[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 228) were used to evaluate effects of prepartum dietary energy source on postnatal growth and carcass composition of progeny in a 2 yr study. Starting at approximately 160 d of gestation, cows were fed diets consisting of 1 of 3 primary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried corn distillers grains (DG). The CN and DG diets were limit-fed to achieve similar energy intakes as cows fed HY. Following parturition, cows were fed a common diet, and managed as 1 group. Calves were weaned at an average of 185 ± 6 d of age, and backgrounded for 28 d. A subset of progeny (n = 134) was individually fed a common finishing diet until slaughter, when each calf reached 1.2 ± 0.05 cm of backfat. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted in year 2 on 4 calves/treatment after 41 and 111 d on the finishing diet (DOF). Calf birth weights were greater (P = 0.002) in calves from cows fed CN and DG than calves from cows fed HY, and weaning BW (P = 0.08) was lighter for calves from cows fed HY vs. CN. Receiving BW, final BW, and HCW were similar (P ≥ 0.16) among treatments. No difference (P ≥ 0.28) in ADG, morbidity, and mortality from birth to slaughter was observed among treatments. In response to a GTT, increased DOF resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.005) fasting insulin, faster glucose disappearance rate, and greater insulin:glucose area under the curve ratio. Glucose disappearance rate was greater (P = 0.01) in calves from cows fed CN than calves from cows fed HY or DG. A greater initial insulin response (P = 0.005) was observed in calves from cows fed CN or DG than calves fed HY. Carcass traits used to measure yield grade were similar (P ≥ 0.19) among treatments. Calves from dams fed CN had the lowest marbling score (P = 0.03) and intramuscular fat content (P = 0.07). These results indicate prepartum maternal dietary energy source may alter fetal adipose tissue development and insulin sensitivity resulting in long-term impacts on progeny's intramuscular fat deposition. These results also indicate that a greater number of days on a corn-based finishing diet increases insulin resistance in beef cattle.
Journal of Animal Science 09/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to determine if 2 doses of PGF(2α) (PGF) administered concurrently at controlled intravaginal drug release (CIDR) removal was an efficacious method for delivery of PGF in the 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. Postpartum beef cows (n = 2,465) from 13 herds in 8 states were enrolled in the 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol and assigned to receive either 2 doses of PGF (25 mg/dose) 8 h apart with the initial injection given at CIDR removal (8h-PGF): 2 doses (25 mg/dose) of PGF delivered in 2 injection sites, both administered at CIDR removal (Co-PGF): or a single 25-mg dose of PGF at CIDR removal (1x-PGF). Cows were fixed timed-artificially inseminated (FTAI) 72 h after CIDR removal concurrent with GnRH administration. Estrus-cycling status (54% cyclic) was determined by evaluation of progesterone in 2 blood samples collected before CIDR insertion. Determination of pregnancy was performed by transrectal ultrasonography 39 ± 0.1 d after TAI and at least 35 d after the conclusion of the breeding season. Fixed timed-AI pregnancy rates were greater (P < 0.05) for the 8h-PGF (55%) than the 1x-PGF (48%) treatment, with the Co-PGF (51%) treatment intermediate and not different (P > 0.05) from the other treatments. Contrast analysis demonstrated that cows receiving 50 mg of PGF (8h-PGF and Co-PGF) had greater (P < 0.05) FTAI pregnancy rates than those receiving 25 mg (1x-PGF). Pregnancy rates to FTAI were greater (P < 0.05) in cyclic (55%) than non-cyclic (47%) and greater (P < 0.05) in multiparous (≥ 3 yr of age; 54%; n = 1,940) than primiparous cows (40%; n = 525). Luteolysis following PGF treatment was assessed in a subset of cows (n = 277) and treatment tended (P = 0.09) to affect the proportion of cows having luteolysis. The percentage of cows that had luteolysis was least in the 1x-PGF treatment (89%) and greatest in the 8h-PGF treatment (97%), with the Co-PGF treatment (94%) being intermediate. Breeding season pregnancy rate (88%) did not differ (P > 0.05) among treatments but was greater (P < 0.01) in multiparous (90%) than primiparous (78%) cows. Across treatments, as BCS increased and days postpartum lengthened, FTAI and breeding season pregnancy rates were increased. In summary, 50 mg of PGF was required in the 5-d COS-ynch + CIDR protocol to maximize pregnancy rates; however, they did not differ when 50 mg of PGF was administered simultaneously with CIDR removal or split with 25 mg administered at 0 and 8 h after CIDR removal.
