Leonardo L P Macedo

Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, Federal District, Brazil

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Publications (21)50.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: α-Amylases are common enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing starch. Insect-pests, whose larvae develop in seeds, rely obligatorily on α-amylase activity to digest starch, as their major food source. Considering the relevance of insect α-amylases and the natural α-amylase inhibitors present in seeds to protect from insect damage, we report here the molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the full-length AmyHha cDNA of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, a major insect-pest of coffee crops. The AmyHha sequence has 1,879bp, containing a 1,458bp open reading frame, which encodes a predicted protein with 485 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular mass of 51.2kDa. The deduced protein showed 55-79% identity to other insect α-amylases, including Anthonomus grandis, Ips typographus and Sytophilus oryzae α-amylases. In depth analysis revealed that the highly conserved three amino acid residues (Asp184, Glu220, and Asp285), which compose the catalytic site are also presented in AmyHha amylase. The AmyHha gene seems to be a single copy in the haploid genome and AmyHha transcription levels was found higher in L2 larvae and adult insects, both corresponding to major feeding phases. Modeling of the AmyHha predicted protein uncovered striking structural similarities to the Tenebrio molitor α-amylase also displaying the same amino acid residues involved in enzyme catalysis (Asp184, Glu220 and Asp285). Since AmyHha gene was mostly transcribed in the intestinal tract of H. hampei larvae, the cognate α-amylase could be considered a high valuable target to coffee bean insect control by biotechnological strategies.
    Gene 09/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a gram-positive spore-forming soil bacterium that is distributed worldwide. Originally recognized as a pathogen of the silkworm, several strains were found on epizootic events in insect pests. In the 1960s, Bt began to be successfully used to control insect pests in agriculture, particularly because of its specificity, which reflects directly on their lack of cytotoxicity to human health, non-target organisms and the environment. Since the introduction of transgenic plants expressing Bt genes in the mid-1980s, numerous methodologies have been used to search for and improve toxins derived from native Bt strains. These improvements directly influence the increase in productivity and the decreased use of chemical insecticides on Bt-crops. Recently, DNA shuffling and in silico evaluations are emerging as promising tools for the development and exploration of mutant Bt toxins with enhanced activity against target insect pests. In this report, we describe natural and in vitro evolution of Cry toxins, as well as their relevance in the mechanism of action for insect control. Moreover, the use of DNA shuffling to improve two Bt toxins will be discussed together with in silico analyses of the generated mutations to evaluate their potential effect on protein structure and cytotoxicity.
    Toxins. 01/2014; 6(8):2393-2423.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aims to provide new in vitro and in vivo biochemical information about a novel Kunitz trypsin inhibitor purified from Piptadenia moniliformis seeds. The purification process was performed using TCA precipitation, Trypsin-Sepharose and reversed-phase C18 HPLC chromatography. The inhibitor, named PmTKI, showed an apparent molecular mass of around 19 kDa, visualized by SDS-PAGE, which was confirmed by mass spectrometry MALDI-ToF demonstrating a monoisotopic mass of 19.296 Da. The inhibitor was in vitro active against trypsin, chymotrypsin and papain. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were performed aiming to understand the inhibition mode of PmTKI, which competitively inhibits the target enzyme, presenting Ki values of 1.5 × 10(-8) and 3.0 × 10(-1) M against trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively. Also, the inhibitory activity was assayed at different pH ranges, temperatures and reduction environments (DTT). The inhibitor was stable in all conditions maintaining an 80% residual activity. N-terminal sequence was obtained by Edman degradation and the primary sequence presented identity with members of Kunitz-type inhibitors from the same subfamily. Finally after biochemical characterization the inhibitory effect was evaluated in vitro on insect digestive enzymes from different orders, PmTKI demonstrated remarkable activity against enzymes from Anthonomus grandis (90%), Plodia interpuncptella (60%), and Ceratitis capitata (70%). Furthermore, in vivo bioinsecticidal assays of C. capitata larvae were also performed and the concentration of PmTKI (w/w) in an artificial diet required to LD50 and ED50 larvae were 0.37 and 0.3% respectively. In summary, data reported here shown the biotechnological potential of PmTKI for insect pest control.