A E Radunz

University of Wisconsin - River Falls, River Falls, Wisconsin, United States

Are you A E Radunz?

Claim your profile

Publications (18)25.47 Total impact

  • X Wang, X Lan, A E Radunz, H Khatib
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maternal diet during pregnancy is a major determinant of the fetal developmental competence and may induce long-lasting epigenetic changes to the offspring. Imprinted genes have important roles in fetal programming, growth, and development. There are, however, limited data available on the influence of maternal diet on the expression of imprinted genes in beef cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal diet during pregnancy on the expression of 5 imprinted genes and 3 DNA methyltransferase genes in longissimus dorsi muscle from Angus calves. A total of 36 Angus-cross cows were inseminated to a single sire and on Day 135 of gestation they were randomly assigned to either low-starch (haylage) or high-starch (corn silage) diets. Diets were initially formulated to provide isocaloric and isonitrogenous intake. The H19, MEG8, IGF2R, and DNMT3a genes showed differential expression in longissimus dorsi muscle in calves between the diet groups. Given that high-starch diet is a source of energy for muscle growth and feed conversion efficiency in postnatal development, the mechanisms by which this diet affected expression of imprinted genes should be further explored.
    Journal of Animal Science 01/2015; 93(1):35-40. DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-8148 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Maternal nutrition during different stages of pregnancy can induce significant changes in the structure, physiology, and metabolism of the offspring. These changes could have important implications on food animal production especially if these perturbations impact muscle and adipose tissue development. Here, we evaluated the impact of different maternal isoenergetic diets, alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), and dried corn distillers grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat), on the transcriptome of fetal muscle and adipose tissues in sheep. Results: Prepartum diets were associated with notable gene expression changes in fetal tissues. In longissimus dorsi muscle, a total of 224 and 823 genes showed differential expression (FDR < 0.05) in fetuses derived from DG vs. CN and HY vs. CN maternal diets, respectively. Several of these significant genes affected myogenesis and muscle differentiation. In subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues, 745 and 208 genes were differentially expressed (FDR < 0.05), respectively, between CN and DG diets. Many of these genes are involved in adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and adipose tissue development. Pathway analysis revealed that several GO terms and KEGG pathways were enriched (FDR < 0.05) with differentially expressed genes associated with tissue and organ development, chromatin biology, and different metabolic processes. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that maternal nutrition during pregnancy can alter the programming of fetal muscle and fat tissues in sheep. The ramifications of the observed gene expression changes, in terms of postnatal growth, body composition, and meat quality of the offspring, warrant future investigation.
    BMC Genomics 11/2014; 15(1):1034. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-15-1034 · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies in rats and mice have established that maternal nutrition induces epigenetic modifications, sometimes permanently, that alter gene expression in the fetus, which in turn leads to phenotypic changes. However, limited data is available on the influence of maternal diet on epigenetic modifications and gene expression in sheep. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of different maternal dietary energy sources on the expression of imprinted genes in fetuses in sheep. Ewes were naturally bred to a single sire and from days 67 ± 3 of gestation until necropsy (days 130 ± 1), they were fed one of three diets of alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), or dried corn distiller's grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat). A total of 26 fetuses were removed from the dams and longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, perirenal adipose depot, and subcutaneous adipose depot tissues were collected for expression and DNA methylation analyses. Expression analysis of nine imprinted genes and three DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs) genes showed significant effects of the different maternal diets on the expression of these genes. The methylation levels of CpG islands of both IGF2R and H19 were higher in HY and DG than CN fetuses in both males and females. This result is consistent with the low amino acid content of the CN diet, a source of methyl group donors, compared to HY and DG diets. Thus, results of this study provide evidence of association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations of imprinted genes and DNMTs in the fetal tissues.
