[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membranous adenylyl cyclases (mACs) constitute a family of nine isoforms with different expression patterns. Studies with mAC gene knockout mice provide evidence for the notion that AC isoforms play distinct (patho)physiological roles. Consequently, there is substantial interest in the development of isoform-selective mAC inhibitors. Here, we review the current literature on mAC inhibitors. Structurally diverse inhibitors targeting the catalytic site and allosteric sites (e.g. the diterpene site) have been identified. The catalytic site of mACs accommodates both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, with a hydrophobic pocket constituting a major affinity-conferring domain for substituents at the 2'- and 3'-O-ribosyl position of nucleotides. BODIPY-forskolin stimulates ACs 1 and 5 but inhibits AC2. However, so far, no inhibitor has been examined at all mAC isoforms, and data obtained with mAC inhibitors in intact cells have not always been interpreted cautiously enough. Future strategies for the development of the mAC inhibitor field are discussed critically.
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 11/2011; 33(2):64-78. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian membranous adenylyl cyclases (mACs) play an important role in transmembrane signalling events in almost every cell and represent an interesting drug target. Forskolin (FS) is an invaluable research tool, activating AC isoforms 1-8. However, there is a paucity of AC isoform-selective FS analogs. Therefore, we examined the effects of FS and six FS derivatives on recombinant ACs 1, 2 and 5, representing members of different mAC families. Correlations of the pharmacological properties of the different AC isoforms revealed pronounced differences between ACs 1, 2 and 5. Additionally, potencies and efficacies of FS derivatives changed for any given AC isoform, depending on the metal ion, Mg(2+) or Mn(2+). The most striking effects of Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) on the diterpene profile were observed for AC2 where the large inhibitory effect of BODIPY-FS in the presence of Mg(2+) was considerably reduced in the presence of Mn(2+). Sequence alignment and docking experiments confirmed an exceptional position of AC2 compared to ACs 1 and 5 with respect to the structural environment of the catalytic core and cation-dependent diterpene effects. In conclusion, mAC isoforms 1, 2 and 5 exhibit a distinct pharmacological diterpene profile, depending on the divalent cation present. mAC crystal structures and modelling/docking studies provided an explanation for the pharmacological differences between the AC isoforms. Our study constitutes an important step towards the development of isoform-specific diterpenes exhibiting stimulatory or inhibitory effects.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2',3'-O-(N-Methylanthraniloyl)-ITP (MANT-ITP) is the most potent inhibitor of mammalian membranous adenylyl cyclase (mAC) 5 (AC5, K(i), 1 nM) yet discovered and surpasses the potency of MANT-GTP by 55-fold (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 329:1156-1165, 2009). AC5 inhibitors may be valuable drugs for treatment of heart failure. The aim of this study was to elucidate the structural basis for the high-affinity inhibition of mAC by MANT-ITP. MANT-ITP was a considerably more potent inhibitor of the purified catalytic domains VC1 and IIC2 of mAC than MANT-GTP (K(i), 0.7 versus 18 nM). Moreover, there was considerably more efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer between Trp1020 of IIC2 and the MANT group of MANT-ITP compared with MANT-GTP, indicating optimal interaction of the MANT group of MANT-ITP with the hydrophobic pocket. The crystal structure of MANT-ITP in complex with the G(s)α- and forskolin-activated catalytic domains VC1:IIC2 compared with the existing MANT-GTP crystal structure revealed only subtle differences in binding mode. The higher affinity of MANT-ITP to mAC compared with MANT-GTP is probably due to fewer stereochemical constraints upon the nucleotide base in the purine binding pocket, allowing a stronger interaction with the hydrophobic regions of IIC2 domain, as assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Stronger interaction is also achieved in the phosphate-binding site. The triphosphate group of MANT-ITP exhibits better metal coordination than the triphosphate group of MANT-GTP, as confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. Collectively, the subtle differences in ligand structure have profound effects on affinity for mAC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membranous adenylyl cyclases (ACs) play a key role in signal transduction and are promising drug targets. In previous studies we showed that 2',3'-(O)-(N-methylanthraniloyl) (MANT)-substituted nucleotides are potent AC