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 05/2013; 70C:61-68. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e85079. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita causes serious damage and yield losses in numerous important crops worldwide. Analysis of the M. incognita genome revealed a vast number of proteases belonging to five different catalytic classes. Several reports indicate that M. incognita proteases could play important roles in nematode parasitism, besides their function in ordinary digestion of giant cell contents for feeding. The precise roles of these proteins during parasitism however are still unknown, making them interesting targets for gene silencing to address protein function. In this study we have knocked-down an aspartic (Mi-asp-1), a serine (Mi-ser-1) and a cysteine protease (Mi-cpl-1) by RNAi interference to get an insight into the function of these enzymes during a host/nematode interaction. Tobacco lines expressing dsRNA for Mi-ser-1 (dsSER), Mi-cpl-1 (dsCPL) and for the three genes together (dsFusion) were generated. Histological analysis of galls did not show clear differences in giant cell morphology. Interestingly, nematodes that infected plants expressing dsRNA for proteases produced a reduced number of eggs. In addition, nematode progeny matured in dsSER plants had reduced success in egg hatching, while progeny resulting from dsCPL and dsFusion plants were less successful to infect wild-type host plants. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed a reduction in transcripts for Mi-cpl-1 and Mi-ser-1 proteases. Our results indicate that these proteases are possibly involved in different processes throughout nematode development, like nutrition, reproduction and embryogenesis. A better understanding of nematode proteases and their possible role during a plant-nematode interaction might help to develop new tools for phytonematode control.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e85364. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus) is a serious sugarcane pest in Americas whose endophytic lifestyle hampers effective chemical and biological controls. Therefore, development of alternative control methods is extremely important. Envisaging development of transgenic plants resistant to this pest, we investigated the effect of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry protein Cry1Ia12synth (truncated protein lacking C-terminus with plant codon usage) and variants against T. l. licus. cry1Ia12synth gene was used to generate mutated variants, which were screened for toxicity toward T. l. licus. For that purpose, an innovative technique combining cry gene shuffling with phage-display was used to build a combinatorial library comprising 1.97x10(5) Cry1Ia12synth variants. Screening of this library for variants binding to T. l. licus Brush Border Midgut Vesicles led to the identification of hundreds of clones, out of which 30 were randomly chosen for toxicity testing. Bioassays revealed four variants exhibiting activity against T. l. licus as compared to the non-toxic Cry1Ia12synth. Eight single substitutions sites were found in these active variants. Based on theoretical molecular modelling, the probable implications of these mutations are discussed. Therefore, we have four genes encoding Cry1Ia12synth variants active against T. l. licus promising for future development of resistant transgenic sugarcane lines.
    Journal of Biotechnology 11/2009; 145(3):215-21. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two trypsin inhibitors (called PdKI-3.1 and PdKI-3.2) were purified from the seeds of the Pithecellobium dumosum tree. Inhibitors were obtained by TCA precipitation, affinity chromatography on Trypsin-Sepharose and reversed-phase-HPLC. SDS-PAGE analysis with or without reducing agent showed that they are a single polypeptide chain, and MALDI-TOF analysis determined molecular masses of 19696.96 and 19696.36 Da, respectively. The N-terminal sequence of both inhibitors showed strong identity to the Kunitz family trypsin inhibitors. They were stable over a wide pH (2-9) and temperature (37 to 100 degrees C) range. These inhibitors reduced over 84% of trypsin activity with inhibition constant (Ki) of 4.20 x 10(-8) and 2.88 x 10(-8) M, and also moderately inhibited papain activity, a cysteine proteinase. PdKI-3.1 and PdKI-3.2 mainly inhibited digestive enzymes from Plodia interpunctella, Zabrotes subfasciatus and Ceratitis capitata guts. Results show that both inhibitors are members of the Kunitz-inhibitor family and that they affect the digestive enzyme larvae of diverse orders, indicating a potential insect antifeedant.
