Deanna M Barch

Washington University in St. Louis, San Luis, Missouri, United States

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Publications (351)1942.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Carver and White's (1994) Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scales have been useful tools for studying individual differences in reward-punishment sensitivity; however, their factor structure and invariance across development have not been well tested. In the current study, we examined the factor structure of the BIS/BAS Scales across 5 age groups: 6- to 10-year-old children (N = 229), 11- to 13-year-old early adolescents (N = 311), 14- to 16-year-old late adolescents (N = 353), 18- to 22-year-old young adults (N = 844), and 30- to 45-year-old adults (N = 471). Given poor fit of the standard 4-factor model (BIS, Reward Responsivity, Drive, Fun Seeking) in the literature, we conducted exploratory factor analyses in half of the participants and identified problematic items across age groups. The 4-factor model showed poor fit in our sample, whereas removing the BAS Fun Seeking subscale and problematic items from the remaining subscales improved fit in confirmatory factor analyses conducted with the second half of the participants. The revised model showed strict invariance across age groups and by sex, indicating consistent factor structure, item loadings, thresholds, and unique or residual variances. Additionally, in our cross-sectional data, we observed nonlinear relations between age and subscale scores, where scores tended to be higher in young adulthood than in childhood and later adulthood. Furthermore, sex differences emerged across development; adolescent and adult females had higher BIS scores than males in this age range, whereas sex differences were not observed in childhood. These differences may help us to understand the rise in internalizing psychopathology in adolescence, particularly in females. Future developmental studies are warranted to examine the impact of rewording problematic items. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Assessment 08/2015; DOI:10.1037/pas0000186 · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Diana J Whalen · Andy C Belden · Deanna Barch · Joan Luby
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the rate of change in body mass index (BMI) percentile across 3 years in relation to emotion identification ability and brain-based reactivity in emotional processing regions. A longitudinal sample of 202 youths completed 3 functional magnetic resonance imaging-based facial processing tasks and behavioral emotion differentiation tasks. We examined the rate of change in the youth's BMI percentile as a function of reactivity in emotional processing brain regions and behavioral emotion identification tasks using multilevel modeling. Lower correct identification of both happiness and sadness measured behaviorally predicted increases in BMI percentile across development, whereas higher correct identification of both happiness and sadness predicted decreases in BMI percentile, while controlling for children's pubertal status, sex, ethnicity, IQ score, exposure to antipsychotic medication, family income-to-needs ratio, and externalizing, internalizing, and depressive symptoms. Greater neural activation in emotional reactivity regions to sad faces also predicted increases in BMI percentile during development, also controlling for the aforementioned covariates. Our findings provide longitudinal developmental data demonstrating links between both emotion identification ability and greater neural reactivity in emotional processing regions with trajectories of BMI percentiles across childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of pediatrics 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.06.053 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effort-based decision making has strong conceptual links to the motivational disturbances that define a key subdomain of negative symptoms. However, the extent to which effort-based decision-making performance relates to negative symptoms, and other clinical and functionally important variables has yet to be systematically investigated. In 94 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia, we examined the external validity of 5 effort-based paradigms, including the Effort Expenditure for Rewards, Balloon Effort, Grip Strength Effort, Deck Choice Effort, and Perceptual Effort tasks. These tasks covered 3 types of effort: physical, cognitive, and perceptual. Correlations between effort related performance and 6 classes of variables were examined, including: (1) negative symptoms, (2) clinically rated motivation and community role functioning, (3) self-reported motivational traits, (4) neurocognition, (5) other psychiatric symptoms and clinical/demographic characteristics, and (6) subjective valuation of monetary rewards. Effort paradigms showed small to medium relationships to clinical ratings of negative symptoms, motivation, and functioning, with the pattern more consistent for some measures than others. They also showed small to medium relations with neurocognitive functioning, but were generally unrelated to other psychiatric symptoms, self-reported traits, antipsychotic medications, side effects, and subjective valuation of money. There were relatively strong interrelationships among the effort measures. In conjunction with findings from a companion psychometric article, all the paradigms warrant further consideration and development, and 2 show the strongest potential for clinical trial use at this juncture. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 07/2015; DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbv090 · 8.