inhibitors. The aim of this study was to provide systematic structure-activity relationships for 21 (M)ANT-substituted nucleotides at the purified catalytic AC subunit heterodimer VC1:IIC2, the VC1:VC1 homodimer and recombinant ACs 1, 2 and 5. (M)ANT-nucleotides inhibited fully activated VC1:IIC2 in the order of affinity for bases hypoxanthine>uracil>cytosine>adenine∼guanine≫xanthine. Omission of a hydroxyl group at the 2' or 3'-position reduced inhibitor potency as did introduction of a γ-thiophosphate group or omission of the γ-phosphate group. Substitution of the MANT-group by an ANT-group had little effect on affinity. Although all nucleotides bound to VC1:IIC2 similarly according to the tripartite pharmacophore model with a site for the base, the ribose, and the phosphate chain, nucleotides exhibited subtle differences in their binding modes as revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modelling. MANT-nucleotides also differentially interacted with the VC1:VC1 homodimer as assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy and modelling. Similar structure-activity relationships as for VC1:IIC2 were obtained for recombinant ACs 1, 2 and 5, with AC2 being the least sensitive AC isoform in terms of inhibition. Overall, ACs possess a broad base-specificity with no preference for the "cognate" base adenine as verified by enzyme inhibition, fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modelling. These properties of ACs are indicative for ligand-specific conformational landscapes that extend to the VC1:VC1 homodimer and should facilitate development of non-nucleotide inhibitors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membranous adenylyl cyclase (AC) subtypes play differential roles in the regulation of cell functions. The C1- and C2-subunits of AC form a heterodimer that efficiently catalyzes cAMP formation and constitutes a very useful model system for AC analysis at a molecular level. Intriguingly, C1 and C2 homodimers exist, too. The C2 homodimer is catalytically inactive and possesses two forskolin binding sites. However, little is known about the C1 homodimer. Therefore, in this study, we examined the C1 homodimer. C1 exhibited exceedingly low catalytic activity but high substrate-affinity. Fluorescence studies with the AC inhibitor 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP suggested that 2 mol of C1 binds 1 mol of nucleotide, pointing to homodimerization. C1 also bound the AC inhibitor 2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP as assessed by direct fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies. Molecular modelling revealed that in the C1 homodimer, the catalytic base arginine is exchanged against histidine. The lower basicity and shorter side chain of histidine probably account for the low catalytic activity. In conclusion, the C1 homodimer of AC binds nucleotides with high affinity, but exhibits only exceedingly low catalytic activity. The low catalytic activity of the C1 homodimer may constitute a mechanism by which in intact cells dimeric AC molecules exhibit a high signal-to-noise ratio upon stimulation by receptor agonists.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diterpene forskolin (FS) binds to, and activates, mammalian membranous adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms I-VIII. Diterpenes without C(1)-OH group do not activate ACs. The C(1)-OH group forms a hydrogen bond with the backbone oxygen of Val506 of the C1 catalytic subunit of AC (isoform V numbering). To better understand the mechanism of AC activation we examined the interactions of FS and eight FS analogs with purified catalytic AC subunits C1 (AC V) and C2 (AC II) by fluorescence spectroscopy, using 2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-guanosine 5'-triphosphate (MANT-GTP) as fluorescent reporter probe, and by enzymatic activity. FS analogs induced C1/C2 assembly as assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer from Trp1020 of C2 to MANT-GTP and by increased direct MANT-GTP fluorescence in the order of efficacy FS approximately 7-deacetyl-FS approximately 6-acetyl-7-deacetyl-FS approximately 9-deoxy-FS>7-deacetyl-7-(N-methylpiperazino-gamma-butyryloxy)-FS>1-deoxy-FS approximately 1,9-dideoxy-FS approximately 7-deacetyl-1-deoxy-FS approximately 7-deacetyl-1,9-dideoxy-FS. In contrast, FS analogs activated catalysis in the order of efficacy FS>7-deacety-FS approximately 6-acetyl-7-deacetyl-FS approximately 9-deoxy-FS>7-deacetyl-7-(N-methylpiperazino-gamma-butyryloxy)-FS>1-deoxy-FS, 1,9-dideoxy-FS, 7-deacetyl-1-deoxy-FS and 7-deacetyl-1,9-dideoxy-FS (all ineffective). 