    Frontiers in Genetics 04/2013; 4:49. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2013.00049
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 228) were used to evaluate effects of prepartum dietary energy source on postnatal growth and carcass composition of progeny in a 2 yr study. Starting at approximately 160 d of gestation, cows were fed diets consisting of 1 of 3 primary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried corn distillers grains (DG). The CN and DG diets were limit-fed to achieve similar energy intakes as cows fed HY. Following parturition, cows were fed a common diet, and managed as 1 group. Calves were weaned at an average of 185 ± 6 d of age, and backgrounded for 28 d. A subset of progeny (n = 134) was individually fed a common finishing diet until slaughter, when each calf reached 1.2 ± 0.05 cm of backfat. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted in year 2 on 4 calves/treatment after 41 and 111 d on the finishing diet (DOF). Calf birth weights were greater (P = 0.002) in calves from cows fed CN and DG than calves from cows fed HY, and weaning BW (P = 0.08) was lighter for calves from cows fed HY vs. CN. Receiving BW, final BW, and HCW were similar (P ≥ 0.16) among treatments. No difference (P ≥ 0.28) in ADG, morbidity, and mortality from birth to slaughter was observed among treatments. In response to a GTT, increased DOF resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.005) fasting insulin, faster glucose disappearance rate, and greater insulin:glucose area under the curve ratio. Glucose disappearance rate was greater (P = 0.01) in calves from cows fed CN than calves from cows fed HY or DG. A greater initial insulin response (P = 0.005) was observed in calves from cows fed CN or DG than calves fed HY. Carcass traits used to measure yield grade were similar (P ≥ 0.19) among treatments. Calves from dams fed CN had the lowest marbling score (P = 0.03) and intramuscular fat content (P = 0.07). These results indicate prepartum maternal dietary energy source may alter fetal adipose tissue development and insulin sensitivity resulting in long-term impacts on progeny's intramuscular fat deposition. These results also indicate that a greater number of days on a corn-based finishing diet increases insulin resistance in beef cattle.
    Journal of Animal Science 09/2012; 90(13). DOI:10.2527/jas.2012-5098 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to determine if 2 doses of PGF(2α) (PGF) administered concurrently at controlled intravaginal drug release (CIDR) removal was an efficacious method for delivery of PGF in the 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. Postpartum beef cows (n = 2,465) from 13 herds in 8 states were enrolled in the 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol and assigned to receive either 2 doses of PGF (25 mg/dose) 8 h apart with the initial injection given at CIDR removal (8h-PGF): 2 doses (25 mg/dose) of PGF delivered in 2 injection sites, both administered at CIDR removal (Co-PGF): or a single 25-mg dose of PGF at CIDR removal (1x-PGF). Cows were fixed timed-artificially inseminated (FTAI) 72 h after CIDR removal concurrent with GnRH administration. Estrus-cycling status (54% cyclic) was determined by evaluation of progesterone in 2 blood samples collected before CIDR insertion. Determination of pregnancy was performed by transrectal ultrasonography 39 ± 0.1 d after TAI and at least 35 d after the conclusion of the breeding season. Fixed timed-AI pregnancy rates were greater (P < 0.05) for the 8h-PGF (55%) than the 1x-PGF (48%) treatment, with the Co-PGF (51%) treatment intermediate and not different (P > 0.05) from the other treatments. Contrast analysis demonstrated that cows receiving 50 mg of PGF (8h-PGF and Co-PGF) had greater (P < 0.05) FTAI pregnancy rates than those receiving 25 mg (1x-PGF). Pregnancy rates to FTAI were greater (P < 0.05) in cyclic (55%) than non-cyclic (47%) and greater (P < 0.05) in multiparous (≥ 3 yr of age; 54%; n = 1,940) than primiparous cows (40%; n = 525). Luteolysis following PGF treatment was assessed in a subset of cows (n = 277) and treatment tended (P = 0.09) to affect the proportion of cows having luteolysis. The percentage of cows that had luteolysis was least in the 1x-PGF treatment (89%) and greatest in the 8h-PGF treatment (97%), with the Co-PGF treatment (94%) being intermediate. Breeding season pregnancy rate (88%) did not differ (P > 0.05) among treatments but was greater (P < 0.01) in multiparous (90%) than primiparous (78%) cows. Across treatments, as BCS increased and days postpartum lengthened, FTAI and breeding season pregnancy rates were increased. In summary, 50 mg of PGF was required in the 5-d COS-ynch + CIDR protocol to maximize pregnancy rates; however, they did not differ when 50 mg of PGF was administered simultaneously with CIDR removal or split with 25 mg administered at 0 and 8 h after CIDR removal.