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with schizophrenia can encode item-specific information to support familiarity-based recognition but are disproportionately impaired encoding interitem relationships (relational encoding) and recollecting information. The Relational and Item-Specific Encoding (RiSE) paradigm has been used to disentangle these encoding and retrieval processes, which may depend on specific medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregions. Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging during RiSE task performance could help to specify dysfunctional neural circuits in schizophrenia that can be targeted for interventions to improve memory and functioning in the illness. To use fMRI to test the hypothesis that schizophrenia disproportionately affects MTL and PFC subregions during relational encoding and retrieval relative to item-specific memory processes, and to use fMRI results from healthy individuals serving as controls to establish neural construct validity for RiSE. This multisite, case-control, cross-sectional fMRI study was conducted between November 1, 2010, and May 30, 2012, at 5 Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia sites. The final sample included 52 outpatients with clinically stable schizophrenia and 57 demographically matched healthy control participants. Data analysis was performed between February 1, 2013, and May 30, 2014. Behavioral performance speed and accuracy (d') on item recognition and associative recognition tasks. Voxelwise statistical parametric maps for a priori MTL and PFC regions of interest to test activation differences between relational and item-specific memory during encoding and retrieval. Item recognition was disproportionately impaired in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy control participants following relational encoding (F1,107 = 4.7; P = .03). The differential deficit was accompanied by reduced dorsolateral PFC activation during relational encoding in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy control participants (z > 2.3; P < .05 corrected). Retrieval success (hits > misses) was associated with hippocampal activation in healthy control participants during relational item recognition and associative recognition conditions, and hippocampal activation was specifically reduced in schizophrenia for recognition of relational but not item-specific information (z > 2.3; P < .05 corrected). In this unique, multisite fMRI study, results in the healthy control group supported RiSE construct validity by revealing expected memory effects in PFC and MTL subregions during encoding and retrieval. Comparison of schizophrenic and healthy control participants revealed disproportionate memory deficits in schizophrenia for relational vs item-specific information, accompanied by regionally and functionally specific deficits in dorsolateral PFC and hippocampal activation.
    JAMA Psychiatry 07/2015; DOI:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0276 · 12.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Visual perceptual organization impairments in schizophrenia (SCZ) are well established, but their neurobiological bases are not. The current study used the previously validated Jittered Orientation Visual Integration (JOVI) task, along with fMRI, to examine the neural basis of contour integration (CI), and its impairment in SCZ. CI is an aspect of perceptual organization in which multiple distinct oriented elements are grouped into a single continuous boundary or shape. On the JOVI, five levels of orientational jitter were added to non-contiguous closed contour elements embedded in background noise to progressively increase the difficulty in perceiving contour elements as left- or right-pointing ovals. Multi-site fMRI data were analyzed for 56 healthy control subjects and 47 people with SCZ. SCZ patients demonstrated poorer CI, and this was associated with increased activation in regions involved in global shape processing and visual attention, namely the lateral occipital complex and superior parietal lobules. There were no brain regions where controls demonstrated more activation than patients. CI impairment in this sample of outpatients with SCZ was related to excessive activation in regions associated with object processing and allocation of visual-spatial attention. There was no evidence for basic impairments in contour element linking in the fMRI data. The latter may be limited to poor outcome patients, where more extensive structural and functional changes in the occipital lobe have been observed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuropsychologia 07/2015; 75. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.07.003 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impairments in cognitive emotion regulation (CER) have been linked to functional neural abnormalities and the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of CER in samples with depression. As CER develops in childhood, understanding dysfunctional CER-related alterations in brain function during this period could advance knowledge of the developmental psychopathology of MDD. This study tested whether neural activity in brain regions known to support cognitive reappraisal differed between healthy 7- to 15-year-old children and same-age peers with a history of MDD (MDD-ever). A total of 64 children participated in this event-related fMRI study, which used a developmentally appropriate and validated fMRI reappraisal task. Children were instructed to passively view sad or neutral images and to decrease negative emotions using cognitive reappraisal. MDD-ever and healthy children showed similar patterns of cortical activation during reappraisal, but with a significant difference found in 1 key CER region, the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In addition, individual differences in CER were associated with left IFG activity during reappraisal. Alterations in the neurocircuitry of reappraisal are evident in children with a depression history compared to healthy controls. The finding that MDD-ever children showed reappraisal-related neural responses in many regions similar to healthy controls has clinical implications. Findings suggest that identification of alterations in reappraisal in children with remitted depression, for whom much, although not all, of the neural circuitry remains intact, may be an important window of opportunity for intervention. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 07/2015; 54(9). DOI:10.1016/j.jaac.2015.06.014 · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fractional anisotropy (FA) analysis of diffusion tensor-images (DTI) has yielded inconsistent abnormalities in schizophrenia (SZ). Inconsistencies may arise from averaging heterogeneous groups of patients. Here we investigate whether SZ is a heterogeneous group of disorders distinguished by distinct patterns of FA reductions. We developed a generalized factorization method (GFM) to identify biclusters (i.e., subsets of subjects associated with a subset of particular characteristics, such as low FA in specific regions). GFM appropriately assembles a collection of unsupervised techniques with Non-negative Matrix Factorization to generate biclusters, rather than averaging across all subjects and all their characteristics. DTI tract-based spatial statistics images, which output is the locally maximal FA projected onto the group white matter skeleton, were analyzed in 47 SZ and 36 healthy subjects, identifying 8 biclusters. The mean FA of the voxels of each bicluster was significantly different from those of other SZ subjects or 36 healthy controls. The eight biclusters were organized into four more general patterns of low FA in specific regions: 1) genu of corpus callosum (GCC), 2) fornix (FX)+external capsule (EC), 3) splenium of CC (SCC)+retrolenticular limb (RLIC)+posterior limb (PLIC) of the internal capsule, and 4) anterior limb of the internal capsule. These patterns were significantly associated with particular clinical features: Pattern 1 (GCC) with bizarre behavior, pattern 2 (FX+EC) with prominent delusions, and pattern 3 (SCC+RLIC+PLIC) with negative symptoms including disorganized speech. The uncovered patterns suggest that SZ is a heterogeneous group of disorders that can be distinguished by different patterns of FA reductions associated with distinct clinical features. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    NeuroImage 07/2015; 120. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.06.083 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impairments in willingness to exert effort contribute to the motivational deficits characteristic of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of 5 new or adapted paradigms to determine their suitability for use in clinical trials of schizophrenia. This study included 94 clinically stable participants with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls. The effort-based decision-making battery was administered twice to the schizophrenia group (baseline, 4-week retest) and once to the control group. The 5 paradigms included 1 that assesses cognitive effort, 1 perceptual effort, and 3 that assess physical effort. Each paradigm was evaluated on (1) patient vs healthy control group differences, (2) test-retest reliability, (3) utility as a repeated measure (ie, practice effects), and (4) tolerability. The 5 paradigms showed varying psychometric strengths and weaknesses. The Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task showed the best reliability and utility as a repeated measure, while the Grip Effort Task had significant patient-control group differences, and superior tolerability and administration duration. The other paradigms showed weaker psychometric characteristics in their current forms. These findings highlight challenges in adapting effort and motivation paradigms for use in clinical trials. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2015.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 07/2015; DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbv089 · 8.61 Impact Factor
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    Yusun Chung · Deanna Barch
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    ABSTRACT: Research has shown that reward incentives improve cognitive control in motivationally salient situations. Much previous work in this domain has focused on incentive cue-related activity in a number of brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum. However, the more sustained changes in functional brain activity during task contexts with incentives have been relatively less explored. Here, we examined both the cue-related and sustained effects of rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) on cognitive control, with a particular focus on the roles of the DLPFC and striatum, using a mixed state-item design. We investigated whether variability in a reward-related trait (i.e., anhedonia) would modulate the sustained and/or the cue-related transient aspects of motivated cognitive control. Twenty-seven healthy individuals performed a modified response conflict task (Padmala & Pessoa, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3419-3432, 2011) during scanning, in which participants were asked to categorize images as either houses or buildings with either congruent or incongruent overlaid words. Participants performed a baseline condition without knowledge of monetary incentives, followed by reward blocks with monetary incentives on some cued trials (reward cues) for fast and correct responses. We replicated previous work by showing increases in both sustained activity during reward versus baseline blocks and transient. cue-related activity in bilateral DLPFC and the basal ganglia. Importantly, healthy individuals with higher anhedonia showed less of an increase in trial-by-trial activity as a function of reward in the lateral globus pallidus. Together, our results suggest that reduced hedonic experience may be related to abnormality of reward cue-related activity in the basal ganglia.
    Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 06/2015; DOI:10.3758/s13415-015-0366-3 · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • Yu Sun Chung · Deanna Barch
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    ABSTRACT: Research has shown that reward incentives improve cognitive control in motivationally salient situations. Much previous work in this domain has focused on incentive cue-related activity in a number of brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum. However, the more sustained changes in functional brain activity during task contexts with incentives have been relatively less explored. Here, we examined both the cue-related and sustained effects of rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) on cognitive control, with a particular focus on the roles of the DLPFC and striatum, using a mixed state-item design. We investigated whether variability in a reward-related trait (i.e., anhedonia) would modulate the sustained and/or the cue-related transient aspects of motivated cognitive control. Twenty-seven healthy individuals performed a modified response conflict task (Padmala & Pessoa, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3419-3432, 2011) during scanning, in which participants were asked to categorize images as either houses or buildings with either congruent or incongruent overlaid words. Participants performed a baseline condition without knowledge of monetary incentives, followed by reward blocks with monetary incentives on some cued trials (reward cues) for fast and correct responses. We replicated previous work by showing increases in both sustained activity during reward versus baseline blocks and transient. cue-related activity in bilateral DLPFC and the basal ganglia. Importantly, healthy individuals with higher anhedonia showed less of an increase in trial-by-trial activity as a function of reward in the lateral globus pallidus. Together, our results suggest that reduced hedonic experience may be related to abnormality of reward cue-related activity in the basal ganglia.
    Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 06/2015; · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • Michael F Green · William P Horan · Deanna M Barch · James M Gold
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    ABSTRACT: Because negative symptoms, including motivational deficits, are a critical unmet need in schizophrenia, there are many ongoing efforts to develop new pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for these impairments. A common challenge of these studies involves how to evaluate and select optimal endpoints. Currently, all studies of negative symptoms in schizophrenia depend on ratings from clinician-conducted interviews. Effort-based decision-making tasks may provide a more objective, and perhaps more sensitive, endpoint for trials of motivational negative symptoms. These tasks assess how much effort a person is willing to exert for a given level of reward. This area has been well-studied with animal models of effort and motivation, and effort-based decision-making tasks have been adapted for use in humans. Very recently, several studies have examined physical and cognitive types of effort-based decision-making tasks in cross-sectional studies of schizophrenia, providing evidence for effort-related impairment in this illness. This article covers the theoretical background on effort-based decision-making tasks to provide a context for the subsequent articles in this theme section. In addition, we review the existing literature of studies using these tasks in schizophrenia, consider some practical challenges in adapting them for use in clinical trials in schizophrenia, and discuss interpretive challenges that are central to these types of tasks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbv071 · 8.61 Impact Factor
  • Adam J Culbreth · James M Gold · Roshan Cools · Deanna M Barch
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    ABSTRACT: Reinforcement learning deficits have been associated with schizophrenia (SZ). However, the pathophysiology that gives rise to these abnormalities remains unclear. To address this question, SZ patients (N = 58) and controls (CN; N = 36) completed a probabilistic reversal-learning paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. During the task, participants choose between 2 stimuli. Initially, 1 stimulus was frequently rewarded (80%); the other was infrequently rewarded (20%). The reward contingencies reversed periodically because the participant learned the more rewarded stimulus. The results indicated that SZ patients achieved fewer reversals than CN, and demonstrated decreased winstay-loseshift decision-making behavior. On loseshift compared to winstay trials, SZ patients showed reduced Blood Oxygen Level Dependent activation compared to CN in a network of brain regions widely associated with cognitive control, and striatal regions. Importantly, relationships between group membership and behavior were mediated by alterations in the activity of cognitive control regions, but not striatum. These findings indicate an important role for the cognitive control network in mediating the use and updating of value representations in SZ. Such results provide biological targets for further inquiry because researchers attempt to better characterize decision-making neural circuitry in SZ as a means to discover new pathways for interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbv075 · 8.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced reward responsiveness and altered response to loss of reward are observed in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) and adolescents at increased risk for MDD based on family history. However, it is unclear whether altered behavioral responsiveness to reward/loss is a lifelong marker of MDD risk, which is evident before the normative adolescent increase in incentive responding. Healthy 7- to 10-year-old children of mothers with MDD (high risk: n = 27) or without MDD (low risk: n = 42) performed 2 signal detection tasks assessing response bias toward reward (approach) and away from loss (avoidance). Differences in approach/avoidance were related to MDD risk, child general depressive symptoms (maternal report), child-reported anhedonic symptoms, and child-reported negative mood symptoms via repeated-measures analysis of variance. MDD risk did not significantly relate to gain approach or loss avoidance. However, within high-risk children, higher numbers of maternal depressive episodes predicted blunted loss avoidance. Blunted gain approach was related to elevated anhedonic symptoms, whereas enhanced loss avoidance was related to elevated negative mood. Elevated negative mood was further related to blunted gain approach in high-risk children but related to enhanced gain approach in low-risk children. In children, individual differences in specific depressive symptoms and recurrence of maternal depression significantly predicted gain approach/loss avoidance, but the presence/absence of maternal MDD did not. Child depressive symptoms characterized by low positive affect (anhedonia) were related to blunted gain responsiveness, whereas elevated depressed/negative mood was related to enhanced loss responsiveness. Findings suggest that relations between gain approach and negative mood may be an important distinction between those at high versus low risk for MDD. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 06/2015; 54(8). DOI:10.1016/j.jaac.2015.05.010 · 6.35 Impact Factor