Journal of Animal Science 08/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of diet and feed additive on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and cattle destined for all natural markets. In Exp. 1, 48 Dorset × Hampshire lambs (initial BW 29.4 ± 0.1 kg) were used in a randomized complete block experiment to determine the effects of Aspergillus oryzae extract, Amaferm (AMF) supplementation (1 g/d) in an 85% concentrate diet on growth and carcass characteristics. Lambs were allotted to 12 pens (4 lambs per pen), and blocked by sex and BW. Lambs were fed until the average BW of each pen reached a target BW (55.4 kg for wethers and 50.0 kg for ewes), at which time the entire pen of lambs was slaughtered. Amaferm resulted in a greater (P=0.07) G:F. In Exp. 2, 168 crossbred steers (initial BW 300 ± 0.7 kg) were used in a trial with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to examine the effects of 0.5 g/d of Saccaromyces cervisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell SB (LEV), or 3 g/d of AMF with 2 corn sources, dry whole-shelled corn or high moisture corn, on growth and carcass characteristics. Neither LEV nor AMF improved (P>0.10) carcass characteristics compared with control or non-feed-supplemented steers. Addition of LEV to high-concentrate, corn-based diets did not improve (P>0.10) growth performance of feedlot steers. However, addition of AMF to a diet composed of dry whole-shelled corn resulted in an improvement (P<0.05) in G:F (0.208 vs. 0.194). Results indicate that at the amounts fed, AMF may improve G:F for lambs and steers fed dry corn-based finishing diets.
Journal of Animal Science 02/2011; 89(7):2257-64. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mature pregnant crossbred ewes (n = 90) were used in a randomized complete block design and assigned to 1 of 3 winter-feeding systems differing in primary feed source: haylage (HL), limit-fed corn (CN), or limit-fed dried distillers grains (DDGS). Effects of these winter-feeding strategies on ewe and lamb performance were determined. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1985) nutrient requirements during gestation and were fed from about d 60 of gestation until parturition. All ewes were fed a common diet postpartum. Every 2 wk during gestation, BW and BCS were collected and diets were adjusted to maintain similar BW gain for ewes fed CN and DDGS vs. HL. At 80 and 122 d of gestation, jugular blood samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h postfeeding to measure plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. At birth, 6 lambs per treatment were killed to measure body composition. At 28 ± 2 d postpartum, milk yield was measured. Lambs were weaned at 61 ± 4 d of age. During mid gestation (d 60 to 115), BW gain of ewes was similar among treatments; however, at d 115 of gestation ewes fed HL had a smaller (P = 0.04) BCS than ewes fed DDGS or CN. Plasma glucose concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.004) in ewes fed CN than in those fed HL or DDGS just before feeding on d 80 and 122 of gestation, whereas ewes fed DDGS vs. CN or HL had greater (P ≤ 0.04) plasma insulin concentrations at 3 h postfeeding. At parturition, ewe BW was greatest for DDGS, least for HL, and intermediate for CN (P ≤ 0.003). Ewes fed CN and DDGS had greater BCS at parturition than those fed HL, but by weaning, ewes fed DDGS had greater BCS (P ≤ 0.05) than those fed CN or HL. Birth BW tended (P = 0.09) to be heavier for lambs from ewes fed CN and DDGS than from those fed HL prepartum, but there was no difference (P = 0.19) due to ewe gestation diet on lamb BW at weaning. At birth, lamb muscle, bone, organ, and fat measures were not affected (P > 0.13) by treatment. Ewe milk production and lamb preweaning ADG were also similar (P > 0.44) among treatments. Prepartum dam winter feed source did not have detrimental effects on pre- or postpartum ewe performance, but altered prepartum maternal nutrient supply during gestation, which affected birth weight but not preweaning growth or mortality.