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2012; DOI:10.2527/jas.2011-4880 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mature pregnant crossbred ewes (n = 90) were used in a randomized complete block design experiment and were assigned to 1 of 3 winter-feeding systems differing in primary feed source: haylage (HL), limit-fed corn (CN), or limit-fed dried distillers grains (DDGS). Effects of these winter-feeding strategies on postweaning progeny performance were determined. Lamb progeny (n = 96) were weaned at 61 ± 4 d of age and fed a common high-concentrate diet. Lambs were assigned to feedlot pen (n = 18) based on dam mid-gestation pen. Growth rate, DMI, and ADG were determined for the first 40 d of the finishing period. At 96 ± 4 d of age, 1 wether lamb was randomly selected from each pen (n = 18) for a glucose tolerance test. The experiment was terminated, and lambs were slaughtered individually when they were determined to have achieved 0.6-cm 12th-rib fat thickness. After a 24-h chill, carcass data were collected and a 2.54-cm chop was removed from each lamb from the LM posterior to the 12th rib for ether extract analysis. Additional carcass measurements of bone, muscle, and fat from the shoulder, rack, loin, and leg were collected on 35 carcasses. At weaning, lamb BW was not different among treatments, whereas final BW tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for lambs from ewes fed DDGS and CN during gestation than from those fed HL. Overall lamb growth rate from birth to slaughter was not different among treatments. Lambs from ewes fed DDGS vs. CN or HL tended to have a greater initial insulin response (P = 0.09). Dressing percent was less (P = 0.04) in lambs from ewes fed DDGS, but no difference (P = 0.16) was detected in HCW among treatments. As expected, 12th rib fat thickness was similar among treatments, whereas LM area was largest to smallest (P = 0.05) in lambs from ewes fed CN, HL, and DDGS, respectively. Proportion of internal fat tended to be greatest to smallest (P = 0.06) in lambs from ewes fed DDGS, CN, and HL, respectively. Calculated boneless trimmed retail cuts percentage was less (P = 0.04) in lambs from ewes fed DDGS than CN or HL. Loin muscle weight as a percentage of wholesale cut tended (P = 0.10) to be greater in lambs from ewes fed CN and HL than DDGS, whereas other muscle, bone, and fat weights and proportions were similar (P > 0.24) among treatments. Prepartum diet during mid to late gestation of ewes altered postnatal fat and muscle deposition and may be associated with alterations in insulin sensitivity of progeny.
    Journal of Animal Science 02/2011; 89(2):478-88. DOI:10.2527/jas.2010-3037 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of diet and feed additive on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and cattle destined for all natural markets. In Exp. 1, 48 Dorset × Hampshire lambs (initial BW 29.4 ± 0.1 kg) were used in a randomized complete block experiment to determine the effects of Aspergillus oryzae extract, Amaferm (AMF) supplementation (1 g/d) in an 85% concentrate diet on growth and carcass characteristics. Lambs were allotted to 12 pens (4 lambs per pen), and blocked by sex and BW. Lambs were fed until the average BW of each pen reached a target BW (55.4 kg for wethers and 50.0 kg for ewes), at which time the entire pen of lambs was slaughtered. Amaferm resulted in a greater (P=0.07) G:F. In Exp. 2, 168 crossbred steers (initial BW 300 ± 0.7 kg) were used in a trial with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to examine the effects of 0.5 g/d of Saccaromyces cervisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell SB (LEV), or 3 g/d of AMF with 2 corn sources, dry whole-shelled corn or high moisture corn, on growth and carcass characteristics. Neither LEV nor AMF improved (P>0.10) carcass characteristics compared with control or non-feed-supplemented steers. Addition of LEV to high-concentrate, corn-based diets did not improve (P>0.10) growth performance of feedlot steers. However, addition of AMF to a diet composed of dry whole-shelled corn resulted in an improvement (P<0.05) in G:F (0.208 vs. 0.194). Results indicate that at the amounts fed, AMF may improve G:F for lambs and steers fed dry corn-based finishing diets.