  • David C. Van Essen · Deanna M. Barch
    06/2015; 14(2). DOI:10.1002/wps.20228
  • Deanna M Barch · David Pagliaccio · Katherine Luking
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    ABSTRACT: Motivational and hedonic impairments are core aspects of a variety of types of psychopathology. These impairments cut across diagnostic categories and may be critical to understanding major aspects of the functional impairments accompanying psychopathology . Given the centrality of motivational and hedonic systems to psychopathology, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative includes a "positive valence" systems domain that outlines a number of constructs that may be key to understanding the nature and mechanisms of motivational and hedonic impairments in psychopathology. These component constructs include initial responsiveness to reward, reward anticipation or expectancy, incentive or reinforcement learning, effort valuation, and action selection. Here, we review behavioral and neuroimaging studies providing evidence for impairments in these constructs in individuals with psychosis versus in individuals with depressive pathology. There are important differences in the nature of reward-related and hedonic deficits associated with psychosis versus depression that have major implications for our understanding of etiology and treatment development. In particular, the literature strongly suggests the presence of impairments in in-the-moment hedonics or "liking" in individuals with depressive pathology, particularly among those who experience anhedonia. Such deficits may propagate forward and contribute to impairments in other constructs that are dependent on hedonic responses, such as anticipation, learning, effort, and action selection. Such hedonic impairments could reflect alterations in dopamine and/or opioid signaling in the striatum related to depression or specifically to anhedonia in depressed populations. In contrast, the literature points to relatively intact in-the-moment hedonic processing in psychosis, but provides much evidence for impairments in other components involved in translating reward to action selection. Particularly, individuals with schizophrenia exhibit altered reward prediction and associated striatal and prefrontal activation, impaired reward learning, and impaired reward-modulated action selection.
    05/2015; DOI:10.1007/7854_2015_376
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    ABSTRACT: Growing evidence suggests that coordinated activity within specific functional brain networks supports cognitive ability, and that abnormalities in brain connectivity may underlie cognitive deficits observed in neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia. Two functional networks, the fronto-parietal network (FPN) and cingulo-opercular network (CON), are hypothesized to support top-down control of executive functioning, and have therefore emerged as potential drivers of cognitive impairment in disease-states. Graph theoretic analyses of functional connectivity data can characterize network topology, allowing the relationships between cognitive ability and network integrity to be examined. In the current study we applied graph analysis to pseudo-resting state data in 54 healthy subjects and 46 schizophrenia patients, and measured overall cognitive ability as the shared variance in performance from tasks of episodic memory, verbal memory, processing speed, goal maintenance, and visual integration. We found that, across all participants, cognitive ability was significantly positively associated with the local and global efficiency of the whole brain, FPN, and CON, but not with the efficiency of a comparison network, the auditory network. Additionally, the participation coefficient of the right anterior insula, a major hub within the CON, significantly predicted cognition, and this relationship was independent of CON global efficiency. Surprisingly, we did not observe strong evidence for group differences in any of our network metrics. These data suggest that functionally efficient task control networks support better cognitive ability in both health and schizophrenia, and that the right anterior insula may be a particularly important hub for successful cognitive performance across both health and disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuropsychologia 05/2015; 73. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.05.006 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Alan Anticevic · John D Murray · Deanna M Barch
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is an illness with a remarkably complex symptom presentation that has thus far been out of reach of neuroscientific explanation. This presents a fundamental problem for developing better treatments that target specific symptoms or root causes. One promising path forward is the incorporation of computational neuroscience, which provides a way to formalize experimental observations and, in turn, make theoretical predictions for subsequent studies. We review three complementary approaches: (a) biophysically based models developed to test cellular-level and synaptic hypotheses, (b) connectionist models that give insight into large-scale neural-system-level disturbances in schizophrenia, and (c) models that provide a formalism for observations of complex behavioral deficits, such as negative symptoms. We argue that harnessing all of these modeling approaches represents a productive approach for better understanding schizophrenia. We discuss how blending these approaches can allow the field to progress toward a more comprehensive understanding of schizophrenia and its treatment.