Journal of Animal Science 02/2011; 89(2):467-77. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mature pregnant crossbred ewes (n = 90) were used in a randomized complete block design experiment and were assigned to 1 of 3 winter-feeding systems differing in primary feed source: haylage (HL), limit-fed corn (CN), or limit-fed dried distillers grains (DDGS). Effects of these winter-feeding strategies on postweaning progeny performance were determined. Lamb progeny (n = 96) were weaned at 61 ± 4 d of age and fed a common high-concentrate diet. Lambs were assigned to feedlot pen (n = 18) based on dam mid-gestation pen. Growth rate, DMI, and ADG were determined for the first 40 d of the finishing period. At 96 ± 4 d of age, 1 wether lamb was randomly selected from each pen (n = 18) for a glucose tolerance test. The experiment was terminated, and lambs were slaughtered individually when they were determined to have achieved 0.6-cm 12th-rib fat thickness. After a 24-h chill, carcass data were collected and a 2.54-cm chop was removed from each lamb from the LM posterior to the 12th rib for ether extract analysis. Additional carcass measurements of bone, muscle, and fat from the shoulder, rack, loin, and leg were collected on 35 carcasses. At weaning, lamb BW was not different among treatments, whereas final BW tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for lambs from ewes fed DDGS and CN during gestation than from those fed HL. Overall lamb growth rate from birth to slaughter was not different among treatments. Lambs from ewes fed DDGS vs. CN or HL tended to have a greater initial insulin response (P = 0.09). Dressing percent was less (P = 0.04) in lambs from ewes fed DDGS, but no difference (P = 0.16) was detected in HCW among treatments. As expected, 12th rib fat thickness was similar among treatments, whereas LM area was largest to smallest (P = 0.05) in lambs from ewes fed CN, HL, and DDGS, respectively. Proportion of internal fat tended to be greatest to smallest (P = 0.06) in lambs from ewes fed DDGS, CN, and HL, respectively. Calculated boneless trimmed retail cuts percentage was less (P = 0.04) in lambs from ewes fed DDGS than CN or HL. Loin muscle weight as a percentage of wholesale cut tended (P = 0.10) to be greater in lambs from ewes fed CN and HL than DDGS, whereas other muscle, bone, and fat weights and proportions were similar (P > 0.24) among treatments. Prepartum diet during mid to late gestation of ewes altered postnatal fat and muscle deposition and may be associated with alterations in insulin sensitivity of progeny.
Journal of Animal Science 02/2011; 89(2):478-88. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Energy density in growing diets may affect carcass quality of cattle; however, few reports have described the impact of energy source. The objectives of this research were to determine effects of source [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) vs. corn] and amount (limit-fed to gain 0.9 vs. 1.4 kg of BW/d) of energy during the growing phase on feedlot performance and marbling. Angus-cross steers (144 head) were blocked by BW (average initial BW = 252 ± 36 kg), allotted within each block to 8 pens (6 steers/pen, 24 pens total), and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 feeding systems in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) 65% DDGS fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d, 2) 65% DDGS fed to gain 1.4 kg of BW/d, 3) 65% corn fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d, and 4) 65% corn fed to gain 1.4 kg of BW/d. Fecal grab samples were collected on d 52 of the growing phase to determine digestibility of DM, ADF, NDF, ether extract (EE), and CP. After the 98-d growing phase, all steers were fed the same finishing diet. Steers were slaughtered by pen when average BW within the pen was 544, 522, and 499 kg for the large, medium, and small BW blocks, respectively. Average daily gain and DMI differed (P<0.01) by design during the growing phase. Compared with the corn-based diets, digestibilities of DM, NDF, and EE were decreased (P<0.02) when DDGS-based diets were fed during the growing phase, whereas the digestibility of N was increased (P<0.01). The ADG was greatest (P=0.02) during the finishing phase for steers fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d initially, but source of energy during the growing phase did not affect (P=0.24) finishing phase ADG. Steers fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d during the growing phase also had less backfat (P=0.08), decreased USDA yield grades (P=0.03), and greater LM area (P<0.01) than steers fed to gain 1.4 kg of BW/d. There was an interaction between energy source and amount for marbling scores (P=0.02). Steers fed corn-based diets to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d during the growing phase had the most marbling, whereas those fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d on DDGS had the least marbling; the remaining feeding systems were intermediate. Overall ADG and DMI were affected (P < 0.06) by both source and amount of energy fed during the growing phase. Feeding the DDGS-based diet to achieve greater ADG during the growing phase increased marbling, whereas feeding the corn-based diet to increase ADG during the growing phase decreased marbling.