1-Deoxy-FS analogs inhibited FS-stimulated catalysis by an apparently non-competitive mechanism. Our data suggest a two-step mechanism of AC activation by diterpenes. In the first step, diterpenes, regardless of their substitution pattern, promote C1/C2 assembly. In the second and yet poorly understood step, diterpenes that form a hydrogen bond between C(1)-OH and Val506 promote a conformational switch that results in activation of catalysis. The apparent non-competitive interaction of FS with 1-deoxy-FS analogs is explained by impaired ligand exchange due to strong hydrophobic interactions with C1/C2.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) catalyze the conversion of ATP into the second messenger cAMP and play a key role in signal transduction. In a recent study (Mol Pharmacol 70:878-886, 2006), we reported that 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-substituted nucleoside 5'-triphosphates (TNP-NTPs) are potent inhibitors (K(i) values in the 10 nM range) of the purified catalytic subunits VC1 and IIC2 of membranous AC (mAC). The crystal structure of VC1:IIC2 in complex with TNP-ATP revealed that the nucleotide binds to the catalytic site with the TNP-group projecting into a hydrophobic pocket. The aims of this study were to analyze the interaction of TNP-nucleotides with VC1:IIC2 by fluorescence spectroscopy and to analyze inhibition of mAC isoforms, soluble AC (sAC), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and G-proteins by TNP-nucleotides. Interaction of VC1:IIC2 with TNP-NDPs and TNP-NTPs resulted in large fluorescence increases that were differentially reduced by a water-soluble forskolin analog. TNP-ATP turned out to be the most potent inhibitor for ACV (K(i), 3.7 nM) and sGC (K(i), 7.3 nM). TNP-UTP was identified as the most potent inhibitor for ACI (K(i), 7.1 nM) and ACII (K(i), 24 nM). TNP-NTPs inhibited sAC and GTP hydrolysis by G(s)- and G(i)-proteins only with low potencies. Molecular modeling revealed that TNP-GTP and TNP-ATP interact very similarly, but not identically, with VC1:IIC2. Collectively, our data show that TNP-nucleotides are useful fluorescent probes to monitor conformational changes in VC1:IIC2 and that TNP-NTPs are a promising starting point to develop isoform-selective AC and sGC inhibitors. TNP-ATP is the most potent sGC inhibitor known so far.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/2009; 330(3):687-95. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type V and VI mammalian adenylyl cyclases (AC5, AC6) are inhibited by Ca(2+) at both sub- and supramicromolar concentration. This inhibition may provide feedback in situations where cAMP promotes opening of Ca(2+) channels, allowing fine control of cardiac contraction and rhythmicity in cardiac tissue where AC5 and AC6 predominate. Ca(2+) inhibits the soluble AC core composed of the C1 domain of AC5 (VC1) and the C2 domain of AC2 (IIC2). As observed for holo-AC5, inhibition is biphasic, showing "high-affinity" (K(i) = approximately 0.4 microM) and "low-affinity" (K(i) = approximately 100 microM) modes of inhibition. At micromolar concentration, Ca(2+) inhibition is nonexclusive with respect to pyrophosphate (PP(i)), a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to ATP, but at >100 microM Ca(2+), inhibition appears to be exclusive with respect to PP(i). The 3.0 A resolution structure of Galphas.GTPgammaS/forskolin-activated VC1:IIC2 crystals soaked in the presence of ATPalphaS and 8 microM free Ca(2+) contains a single, loosely coordinated metal ion. ATP soaked into VC1:IIC2 crystals in the presence of 1.5 mM Ca(2+) is not cyclized, and two calcium ions are observed in the 2.9 A resolution structure of the complex. In both of the latter complexes VC1:IIC2 adopts the "open", catalytically inactive conformation characteristic of the apoenzyme, in contrast to the "closed", active conformation seen in the presence of ATP analogues and Mg(2+) or Mn(2+). Structures of the pyrophosphate (PP(i)) complex with 10 mM Mg(2+) (2.8 A) or 2 mM Ca(2+) (2.7 A) also adopt the open conformation, indicating that the closed to open transition occurs after cAMP release. In the latter complexes, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) bind only to the high-affinity "B" metal site associated with substrate/product stabilization. Ca(2+) thus stabilizes the inactive conformation in both ATP- and PP(i)-bound states.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms 1 to 9 are differentially expressed in tissues and constitute an interesting drug target. ACs 1 to 8 are activated by the diterpene, forskolin (FS). It is unfortunate that there is a paucity of AC isoform-selective activators. To develop such compounds, an understanding of the structure/activity relationships of diterpenes is necessary. Therefore, we examined the effects of FS and nine FS analogs on ACs 1, 2, and 5 expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. Diterpenes showed the highest potencies at AC1 and the lowest potencies at AC2. We identified full agonists, partial agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists, i.e., diterpenes that reduced basal AC activity. Each AC isoform