    05/2015; 3(3). DOI:10.1177/2167702614562041
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    ABSTRACT: ConnectomeDB is a database for housing and disseminating data about human brain structure, function, and connectivity, along with associated behavioral and demographic data. It is the main archive and dissemination platform for data collected under the WU-Minn consortium Human Connectome Project. Additional connectome-style study data is and will be made available in the database under current and future projects, including the Connectome Coordination Facility. The database currently includes multiple modalities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalograpy (MEG) data along with associated behavioral data. MRI modalities include structural, task, resting state and diffusion. MEG modalities include resting state and task. Imaging data includes unprocessed, minimally preprocessed and analysis data. Imaging data and much of the behavioral data is publicly available, subject to acceptance of data use terms, while access to some sensitive behavioral data is restricted to qualified investigators under a more stringent set of terms. ConnectomeDB is the public side of the WU-Minn HCP database platform. As such, it is geared towards public distribution, with a web-based user interface designed to guide users to the optimal set of data for their needs and a robust backend mechanism based on the commercial Aspera fasp service to enable high speed downloads. HCP data is also available via direct shipment of hard drives and Amazon S3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    NeuroImage 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.04.046 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is often characterized by impaired emotional functioning, which can vary drastically based on the cluster of symptoms exhibited and symptom severity. This study examined the relationship between the two gateway symptoms for diagnosis of MDD, anhedonia and depressed mood, and emotional reactivity within a large non-clinical sample. Participants (N=107) were asked to complete an Emotional Picture Rating Task (EPRT). In the EPRT participants rated the valence and arousal level of emotional responses to 100 pictures (40 negative, 20 neutral, and 40 positive pictures) from the International Affective Picture System. Participants also completed self-report questionnaires assessing hedonic capacity, general affect, and depressive symptomology. We found that elevated levels of anhedonia (i.e. decreased hedonic capacity) predicted blunted emotional reactivity to both positive (p < 0.001) and negative (p < 0.001) pictures, while elevated depressive symptoms predicted potentiated negative emotional reactivity to negative pictures (p = 0.017). These findings are consistent with literature suggesting depressive symptoms relate to emotional processing, but extend this literature by suggesting that different types of depressive symptoms, anhedonia and depressed mood, affect emotional processing in different ways. Future studies taking such a dimensional approach and including different symptoms as predictors of emotional function may help rectify inconsistencies in the MDD literature and the heterogeneity in behavioral manifestations of mood pathology.
    2nd Annual Conference of the Society for Affective Science, Oakland, CA; 04/2015
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    ABSTRACT: The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) is a key center of affect regulation and processing, fundamental aspects of emotional competence which are disrupted in mood disorders. Structural alterations of VMPFC have consistently been observed in adult major depression and are associated with depression severity, yet it is unknown whether young children with depression demonstrate similar abnormalities. We investigated cortical thickness differences in the VMPFC of children with a history of preschool-onset depression (PO-MDD). Participants in a longitudinal study of PO-MDD underwent structural brain imaging between the ages of 7 and 12 years. Using local cortical distance metrics, cortical thickness of the VMPFC was compared in children with and without a history of PO-MDD. Children previously diagnosed with PO-MDD (n=34) had significantly thinner right VMPFC vs. children without a history of PO-MDD [(n=95); F(1,126)=5.97, (p=.016)]. This effect was specific to children with a history of PO-MDD vs. other psychiatric conditions and was independent of comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorders. Decreases in right VMPFC thickness were predicted by preschool depressive symptoms independent of depressive symptoms in school age. Results are cross-sectional and cannot distinguish whether thinner right VMPFC represents a vulnerability marker of MDD, consequence of MDD, or marker of remitted MDD. Longitudinal imaging is needed to contextualize how this difference relates to normative VMPFC structural development. Onset of depression at preschool age was associated with decreased cortical thickness of right VMPFC. This finding implicates the VMPFC in depression from very early stages of brain development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 03/2015; 180:79-86. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.03.033 · 3.71 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

22k Citations
1,942.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2015
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Psychology
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2013
    • The Psychonomic Society
      Society Hill, New Jersey, United States
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Duke University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME)
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • University of Missouri
      • Department of Psychological Sciences
      Columbia, MO, United States
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Psychology
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1997–2005
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Missouri - St. Louis
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States
    • Washington School of Psychiatry
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2001
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      • Department of Psychology
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 1994–1999
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Psychology
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
  • 1995–1997
    • Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States