Journal of Animal Science 02/2011; 89(7):2273-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pork loins (N=53) were selected from a commercial packing plant to determine the influence of subjective marbling score on sensory attributes and eating quality properties. The pork loins were obtained from commercially raised hybrid barrows (average carcass weight=67.7 kg), originating from nine cooperating herds, and fed similar diets throughout the finishing period. Carcass quality measurements, trained sensory panel analyses, fatty acid composition, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) index, and cholesterol content were assessed and analyzed on the individual pork loins. With an increase in marbling level, there was a corresponding decrease in drip loss (P=0.049) and observed increases in pH (P=0.001), sensory tenderness (P=0.001), and sensory juiciness scores (P=0.017). The most notable results demonstrated that protein concentrations were reduced as marbling levels amplified (P=0.012). The increase in marbling score was observed to be a significant source of variation in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations. Linoleic and arachidonic acids decreased in both raw and cooked samples as marbling score increased. The data demonstrated that visual marbling score does have an influence on sensory properties and pork quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 144) were used to determine effects of late gestation dietary energy source on pre- and postpartum cow performance in a complete randomized block design experiment. Cows were adapted to diets starting at 167 +/- 9 d of gestation and fed until 1 wk before expected calving date. Cows were fed 1 of 3 dietary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried distillers grains (DDGS). Cows allotted to HY were allowed ad libitum access to round-bale grass hay, and average hay disappearance was 12.4 kg/d. Limit-fed corn and DDGS diets contained 5.3 kg of whole-shelled corn or 4.1 kg of DDGS, respectively, plus 2.1 kg of hay, and 1.0 kg of supplement to meet cow nutritional needs during late gestation and to allow for an energy intake similar to HY. Every 21 d, BW, BCS, and ultrasound measurement of backfat between the 12th and 13th ribs were collected. At 210 d in gestation, jugular blood samples were collected from cows at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h postfeeding and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, and blood urea N (BUN) concentrations. After parturition, cows were fed a common diet and managed similarly. Milk production was determined by weigh-suckle-weigh procedure on d 31, 100, and 176 postpartum. Cows fed DDGS during late gestation gained more (P = 0.04) BW than cows fed HY or CN; however, no difference in BCS change was detected (P = 0.28) among treatments. Plasma glucose concentrations were similar among treatments (P = 0.64), whereas insulin concentrations at 3 h postfeeding were greater (P = 0.002) for cows fed DDGS than those fed HY or CN. Plasma BUN concentrations were greater (P < or = 0.02) for cows fed DDGS vs. CN or HY up to 6 h postfeeding. Birth weight was greater (P < 0.001) for calves from cows fed CN and DDGS than for those fed HY, but this did not result in any differences in frequency of dystocia (P = 0.21). Prepartum energy source did not affect conception rates (P = 0.79), milk production (P > or = 0.51), or milk composition (P > or = 0.39). Maternal dietary energy source in late gestation did not affect pre- or postpartum cow performance, but did change plasma hormones and metabolites during gestation. Heavier birth weights in calves from cows fed CN or DDGS indicate the changes in maternal metabolism affected energy partitioning of nutrients to the fetus and subsequent fetal growth.
Journal of Animal Science 05/2010; 88(8):2717-28. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lambs (n = 48) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate effects of inclusion of oil containing PUFA in high-concentrate diets (with or without) and duration of oil supplementation (pre- vs. postweaning) on CLA concentration of muscle and adipose tissue. Lambs were fed preweaning creep diets (with or without oil) corresponding to the dietary lactation treatment diet (with or without oil) of the dam. Dams blocked by lambing date and rearing type were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 lactation dietary treatments with or without oil supplementation. Creep diets contained approximately 70% concentrate and 30% roughage and were provided to lambs for ad libitum intake. At weaning (58.7 +/- 2.5 d of age), lambs (n = 48) were randomly assigned within preweaning treatment groups to 1 of 2 postweaning dietary treatments (with or without oil) and 16 pens in a randomized block design, blocked by sex and BW. Postweaning diets were formulated to contain approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage and were fed once daily for ad libitum intake. Soybean and linseed oil (2:1, respectively) replaced ground corn and provided 3% additional fat in pre- and postweaning diets. Lambs were slaughtered at 60.3 +/- 4.2 kg of BW. A subcutaneous fat (SQ) sample was obtained within 1 h postmortem and a LM sample at the 12th rib was obtained 24 h postmortem, and both were analyzed for fatty acid profile. Feedlot performance and carcass measurements were not affected (P >or= 0.26) by oil supplementation. Total CLA content of LM and SQ was not affected (P >or= 0.08) by oil supplementation pre- or postweaning, but trans-10, cis-12 CLA was greater (P = 0.02) in SQ from lambs supplemented with oil postweaning. Total PUFA content in LM was greater (P = 0.02) in lambs supplemented with oil pre- or postweaning as a result of increased concentrations of 18:2cis-9, cis-12 and longer chain PUFA. Conversely, pre- and postweaning oil supplementation resulted in less (P = 0.04) MUFA content in LM. Only postweaning oil supplementation increased (P = 0.001) SQ PUFA content. Feeding oils containing PUFA to lambs pre- and postweaning did not increase CLA content of muscle, whereas postweaning oil supplementation minimally increased CLA concentration of SQ fat. Inclusion of soybean and linseed oil in pre- and postweaning diets increased total PUFA content of SQ fat and muscle tissue without adversely affecting growth performance or carcass characteristics.