exhibited a distinct pharmacological profile. AC2 showed the highest basal activity of all AC isoforms and highest sensitivity to inverse agonistic effects of 1-deoxy-forskolin, 7-deacetyl-1,9-dideoxy-forskolin, and, particularly, BODIPY-forskolin. In contrast, BODIPY-forskolin acted as partial agonist at the other ACs. 1-Deoxy-forskolin analogs were devoid of agonistic activity at ACs but antagonized the effects of FS in a mixed competitive/noncompetitive manner. At purified catalytic AC subunits, BODIPY-forskolin acted as weak partial agonist/strong partial antagonist. Molecular modeling revealed that the BODIPY group rotates promiscuously outside of the FS-binding site. Collectively, ACs are not uniformly activated and inhibited by FS and FS analogs, demonstrating the feasibility to design isoform-selective FS analogs. The two- and multiple-state models, originally developed to conceptualize ligand effects at G-protein-coupled receptors, can be applied to ACs to explain certain experimental data.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 05/2008; 325(1):27-36. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membrane adenylyl cyclases (mACs) play an important role in signal transduction and are therefore potential drug targets. Earlier, we identified 2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) (MANT)-substituted purine nucleotides as a novel class of highly potent competitive mAC inhibitors (Ki values in the 10 nM range). MANT nucleotides discriminate among various mAC isoforms through differential interactions with a binding pocket localized at the interface between the C1 and C2 domains of mAC. In this study, we examine the structure/activity relationships for 2',3'-substituted nucleotides and compare the crystal structures of mAC catalytic domains (VC1:IIC2) bound to MANT-GTP, MANT-ATP, and 2',3'-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) (TNP)-ATP. TNP-substituted purine and pyrimidine nucleotides inhibited VC1:IIC2 with moderately high potency (Ki values in the 100 nM range). Elongation of the linker between the ribosyl group and the MANT group and substitution of N-adenine atoms with MANT reduces inhibitory potency. Crystal structures show that MANT-GTP, MANT-ATP, and TNP-ATP reside in the same binding pocket in the VC1:IIC2 protein complex, but there are substantial differences in interactions of base, fluorophore, and polyphosphate chain of the inhibitors with mAC. Fluorescence emission and resonance transfer spectra also reflect differences in the interaction between MANT-ATP and VC1:IIC2 relative to MANT-GTP. Our data are indicative of a three-site mAC pharmacophore; the 2',3'-O-ribosyl substituent and the polyphosphate chain have the largest impact on inhibitor affinity and the nucleotide base has the least. The mAC binding site exhibits broad specificity, accommodating various bases and fluorescent groups at the 2',3'-O-ribosyl position. These data should greatly facilitate the rational design of potent, isoform-selective mAC inhibitors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The circular dichroism (CD) spectra of single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs) are significantly perturbed by the binding of single-stranded DNA binding proteins such as the Ff bacteriophage gene 5 protein (g5p) and the A domain of the 70 kDa subunit of human replication protein A (RPA70-A). These two proteins have similar OB-fold secondary structures, although their CD spectra at wavelengths below 250 nm differ greatly. The spectrum of g5p is dominated by a tyrosyl L(a) band at 229 nm, while that of RPA70-A is dominated by its beta secondary structure. Despite differences in their inherent spectral properties, these two proteins similarly perturb the spectra of bound nucleic acid oligomers. CD spectra of free, non-protein-bound ssDNAs are dependent on interactions of the nearest-neighboring nucleotides in the sequence. The CD spectra (per mol of nucleotide) of simple repetitive sequences 48 nucleotides in length and containing simple combinations of A and C are related by nearest-neighbor equations. For example, 3 x Deltaepsilon[d(AAC)(16)] = 3 x Deltaepsilon[d(ACC)(16)] + Deltaepsilon[d(A)(48)] - Deltaepsilon[d(C)(48)]. Moreover, nearest-neighbor equations relate the spectra of ssDNAs when they are bound by g5p, indicating that each type of perturbed nearest neighbor has a similar average structure within the binding site of the protein.