    Protein and Peptide Letters 01/2009; 16(12):1526-32. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The digestive system of P. interpunctella was characterized during its larval development to determine possible targets for the action of proteinaceous enzyme inhibitors and chitin-binding proteins. High proteolytic activities using azocasein at pH 9.5 as substrate were found. These specific enzymatic activities (AU/mg protein) showed an increase in the homogenate of third instar larvae, and when analyzed by individual larvae (AU/gut), the increase was in sixth instar larvae. Zymograms showed two bands corresponding to those enzymatic activities, which were inhibited by TLCK and SBTI, indicating that the larvae mainly used serine proteinases at pH 9.5 in their digestive process. The presence of a peritrophic membrane in the larvae was confirmed by chemical testing and light microscopy. In a bioassay, P. interpunctella was not susceptible to the soybean trypsin inhibitor, which did not affect larval mass and mortality, likely due to the weak association with its target digestive enzyme. EvV (Erythrina velutina vicilin), when added to the diet, affected mortality (LD50 0.23%) and larval mass (ED50 0.27%). This effect was associated with EvV-binding to the peritrophic membrane, as seen by immunolocalization. EvV was susceptible to gut enzymes and after the digestion process, released an immunoreactive fragment that was bound to the peritrophic matrix, which probably was responsible for the action of EvV.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2008; 56(17):7738-45. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chitin-binding vicilin from Erythrina velutina seeds was purified by ammonium sulfate followed by affinity chromatography on a chitin column and gel filtration on Superose-6-10-300-GL. The Erythrina velutina vicilin, called EvV, is a tetrameric glycoprotein composed of 1.85% carbohydrates and M r of 216.6 kDa, consisting of two subunits of M r of 54.8 and two subunits of M r of 50.8 kDa. The EvV homogeneity was confirmed in native PAGE where it was observed to be a unique acid-protein band with slow mobility in this gel. Effect of EvV on C. capitata larvae was examined by bioassay and its mechanism of action was determined by immunodetection techniques and fluorescence localization in chitin structures that are present in C. capitata digestory system. EvV when added to diet caused strong effect on mortality (ED50 of 0.14%) and larval mass (WD50 of 0.12%). These deleterious effects were associated to the binding to chitin structures present in peritrophic membrane and to gut epithelial cells, and its low digestibility in C. capitata digestive tract. These results are the first demonstration of a proteinaceous bioinsecticide from plant origin effective against C. capitata larvae. EvV may be part of the pest management programs or an alternative in plant improvement program.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2008; 56(3):802-8. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The digestive system of P. interpunctella was characterized during its larval development to determination of carbohydrases using disaccharides (sucrose and maltose) and polysaccharides (starch and inulin) as substrate. At 6(th) instar larval, Invertase>alpha-amylase> maltase activities peaks were observed. Invertase was fractionated with acetone and isolated. The Invertase was 485.5 fold purified by Sephacryl S-200 and DEAE-Sephadex. Its kinetic parameters were K(m) of 6.6 mM, V(max) of 0.48, pH optimum of 5.5 and temperature optimum of 30 degrees C. This enzyme was activated by CaCl(2) and inhibited by EDTA. When analyzed by SDS-PAGE it showed one band of M(r) 34 kDa. The understanding of the digestive system of P. interpunctella could be a key step in the design of bioinsecticides.
    Protein and Peptide Letters 02/2008; 15(9):1022-6. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Erythrina velutina vicilin, EvV, is a dimeric glycoprotein with Mr of 124.6 kDa. EvV was tested for anti-insect activity against bean bruchid larvae. EvV had LD(50) of 0.10% and ED(50) of 0.14% for Z. subfasciatus and LD(50) of 0.26% and ED(50) of 0.19% for C. maculatus. EvV was not digested by bean larvae enzymes until 12 h of incubation, and at 24 h EvV was more resistant to Z. subfasciatus enzymes.
