produce the zymogen pro-gelatinase A. The membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is thought to assist in tumor invasion and metastasis by activating pro-gelatinase A, which shows enhanced expression in various tumors. Overexpression of gelatinase A has shown to correlate with a malignant phenotype in many tumor forms. The aim of the study was to investigate the mRNA expression pattern of MT1-MMP, gelatinase A, and EMMPRIN in breast tumors. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tissue samples from 18 patients operated on with breast-conserving surgery for invasive breast carcinoma <20 mm between 1977 and 1985 were analyzed using the mRNA in situ hybridization technique. Most of the patients were node-negative (15/18) and underwent postoperative irradiation to the breast (16/18). The median age at diagnosis was 52 years (21-83 years). At the time of the study 11 patients were alive, 4 without recurrence; 7 patients had been operated for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences, and 2 had distant metastases. The median follow-up was 112 months (102-193 months). Seven patients died of disseminated breast cancer; their median follow-up was 43 months (22-116 months). (35)S-labeled antisense and sense mRNA probes transcribed from linearized plasmids containing cDNA for the matrix metalloproteinases gelatinase A and MT1-MMP and the glycoprotein EMMPRIN were hybridized to 5 microm paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Several invasive carcinomas were surrounded by normal tissue and carcinoma in situ lesions. Gelatinase A, MT1-MMP, and EMMPRIN mRNA expression were detected in all of the carcinomas. The gelatinase A mRNA expression was mainly localized to stromal cells at moderate to high levels surrounding the invading carcinoma cells but was also seen in single cells at low levels in in situ lesions and in some normal glandular cells. MT1-MMP and EMMPRIN were expressed in all of the carcinomas and were mainly localized to tumor cells; but they were also seen to some extent in single cells at low levels in in situ lesions and in normal glandular cells. No differences in levels of expression for gelatinase A, MT1-MMP, or EMMPRIN were seen in patients who survived compared to patients who died from metastatic disease. The co-expression of gelatinase A, MT1-MMP, and EMMPRIN mRNA in invasive breast carcinoma supports the theory that these proteins interact and are important for the invasive phenotype in breast carcinoma. Hence EMMPRIN may be a central factor for stimulation of gelatinase A activation. Specific inhibition for individual MMP members could in the future be target-specific events in breast tumor progression. Inhibition of EMMPRIN could be such a target.
    World Journal of Surgery 03/2000; 24(3):334-40. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development and progression of sporadic adrenocortical tumours are poorly understood. In autopsy studies adrenocortical tumours are found in between 2 and 9% of the general population. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), decreased production of cortisol leads to increased secretion of ACTH from the pituitary, resulting in hyperplasia of the adrenals. More than 95% of all cases of CAH are due to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, resulting from mutations in the CYP21 gene. In subjects homozygous and heterozygous for CYP21 mutations, adrenocortical tumours have been found in a high frequency compared to the general population, suggesting that chronic ACTH stimulation may play a role in the development of this tumour form. In order to test whether mild undiagnosed CAH is a common predisposing factor, we screened 27 patients with sporadic adrenocortical tumours for CYP21 mutations. A retrospective study. We screened 27 patients with sporadic adrenocortical tumours, representing both benign and malignant as well as hormonally active and silent lesions. Mutation analyses of the CYP21 gene was performed by allele-specific PCR on high molecular weight DNA. The method used detects the nine CYP21 mutations that are responsible for 95% of all disease-causing alleles in CAH. No mutations were detected in any of the 23 DNA samples that were prepared from leucocytes. In 4 cases where no leucocyte DNA was available, tumour tissue was analysed. In one of these tumours, two CYP21 mutations, V281 L and L307insT, were found in heterozygous form. Our data indicate that mild undiagnosed congenital adrenal hyperplasia is not a common underlying factor predisposing to adrenocortical tumours, at least not in the Swedish population.
    Clinical Endocrinology 04/1999; 50(3):343-6. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In an attempt to understand the mechanism behind the invasion and metastasis in adrenocortical cancer we performed mRNA in situ hybridization on 30 tumors for three matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs): gelatinase A, membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), and collagenase-3. All are known to participate in the invasion and metastasis of other tumor forms by degrading the extracellular matrix. Thirteen of sixteen cancers, but only one of fourteen benign lesions showed expression of gelatinase A, which was localized in stromal cells. MT1-MMP is thought to assist in tumor invasion and metastasis by activating the zymogen gelatinase A. Of 14 malignant tumors analyzed, 12 showed MT1-MMP mRNA expression, which in 7 cases was detected in both neoplastic and stromal cells. The benign tumors showed MT1-MMP expression in only 3 of 11 cases, and it was restricted to tumor cells. Fourteen tumors (11 cancers, 3 adenomas) were also analyzed for collagenase-3 mRNA, but no expression was detected. In conclusion, our data show that gelatinase A mRNA is expressed in most malignant adrenocortical tumors but not in the benign tumors. Gelatinase A mRNA expression is restricted to stromal cells, whereas its activator, MT1-MMP, is expressed in both stromal and neoplastic cells. Inhibition of gelatinase A and other proteinases may in the future become important as a form of cancer treatment.
    World Journal of Surgery 04/1999; 23(3):237-42. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify chromosomal regions that may contain loci for tumor suppressor genes involved in adrenocortical tumor development, a panel of 60 tumors (39 carcinomas and 21 adenomas) were screened for loss of heterozygosity. Although the vast majority of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) were detected in the carcinomas and involved chromosomes 2, 4, 11, and 18, only few were found in the adenomas. Therefore, 2 loci that harbor the familial cancer syndromes Carney complex in 2p16 and the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 gene in 11q13 were further studied in 27 (13 carcinomas and 14 adenomas) of the 60 tumors. Detailed analysis of the 2p16 region mapped a minimal area of overlapping deletions to a 1-centimorgan region, which is separate from the Carney complex locus. LOH for a microsatellite marker (PYGM), very close to the MEN1 gene, was detected in all 8 informative carcinomas (100%) and in 2 of 14 adenomas. Of the 27 cases analyzed in detail, 13 cases (11 carcinomas and 2 adenomas) showed LOH on chromosome 11 and was therefore selected for MEN1 gene mutation analysis. In 6 cases a common polymorphism (Asp418Asp) was found, but no mutation was detected. In conclusion, our data indicate the existence of tumor suppressor genes at multiple chromosomal locations, whose inactivations are involved in the development of adrenocortical carcinomas. Loss of genetic material from 2p16 was strongly associated with the malignant phenotype, as it was seen in almost all carcinomas but not in any of the adenomas. LOH in 11q13 also occurred frequently in the carcinomas, but was not associated with a MEN1 mutation, suggesting the involvement of a different tumor suppressor gene on this chromosome.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 03/1999; 84(2):730-5. · 6.43 Impact Factor