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulatory G-proteins of adenylyl cyclase (AC), G(i) and G(s), are not only activated by GTP and the stable GTP analogs, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTPgammaS) and guanosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate (GppNHp), but also by hypoxanthine, xanthine, uracil and cytidine nucleotides. The latter nucleotides were previously used to analyze distinct active G-protein states. Surprisingly, recent studies have shown that inosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and uridine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate can also inhibit AC directly. Therefore, we systematically compared the interactions of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates (NTPs), nucleoside 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphates (NTPgammaSs) and nucleoside 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphates (NppNHps) with G(i), G(s) and AC. NTPgammaSs exhibited up to 26,000-fold higher affinity for G-proteins than NTPs and NppNHps. NTPgammaSs were up to 150-fold more potent direct AC inhibitors than NTPs and NppNHps. G-proteins exhibited striking preference for guanine nucleotides compared to other purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, whereas base-selectivity of various ACs, particularly the purified catalytic subunits C1.C2, was rather poor. GTP, GTPgammaS and GppNHp exhibited much higher selectivity for G-proteins relative to AC than all other purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. We have energetically characterized the interactions of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides with AC in silico, constructing pharmacophore models that correlate well with experimental affinities and have elucidated specific amino acid residues with greatest influence on nucleotide binding. Collectively, both G-proteins and ACs bind purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, with G-proteins showing much higher base-selectivity than AC. Thus, direct inhibitory effects of nucleotides on AC should be understood and considered when probing distinct active G-protein states with non-guanine nucleotides.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membrane-bound mammalian adenylyl cyclase (mAC) catalyzes the synthesis of intracellular cyclic AMP from ATP and is activated by stimulatory G protein alpha subunits (Galpha(s)) and by forskolin (FSK). mACs are inhibited with high potency by 2 '(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) (MANT)-substituted nucleotides. In this study, the crystal structures of the complex between Galpha(s).GTPgammaS and the catalytic C1 and C2 domains from type V and type II mAC (VC1.IIC2), bound to FSK and either MANT-GTP.Mg(2+) or MANT-GTP.Mn(2+) have been determined. MANT-GTP coordinates two metal ions and occupies the same position in the catalytic site as P-site inhibitors and substrate analogs. However, the orientation of the guanine ring is reversed relative to that of the adenine ring. The MANT fluorophore resides in a hydrophobic pocket at the interface between the VC1 and IIC2 domains and prevents mAC from undergoing the "open" to "closed" domain rearrangement. The K(i) of MANT-GTP for inhibition of VC1.IIC2 is lower in the presence of mAC activators and lower in the presence of Mn(2+) compared with Mg(2+), indicating that the inhibitor binds more tightly to the catalytically most active form of the enzyme. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-stimulated emission from the MANT fluorophore upon excitation of Trp-1020 in the MANT-binding pocket of IIC2 is also stronger in the presence of FSK. Mutational analysis of two non-conserved amino acids in the MANT-binding pocket suggests that residues outside of the binding site influence isoform selectivity toward MANT-GTP.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2005; 280(8):7253-61. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammals express nine membranous adenylyl cyclase isoforms (ACs 1-9), a structurally related soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and a soluble AC (sAC). Moreover, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus pertussis produce the AC toxins, edema factor (EF), and adenylyl cyclase toxin (ACT), respectively. 2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate is a potent competitive inhibitor of AC in S49 lymphoma cell membranes. These data prompted us to study systematically the effects of 24 nucleotides on AC in S49 and Sf9 insect cell membranes, ACs 1, 2, 5, and 6, expressed in Sf9 membranes and purified catalytic subunits of membranous ACs (C1 of AC5 and C2 of AC2), sAC, sGC, EF, and ACT in the presence of MnCl(2). N-Methylanthraniloyl (MANT)-GTP inhibited C1.C2 with a K(i) of 4.2 nm. Phe-889 and Ile-940 of C2 mediate hydrophobic interactions with the MANT group. MANT-inosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate potently inhibited C1.C2 and ACs 1, 5, and 6 but exhibited only low affinity for sGC, EF, ACT, and G-proteins. Inosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and uridine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate were mixed G-protein activators and AC inhibitors. AC5 was up to 15-fold more sensitive to inhibitors than AC2. EF and ACT exhibited unique inhibitor profiles. At