    Journal of Animal Science 02/2011; 89(7):2257-64. DOI:10.2527/jas.2010-3308 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • T L Felix, A E Radunz, S C Loerch
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Energy density in growing diets may affect carcass quality of cattle; however, few reports have described the impact of energy source. The objectives of this research were to determine effects of source [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) vs. corn] and amount (limit-fed to gain 0.9 vs. 1.4 kg of BW/d) of energy during the growing phase on feedlot performance and marbling. Angus-cross steers (144 head) were blocked by BW (average initial BW = 252 ± 36 kg), allotted within each block to 8 pens (6 steers/pen, 24 pens total), and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 feeding systems in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) 65% DDGS fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d, 2) 65% DDGS fed to gain 1.4 kg of BW/d, 3) 65% corn fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d, and 4) 65% corn fed to gain 1.4 kg of BW/d. Fecal grab samples were collected on d 52 of the growing phase to determine digestibility of DM, ADF, NDF, ether extract (EE), and CP. After the 98-d growing phase, all steers were fed the same finishing diet. Steers were slaughtered by pen when average BW within the pen was 544, 522, and 499 kg for the large, medium, and small BW blocks, respectively. Average daily gain and DMI differed (P<0.01) by design during the growing phase. Compared with the corn-based diets, digestibilities of DM, NDF, and EE were decreased (P<0.02) when DDGS-based diets were fed during the growing phase, whereas the digestibility of N was increased (P<0.01). The ADG was greatest (P=0.02) during the finishing phase for steers fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d initially, but source of energy during the growing phase did not affect (P=0.24) finishing phase ADG. Steers fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d during the growing phase also had less backfat (P=0.08), decreased USDA yield grades (P=0.03), and greater LM area (P<0.01) than steers fed to gain 1.4 kg of BW/d. There was an interaction between energy source and amount for marbling scores (P=0.02). Steers fed corn-based diets to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d during the growing phase had the most marbling, whereas those fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d on DDGS had the least marbling; the remaining feeding systems were intermediate. Overall ADG and DMI were affected (P < 0.06) by both source and amount of energy fed during the growing phase. Feeding the DDGS-based diet to achieve greater ADG during the growing phase increased marbling, whereas feeding the corn-based diet to increase ADG during the growing phase decreased marbling.
    Journal of Animal Science 02/2011; 89(7):2273-9. DOI:10.2527/jas.2010-3600 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mature pregnant crossbred ewes (n = 90) were used in a randomized complete block design and assigned to 1 of 3 winter-feeding systems differing in primary feed source: haylage (HL), limit-fed corn (CN), or limit-fed dried distillers grains (DDGS). Effects of these winter-feeding strategies on ewe and lamb performance were determined. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1985) nutrient requirements during gestation and were fed from about d 60 of gestation until parturition. All ewes were fed a common diet postpartum. Every 2 wk during gestation, BW and BCS were collected and diets were adjusted to maintain similar BW gain for ewes fed CN and DDGS vs. HL. At 80 and 122 d of gestation, jugular blood samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h postfeeding to measure plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. At birth, 6 lambs per treatment were killed to measure body composition. At 28 ± 2 d postpartum, milk yield was measured. Lambs were weaned at 61 ± 4 d of age. During mid gestation (d 60 to 115), BW gain of ewes was similar among treatments; however, at d 115 of gestation ewes fed HL had a smaller (P = 0.04) BCS than ewes fed DDGS or CN. Plasma glucose concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.004) in ewes fed CN than in those fed HL or DDGS just before feeding on d 80 and 122 of gestation, whereas ewes fed DDGS vs. CN or HL had greater (P ≤ 0.04) plasma insulin concentrations at 3 h postfeeding. At parturition, ewe BW was greatest for DDGS, least for HL, and intermediate for CN (P ≤ 0.003). Ewes fed CN and DDGS had greater BCS at parturition than those fed HL, but by weaning, ewes fed DDGS had greater BCS (P ≤ 0.05) than those fed CN or HL. Birth BW tended (P = 0.09) to be heavier for lambs from ewes fed CN and DDGS than from those fed HL prepartum, but there was no difference (P = 0.19) due to ewe gestation diet on lamb BW at weaning. At birth, lamb muscle, bone, organ, and fat measures were not affected (P > 0.13) by treatment. Ewe milk production and lamb preweaning ADG were also similar (P > 0.44) among treatments. Prepartum dam winter feed source did not have detrimental effects on pre- or postpartum ewe performance, but altered prepartum maternal nutrient supply during gestation, which affected birth weight but not preweaning growth or mortality.