    Protein and Peptide Letters 02/2008; 15(3):270-4. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A trypsin inhibitor, PdKI, was purified from Pithecellobium dumosum seeds by TCA precipitation, trypsin-sepharose chromatography, and reversed-phase-HPLC. PdKI was purified 217.6-fold and recovered 4.7%. SDS-PAGE showed that PdKI is a single polypeptide chain of 18.9 kDa and 19.7 kDa by MALDI-TOF. The inhibition on trypsin was stable in the pH range 2-10 and at a temperature of 50 degrees C. The Ki values were 3.56 x 10(-8)and 7.61 x 10(-7) M with competitive and noncompetitive inhibition mechanisms for trypsin and papain, respectively. The N-terminal sequence identified with members of Kunitz-type inhibitors from the Mimosoideae and Caesalpinoideae subfamilies. PdKI was effective against digestive proteinase from Zabrotes subfasciatus, Ceratitis capitata, Plodia interpunctella, Alabama argillaceae, and Callosobruchus maculatus, with 69, 66, 44, 38, and 29% inhibition, respectively. Results support that PdKI is a member of the Kunitz inhibitor family and its insecticidal properties indicate a potent insect antifeedant.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2007; 55(18):7342-9. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chitin-binding vicilin from Enterolobium contortisiliquum seeds was purified by ammonium sulfate followed by gel filtration on Sephacryl 300-SH and on Sephacryl 200-SH. The vicilin, called EcV, is a dimeric glycoprotein composed of 1.03% carbohydrates and a Mr of 151 kDa, consisting of two subunits of Mr of 66.2 and 63.8 kDa. The EcV homogeneity was confirmed in a PAGE where it was observed to be a unique acid protein band with slow mobility in this native gel. E. contortisiliquum vicilin (EcV) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae and for phytopathogenic fungi, F. solani and C. lindemuntianum. EcV was very effective against both bruchids, producing 50% mortality for Z. subfasciatus at an LD50 of 0.43% and affected 50% of the larvae mass with an ED50 of 0.65%. In artificial diets given to C. maculatus, 50% of the larvae mass was affected with an ED50 of 1.03%, and larva mortality was 50% at LD50 of 1.11%. EcV was not digested by midgut homogenates of C. maculatus and Z. Subfasciatus until 12 h of incubation, and at 24 h EcV was more resistant to Z. subfasciatus larval proteases. The binding to chitin present in larvae gut associated to low EcV digestibility could explain its lethal effects. EcV also exerted an inhibitory effect on the germination of F. solani at concentrations of 10 and 20 microg mL-1. The effect of EcV on fungi is possibly due to binding to chitin-containing structures of the fungal cell wall.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2007; 55(2):260-6. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CvL, a lectin from the marine sponge Cliona varians was purified by acetone fractionation followed by Sepharose CL 4B affinity chromatography. CvL agglutinated papainized treated human erythrocytes with preference for type A erythrocytes. The lectin was strongly inhibited by monosaccharide d-galactose and disaccharide sucrose. CvL is a tetrameric glycoprotein of 28 kDa subunits linked by disulphide bridges with a molecular mass of 106 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 114 kDa by Sephacryl S300 gel filtration. The lectin was Ca2+ dependent, stable up to 60 degrees C for 60 min, with optimum pH of 7.5. CvL displays a cytotoxic effect on gram positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. However, CvL did not affect gram negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Leishmania chagasi promastigotes were agglutinated by CvL up to 2(8) titer. These findings are indicative of the physiological defense roles of CvL and its possible use in the antibiosis of bacteria and protozoa pathogenic.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A Molecular & Integrative Physiology 01/2007; 145(4):517-23. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Latex-producing plants are widespread in different habitats. Usually these plants secrete an endogenous milk-like fluid in a network of laticifer cells in which sub-cellular organelles intensively synthesize proteins and secondary metabolites. The biological importance of latexes is still unclear and accumulated evidences of their physiological role are still limited. Here laticifer proteins (LP) from Calotropis procera were assayed for insecticidal action against different crop pests in attempt to give new insights for the biological role of latexes. Diets containing 4% LP affected survival (LD50=4.61%) and decreased weight gain (ED50=3.07%) of third instars Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Third instars Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on diets containing 0.1% (w/w) of LP showed reduced body mass while survival was reduced (LD50=0.48%) only for insects grown on 0.5% LP-containing diets. Nonetheless, 1% LP was ineffective against third instars Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Diets containing 1% LP slightly diminished survival of Dysdercus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae) nymphs while 2% LP was more effective with consistent reduction in bodyweight (ED50=1.4%) observed at the 14th day. Digestive enzymes of gut extracts of D. peruvianus were unable to breakdown LP. On the contrary, heat treated LP was capable of reducing by 50% proteolysis of gut extracts using BANA as substrate suggesting presence of inhibitory activity of cysteine proteinases. Adults of D. peruvianus were not affected when grown in diets containing 1% of LP. Laticifer proteins were shown to possess chitin-binding proteins and chitinolytic activity. Lectin activity was not detected. Occurrence of cysteine proteinase activity already reported in C. procera latex combined with the activities described here could explain, at least in part, the deleterious effects observed.