sAC, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine 3'-triphosphate was the most potent compound (IC(50), 690 nm). Several MANT-adenine and MANT-guanine nucleotides inhibited sGC with K(i) values in the 200-400 nm range. UTP and ATP exhibited similar affinities for sGC as GTP and were mixed sGC substrates and inhibitors. The exchange of MnCl(2) against MgCl(2) reduced inhibitor potencies at ACs and sGC 1.5-250-fold, depending on the nucleotide and cyclase studied. The omission of the NTP-regenerating system from cyclase reactions strongly reduced the potencies of MANT-ADP, indicative for phosphorylation to MANT-ATP by pyruvate kinase. Collectively, AC isoforms and sGC are differentially inhibited by purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2004; 279(19):19955-69. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene 5 protein (g5p) from Ff filamentous virus is a model single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that has an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB)-fold structure and binding properties in common with other ssDNA-binding proteins. In the present work, we use circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to analyze the effects of amino acid substitutions on the binding of g5p to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) compared to its binding to ssDNA. CD titrations of poly[d(A). d(T)] with mutants of each of the five tyrosines of the g5p showed that the 229-nm CD band of Tyr34, a tyrosine at the interface of adjacent protein dimers, is reversed in sign upon binding to the dsDNA, poly[d(A). d(T)]. This effect is like that previously found for g5p binding to ssDNAs, suggesting there are similarities in the protein-protein interactions when g5p binds to dsDNA and ssDNA. However, there are differences, and the possible perturbation of a second tyrosine, Tyr41, in the complex with dsDNA. Three mutant proteins (Y26F, Y34F, and Y41H) reduced the melting temperature of poly[d(A). d(T)] by 67 degrees C, but the wild-type g5p only reduced it by 2 degrees C. This enhanced ability of the mutants to denature dsDNA suggests that their binding affinities to dsDNA are reduced more than are their binding affinities to ssDNA. Finally, we present evidence that when poly[d(A). d(T)] is melted in the presence of the wild-type, Y26F, or Y34F proteins, the poly[d(A)] and poly[d(T)] strands are separately sequestered such that renaturation of the duplex is facilitated in 2 mM Na(+).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) have biological activity in treating various forms of cancer. The antisense effects of two types of 20mer ODNs, phosphorothioate-modified ODNs (S-ODNs) and S-ODNs with 12 2'-O-methyl groups (Me-S-ODNs), targeted to sites 109 and 277 of bcl-2 mRNA, were compared. Both types were at least as effective as G3139 (Genta, Inc.) in reducing the level of Bcl-2 protein in T24 cells following a 4 h transfection at a dose of 0.1 micro M. Circular dichroism spectra showed that both types formed A-form duplexes with the complementary RNA, and the melting temperatures were in the order of Me-S-ODN.RNA > normal DNA.RNA > S-ODN.RNA. In comparison with the S-ODN, the Me-S-ODN had reduced toxic growth inhibitory effects, was less prone to bind the DNA-binding domain A of human replication protein A, and was as resistant to serum nucleases. Neither type of oligomer induced apoptosis, according to a PARP-cleavage assay. Hybrids formed with Me-S-ODN sequences were less sensitive to RNase H degradation than those formed with S-ODN sequences. Despite this latter disadvantage, the addition of 2'-O-methyl groups to a phosphorothioate-modified ODN is advantageous because of increased stability of binding and reduced non-specific effects.
Nucleic Acids Research 01/2004; 32(6):2008-16. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The assembly and stability of the RNA polymerase II transcription preinitiation complex on a eukaryotic core promoter involves the effects of TFIIA on the interaction between TATA-binding protein (TBP) and DNA. To extend our understanding of these interactions, we characterized properties of ALF, a germ cell-specific TFIIA-like factor. ALF was able to stabilize the binding of TBP to DNA, but it could not stabilize TBP mutants A184E, N189E, E191R, and R205E nor could it facilitate binding of the TBP-like factor TRF2/TLF to a consensus TATA element. However, phosphorylation of ALF with casein kinase II resulted in the partial restoration of complex formation using mutant TBPs. Studies of ALF-TBP complexes formed on the Adenovirus Major Late (AdML) promoter revealed protection of the TATA box and upstream sequences from -38 to -20 (top strand) and -40 to -22 (bottom strand). The half-life and apparent K(D) of this complex was determined to be 650 min and 4.8 +/- 2.7 nm, respectively. The presence of ALF or TFIIA did not significantly alter the