    Journal of Animal Science 02/2011; 89(2):467-77. DOI:10.2527/jas.2010-3035 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pork loins (N=53) were selected from a commercial packing plant to determine the influence of subjective marbling score on sensory attributes and eating quality properties. The pork loins were obtained from commercially raised hybrid barrows (average carcass weight=67.7 kg), originating from nine cooperating herds, and fed similar diets throughout the finishing period. Carcass quality measurements, trained sensory panel analyses, fatty acid composition, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) index, and cholesterol content were assessed and analyzed on the individual pork loins. With an increase in marbling level, there was a corresponding decrease in drip loss (P=0.049) and observed increases in pH (P=0.001), sensory tenderness (P=0.001), and sensory juiciness scores (P=0.017). The most notable results demonstrated that protein concentrations were reduced as marbling levels amplified (P=0.012). The increase in marbling score was observed to be a significant source of variation in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations. Linoleic and arachidonic acids decreased in both raw and cooked samples as marbling score increased. The data demonstrated that visual marbling score does have an influence on sensory properties and pork quality.
    Meat Science 07/2010; 85(3):428-34. DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.02.011 · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 144) were used to determine effects of late gestation dietary energy source on pre- and postpartum cow performance in a complete randomized block design experiment. Cows were adapted to diets starting at 167 +/- 9 d of gestation and fed until 1 wk before expected calving date. Cows were fed 1 of 3 dietary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried distillers grains (DDGS). Cows allotted to HY were allowed ad libitum access to round-bale grass hay, and average hay disappearance was 12.4 kg/d. Limit-fed corn and DDGS diets contained 5.3 kg of whole-shelled corn or 4.1 kg of DDGS, respectively, plus 2.1 kg of hay, and 1.0 kg of supplement to meet cow nutritional needs during late gestation and to allow for an energy intake similar to HY. Every 21 d, BW, BCS, and ultrasound measurement of backfat between the 12th and 13th ribs were collected. At 210 d in gestation, jugular blood samples were collected from cows at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h postfeeding and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, and blood urea N (BUN) concentrations. After parturition, cows were fed a common diet and managed similarly. Milk production was determined by weigh-suckle-weigh procedure on d 31, 100, and 176 postpartum. Cows fed DDGS during late gestation gained more (P = 0.04) BW than cows fed HY or CN; however, no difference in BCS change was detected (P = 0.28) among treatments. Plasma glucose concentrations were similar among treatments (P = 0.64), whereas insulin concentrations at 3 h postfeeding were greater (P = 0.002) for cows fed DDGS than those fed HY or CN. Plasma BUN concentrations were greater (P < or = 0.02) for cows fed DDGS vs. CN or HY up to 6 h postfeeding. Birth weight was greater (P < 0.001) for calves from cows fed CN and DDGS than for those fed HY, but this did not result in any differences in frequency of dystocia (P = 0.21). Prepartum energy source did not affect conception rates (P = 0.79), milk production (P > or = 0.51), or milk composition (P > or = 0.39). Maternal dietary energy source in late gestation did not affect pre- or postpartum cow performance, but did change plasma hormones and metabolites during gestation. Heavier birth weights in calves from cows fed CN or DDGS indicate the changes in maternal metabolism affected energy partitioning of nutrients to the fetus and subsequent fetal growth.