Journal of Animal Science 08/2009; 87(12):4082-91. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wagyu-sired (n = 20) and Angus-sired (n = 19) steers and heifers were used to compare the effects of sire breed on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat tenderness. Calves were weaned at 138 +/- 5 d of age and individually fed a finishing diet consisting of 65% whole corn, 20% protein/vitamin/mineral supplement, and 15% corn silage on a DM basis. Heifers and steers were slaughtered at 535 and 560 kg of BW, respectively. Carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th (USDA grading system) and the 6th and 7th ribs (Japanese grading system) to measure fat thickness, LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). Two steaks were removed from the 12th rib location and aged for 72 h and 14 d to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. Sire breed x sex interactions were not significant (P > 0.05). Angus-sired calves had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and DMI than Wagyu. Wagyu-sired calves had improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency than Angus. Sire breed did not affect (P > 0.20) HCW, 12th-rib fat, or USDA yield grade. Carcasses of Wagyu had greater (P = 0.0001) marbling scores at the 12th rib than those of Angus (770.9 vs. 597.3 +/- 41.01, respectively). Carcasses of Wagyu also had greater (P < 0.02) 12th-rib IMF and 6th-rib IMF than Angus, resulting in a greater proportion of carcasses grading Prime (65.0 vs. 21.1%; P = 0.006). Carcasses from Wagyu tended (P = 0.08) to have greater LMA at the 12th rib, whereas Angus carcasses had greater (P < 0.05) LMA at the 6th rib. Steaks from Angus and Wagyu had similar (P > 0.50) tenderness at aging times of 72 h and 14 d. Cooking loss was greater (P < 0.01) for Angus than Wagyu steaks at 72 h and 14 d. Using Wagyu sires vs. Angus sires on British-based commercial cows combined with early weaning management strategies has the potential to produce a product with greater marbling, but is unlikely to significantly enhance tenderness.
Journal of Animal Science 05/2009; 87(9):2971-6. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retail color, palatability, and tenderness were evaluated on fresh moisture enhanced beef steaks removed from gluteus medius roasts. Roasts from USDA low Choice (n = 40) and low Select (n = 39) carcasses were divided in half by removing one control (CON) steak from the center to determine initial shear force. Each half received one of two treatments: 1) Brine injection (BI) pumped to 110% green weight (2.5% sodium lactate, 0.35% sodium tripolyphosphate and 0.65% sodium chloride); or 2) needle tenderized (NT). Steaks (2.54 cm) were removed from BI and NT roasts for Warner-Bratzler shear-force (aged 7, 14, and 21 d) and for sensory analysis (aged 14 d). Subjective (5 d; 5-member panel) and objective color (8 d; L*, a* and b*) were measured on steaks under retail display lighting. Overall, BI steaks (2.85 kg) were more tender (P < 0.0001) than NT steaks (3.47 kg) and CON steaks (3.51 kg), NT and CON steaks did not differ. Drip and cooking loss were less (P < 0.0001) in BI than NT steaks suggesting improved water retention. Sensory evaluation revealed that BI steaks had more (P < 0.0001) initial tenderness and juiciness, sustained tenderness and juiciness, beef flavor and overall greater preference than NT steaks. Objective color readings indicated that BI steaks were initially (d 1) darker (L*), less red (a*) and less yellow (b*) (P < 0.0001) than NT steaks. However, the change between d 1 and 8 readings were greater (P < 0.0001) for L* and b* in NT versus BI steaks suggesting that retail color was more stable in moisture enhanced steaks. Subjective color panel data reported no differences (P > 0.05) due to treatment, implying that L* and b* differences measured in objective evaluation may not be visible to the consumer. These results indicate that moisture enhancement may improve sensory attributes, tenderness and water retention, while stabilizing color in the retail case.