ability of TBP to bind TATA elements from several testis-specific genes. Finally, analysis of the distinct, nonhomologous internal regions of ALF and TFIIAalpha/beta using circular dichroism spectroscopy provided the first evidence to suggest that these domains are unordered, a result consistent with other genetic and biochemical properties. Overall, the results show that while the sequence and regulation of the ALF gene are distinct from its somatic cell counterpart TFIIAalpha/beta, the TFIIAgamma-dependent interactions of these factors with TBP are nearly indistinguishable in vitro. Thus, a role for ALF in the assembly and stabilization of initiation complexes in germ cells is likely to be similar or identical to the role of TFIIA in somatic cells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2002; 277(37):34208-16. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene 5 protein (g5p) of the Ff virus contains five Tyr, individual mutants of which have now all been characterized by CD spectroscopy. The protein has a dominant tyrosyl 229-nm L(a) CD band that is shown to be approximately the sum of the five individual Tyr contributions. Tyr41 is particularly important in contributing to the high cooperativity with which the g5p binds to ssDNA, and Y41F and Y41H mutants are known to differ in dimer-dimer packing interactions in crystal structures. We compared the solution structures and binding properties of the Y41F and Y41H mutants using CD spectroscopy. Secondary structures of the mutants were similar by CD analyses and close to those derived from the crystal structures. However, there were significant differences in the binding properties of the two mutant proteins. The Y41H protein had an especially low binding affinity and perturbed the spectrum of poly[d(A)] in 2 mM Na(+) much less than did Y41F and the wild-type gene 5 proteins. Moreover, a change in the Tyr 229 nm band, assigned to the perturbation of Tyr34 at the dimer-dimer interface, was absent in titrations with the Y41H mutant under low salt conditions. In contrast, titrations with the Y41H mutant in 50 mM Na(+) exhibited typical CD changes of both the nucleic acid and the Tyr 229-nm band. Thus, protein-protein and g5p-ssDNA interactions appeared to be mutually influenced by ionic strength, indicative of correlated changes in the ssDNA binding and cooperativity loops of the protein or of indirect structural constraints.
Protein Science 04/2002; 11(3):601-13. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the problems that hamper the use of antisense DNAs as effective drugs is the non-specific binding of chemically-modified oligonucleotides to cellular proteins. We previously showed that the affinity of a model ssDNA-binding protein, the Ff gene 5 protein (g5p), was >300-fold higher for phosphorothioate-modified DNA (S-DNA) than for unmodified dA(36), consistent with the propensity of S-DNA to bind indiscriminately to proteins. The current work shows that g5p binding is also sensitive to sugar and pyrimidine modifications used in antisense oligomers. Binding affinities of g5p for 10 36mer oligomers were quantitated using solution circular dichroism measurements. The oligomers contained C-5-propyne (prC), 2'-O-methyl (2'-O-Me) or 2'-OH (RNA) groups, alone or combined with the phosphorothioate modification. In agreement with reported increases in antisense activity, the addition of prC or 2'-O-Me modifications substantially reduced the affinity of oligomers for g5p by approximately 2-fold compared with the same DNA oligomer sequences containing only phosphorothioate linkages. That is, such modifications moderated the propensity of the phosphorothioate group to bind tightly to the g5p. The Ff g5p could be a useful model protein for assessing non-specific binding effects of antisense oligomer modifications.
Nucleic Acids Research 03/2002; 30(3):749-58. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We review CD studies of a single-stranded DNA binding protein, g5p, of the Ff group of bacterial viruses. The CD spectrum of the g5p is dominated by a positive tyrosine La band at 229 nm, to which all five of the protein tyrosines contribute. The La band becomes much less positive upon binding of g5p to nucleic acids. CD spectra of mutant proteins identified a single tyrosine, Y34, that is largely responsible for this CD perturbation. At >250 nm, CD perturbations of nucleic acids can be monitored during g5p binding, and CD titrations have identified two distinct modes of binding of the g5p at physiological ionic strength (0.2 M NaCl). SELEX selection of sequences bound preferentially by g5p yielded a G-rich sequence that is closely related to telomere sequences and has CD properties of a G-tetraplex. CD spectroscopy showed that the presumed G-quadruplex form is maintained within saturated g5p x DNA complexes.
Enantiomer A Journal of Stereochemistry 01/2002; 7(2-3):49-58.