    Journal of Animal Science 05/2010; 88(8):2717-28. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-2744 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lambs (n = 48) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate effects of inclusion of oil containing PUFA in high-concentrate diets (with or without) and duration of oil supplementation (pre- vs. postweaning) on CLA concentration of muscle and adipose tissue. Lambs were fed preweaning creep diets (with or without oil) corresponding to the dietary lactation treatment diet (with or without oil) of the dam. Dams blocked by lambing date and rearing type were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 lactation dietary treatments with or without oil supplementation. Creep diets contained approximately 70% concentrate and 30% roughage and were provided to lambs for ad libitum intake. At weaning (58.7 +/- 2.5 d of age), lambs (n = 48) were randomly assigned within preweaning treatment groups to 1 of 2 postweaning dietary treatments (with or without oil) and 16 pens in a randomized block design, blocked by sex and BW. Postweaning diets were formulated to contain approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage and were fed once daily for ad libitum intake. Soybean and linseed oil (2:1, respectively) replaced ground corn and provided 3% additional fat in pre- and postweaning diets. Lambs were slaughtered at 60.3 +/- 4.2 kg of BW. A subcutaneous fat (SQ) sample was obtained within 1 h postmortem and a LM sample at the 12th rib was obtained 24 h postmortem, and both were analyzed for fatty acid profile. Feedlot performance and carcass measurements were not affected (P >or= 0.26) by oil supplementation. Total CLA content of LM and SQ was not affected (P >or= 0.08) by oil supplementation pre- or postweaning, but trans-10, cis-12 CLA was greater (P = 0.02) in SQ from lambs supplemented with oil postweaning. Total PUFA content in LM was greater (P = 0.02) in lambs supplemented with oil pre- or postweaning as a result of increased concentrations of 18:2cis-9, cis-12 and longer chain PUFA. Conversely, pre- and postweaning oil supplementation resulted in less (P = 0.04) MUFA content in LM. Only postweaning oil supplementation increased (P = 0.001) SQ PUFA content. Feeding oils containing PUFA to lambs pre- and postweaning did not increase CLA content of muscle, whereas postweaning oil supplementation minimally increased CLA concentration of SQ fat. Inclusion of soybean and linseed oil in pre- and postweaning diets increased total PUFA content of SQ fat and muscle tissue without adversely affecting growth performance or carcass characteristics.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2009; 87(12):4082-91. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-2059 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wagyu-sired (n = 20) and Angus-sired (n = 19) steers and heifers were used to compare the effects of sire breed on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat tenderness. Calves were weaned at 138 +/- 5 d of age and individually fed a finishing diet consisting of 65% whole corn, 20% protein/vitamin/mineral supplement, and 15% corn silage on a DM basis. Heifers and steers were slaughtered at 535 and 560 kg of BW, respectively. Carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th (USDA grading system) and the 6th and 7th ribs (Japanese grading system) to measure fat thickness, LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). Two steaks were removed from the 12th rib location and aged for 72 h and 14 d to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. Sire breed x sex interactions were not significant (P > 0.05). Angus-sired calves had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and DMI than Wagyu. Wagyu-sired calves had improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency than Angus. Sire breed did not affect (P > 0.20) HCW, 12th-rib fat, or USDA yield grade. Carcasses of Wagyu had greater (P = 0.0001) marbling scores at the 12th rib than those of Angus (770.9 vs. 597.3 +/- 41.01, respectively). Carcasses of Wagyu also had greater (P < 0.02) 12th-rib IMF and 6th-rib IMF than Angus, resulting in a greater proportion of carcasses grading Prime (65.0 vs. 21.1%; P = 0.006). Carcasses from Wagyu tended (P = 0.08) to have greater LMA at the 12th rib, whereas Angus carcasses had greater (P < 0.05) LMA at the 6th rib. Steaks from Angus and Wagyu had similar (P > 0.50) tenderness at aging times of 72 h and 14 d. Cooking loss was greater (P < 0.01) for Angus than Wagyu steaks at 72 h and 14 d. Using Wagyu sires vs. Angus sires on British-based commercial cows combined with early weaning management strategies has the potential to produce a product with greater marbling, but is unlikely to significantly enhance tenderness.