    Plant Science - PLANT SCI. 01/2007; 173(3):349-357.
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    ABSTRACT: A novel trypsin-papain inhibitor, named PdKI-2, was purified from the seeds of Pithecelobium dumosum seeds by TCA precipitation, Trypsin-Sepharose chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. PdKI-2 had an M(r) of 18.1 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and was composed of a single polypeptide chain. The inhibition on trypsin was stable at pH range 2-10, temperature of 50 degrees C and had a K(i) value of 1.65 x 10(-8)M, with a competitive inhibition mechanism. PdKI-2 was also active to papain, a cysteine proteinase, and showed a noncompetitive inhibition mechanism and K(i) value of 5.1 x 10(-7)M. PdKI-2 was effective against digestive proteinase from bruchids Zabrotes subfasciatus and Callosobruchus maculatus; Dipteran Ceratitis capitata; Lepidopterans Plodia interpunctella and Alabama argillacea, with 74.5%, 70.0%, 70.3%, 48.7%, and 13.6% inhibition, respectively. Results support that PdKI-2 is a member of Kunitz-inhibitor family and its effect on digestive enzyme larvae from diverse orders indicated this protein as a potent insect antifeedant.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2007; 45(10-11):858-65. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The digestive system of Ceratitis capitata was characterized during its larval development and in the insect stage. Disaccharidases against maltose and sucrose were more evident in the 2nd and 3rd day of larval development and in the adult stage, respectively. Glycosil-hydrolyses with higher specific alpha-galactosidasic and beta-galactosidasic activities were detected in the 2nd and 3rd day of the larval stage, respectively. Specific proteolytic activities against azocasein showed an increase in the 4th and 5th day of the larval stage and in the adult stage. Specific hemoglobin activities were constant between 2nd and 6th day of the larval stage. The larvae used mainly serine proteinases, such as trypsin/chymotrypsin, and the adult insects only chymotrypsin-like enzymes in their digestive process. Two serine proteinases were separated from zymogram between the 4th and 5th day of larval development and in the adult stage. Effect of soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI, a serine proteinase inhibitor) on development of C. capitata was examined by bioassay. C. capitata was susceptible to SBTI which affected larval mass at ED50 3.01%.
    Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 08/2006; 36(7):561-9. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor was purified from Crotalaria pallida seeds by ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on immobilized trypsin-Sepharose and TCA precipitation. The trypsin inhibitor, named CpaTI, had M(r) of 32.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and was composed of two subunits with 27.7 and 5.6 kDa linked by disulfide bridges. CpaTI was stable at 50 degrees C and lost 40% of activity at 100 degrees C. CpaTI was also stable from pH 2 to 12 at 37 degrees C. CpaTI weakly inhibited chymotrypsin and elastase and its inhibition of papain, a cysteine proteinase, were indicative of its bi-functionality. CpaTI inhibited, in different degrees, digestive enzymes from Spodoptera frugiperda, Alabama argillacea, Plodiainterpunctella, Anthonomus grandis and Zabrotes subfasciatus guts. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of Callosobruchus maculatus and Ceratitis capitata to CpaTI was evaluated. C. maculatus and C. capitata enzymes were strongly susceptible, 74.4+/-15.8% and 100.0+/-7.3%, respectively, to CpaTI. When CpaTI was added to artificial diets and offered to both insect larvae, the results showed that C. maculatus was more susceptible to CpaTI with an LD(50) of 3.0 and ED(50) of 2.17%. C. capitata larvae were more resistant to CpaTI, in disagreement with the in vitro effects. The larvae were more affected at lower concentrations, causing 27% mortality and 44.4% mass decrease. The action was constant at 2-4% (w/w) with 15% mortality and 38% mass decrease.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2006; 43(12):1095-102. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2005; 53(11):4381-7. · 3.11 Impact Factor