    Journal of Animal Science 05/2009; 87(9):2971-6. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-1914 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Amy E Radunz
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maternal nutrition during different stages of pregnancy can induce remarkable phenotypic changes in fetal tissues, which in turn can have lifelong implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different maternal diets on the transcriptome of fetal muscle in sheep. Ewes were bred to a single sire and from days 67±3 of gestation until necropsy (days 130±1), they were fed one of three diets: alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), or dried corn distiller’s grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat). Longissimus dorsi muscle tissue from individual fetuses were pooled and then analyzed by RNA sequencing. Reads were mapped to the ovine genome using Tophat, and the resulting alignments were used to reconstruct transcript models using Cufflinks. Differential gene expression was analyzed using edgeR package. Significant gene expression differences were found between CN and the other two treatments. A total of 860 and 1,578 transcript units out of 17,544 showed differential expression (FDR <0.05) between DG vs CN, and HY vs CN, respectively. Notably, the expression of most genes in fetuses was decreased by maternal CN diet. Pathway analysis revealed that several Gene Ontology terms (e.g., embryonic morphogenesis, muscle fiber development, contractile fiber), InterPro entries (e.g., several tubulin-like and calponin-like motifs), and KEGG pathways (e.g., focal adhesion, gap function) were enriched (FDR <0.05) with differentially expressed genes. Many of these pathways are closely related to muscle development. Overall, our findings provide evidence that maternal diet can modulate gene expression in fetal muscle in sheep.
    International Plant and Animal Genome Conference XXII 2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Retail color, palatability, and tenderness were evaluated on fresh moisture enhanced beef steaks removed from gluteus medius roasts. Roasts from USDA low Choice (n = 40) and low Select (n = 39) carcasses were divided in half by removing one control (CON) steak from the center to determine initial shear force. Each half received one of two treatments: 1) Brine injection (BI) pumped to 110% green weight (2.5% sodium lactate, 0.35% sodium tripolyphosphate and 0.65% sodium chloride); or 2) needle tenderized (NT). Steaks (2.54 cm) were removed from BI and NT roasts for Warner-Bratzler shear-force (aged 7, 14, and 21 d) and for sensory analysis (aged 14 d). Subjective (5 d; 5-member panel) and objective color (8 d; L*, a* and b*) were measured on steaks under retail display lighting. Overall, BI steaks (2.85 kg) were more tender (P < 0.0001) than NT steaks (3.47 kg) and CON steaks (3.51 kg), NT and CON steaks did not differ. Drip and cooking loss were less (P < 0.0001) in BI than NT steaks suggesting improved water retention. Sensory evaluation revealed that BI steaks had more (P < 0.0001) initial tenderness and juiciness, sustained tenderness and juiciness, beef flavor and overall greater preference than NT steaks. Objective color readings indicated that BI steaks were initially (d 1) darker (L*), less red (a*) and less yellow (b*) (P < 0.0001) than NT steaks. However, the change between d 1 and 8 readings were greater (P < 0.0001) for L* and b* in NT versus BI steaks suggesting that retail color was more stable in moisture enhanced steaks. Subjective color panel data reported no differences (P > 0.05) due to treatment, implying that L* and b* differences measured in objective evaluation may not be visible to the consumer. These results indicate that moisture enhancement may improve sensory attributes, tenderness and water retention, while stabilizing color in the retail case.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research in human, mouse, and livestock has shown that some supplements of the maternal diet during pregnancy impact postnatal progeny phenotypes such as body composition, insulin sensitivity, and health traits. However, there is limited data on the influence of maternal diet on epigenetic modifications and gene expression in sheep and cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of different maternal diet energy sources on the expression of imprinted genes in fetuses in sheep and offspring in beef cattle. In the sheep experiment, ewes were naturally bred to a single sire and from d 67± 3 of gestation until necropsy (d 130 ± 1), they were fed one of three diets of alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), or dried corn distiller’s grains (DG; protein, fat). A total of 26 fetuses were removed from the dams and longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, perirenal adipose depot, and subcutaneous adipose depot tissues were collected for expression and DNA methylation analyses. Expression analysis of nine imprinted genes and three DNA methylatransferase (DNMTs) genes showed significant effects of the different maternal diets on the expression of these genes. Then, DNA methylation analysis of IGF2R that showed significant differential methylation between the diet groups in sheep. Thus, results of this study provide an evidence of association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations of imprinted genes and DNMTs in the fetal tissues.
    International Plant and Animal Genome Conference XXI 2013;

Publication Stats

75 Citations
25.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014–2015
    • University of Wisconsin - River Falls
      • Department of Animal and Food Science
      River Falls, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      • Department of Animal Sciences
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Animal Sciences
      Columbus, Ohio, United States