[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analysed 53 cases of laboratory-confirmed Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection with cough lasting ≥7 days and chest radiography showing no abnormal findings. Twenty-two (41%) of those patients showed abnormal findings on chest high-resolution computed tomography. In the daily clinical setting, for assessment of acute cough, physicians should be aware that it is difficult to confirm bronchiolitis or bronchopneumonia due to M. pneumoniae by chest radiography.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated differences in the clinical findings between 30 patients with macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and 43 patients with macrolide-sensitive M. pneumoniae pneumonia in adolescents and adults. No differences in clinical presentation were observed between the two groups. Among patients with macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, treatment was more effective in the groups that received quinolones and minocycline than in the group that received macrolides (p = 0.0361 and p = 0.0237, respectively).
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outbreaks of Mycoplasma pneumoniae have occurred in closed surroundings, including among families, university students, in military camps, and in schools, but available data on outbreaks of macrolide-resistant (MR) M. pneumoniae are limited. We encountered a family outbreak of MR M. pneumoniae pneumonia in four sisters (16, 14, 10, and 8 years of age). M. pneumoniae was isolated from all four patients, and an A-to-G transition at position 2063 in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene was identified. Although three of four patients received azithromycin, which is the first-choice antimycoplasmal agent, this agent was not effective. All isolates had an identical antibiotic susceptibility pattern. The MIC values for 14- and 15-membered macrolides, such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, were >128, >128, and 64 μg/ml, respectively. On admission, all four patients were diagnosed with suspected M. pneumoniae pneumonia using the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) guidelines scoring system. We carried out culture and polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection of M. pneumoniae in their parents (mother, 49 years old, and father, 56 years old) four times, but no M. pneumoniae organism was detected using either test. In conclusion, MR M. pneumoniae strains can occur in outbreaks in closed surroundings, such as within families, as well as macrolide-sensitive strains. To prevent outbreaks of M. pneumoniae infection, especially MR M. pneumoniae, in closed populations, physicians should pay careful attention to the potential occurrence of infections involving MR M. pneumoniae.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 04/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Several symptoms are classically thought to be suggestive of pertussis in children, but the diagnostic value of these symptoms in adolescent and adult patients is unclear. We evaluated the accuracy of the clinical findings for the early presumptive diagnosis of pertussis in adolescent and adult patients. Furthermore, we measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) with regard to whether we could distinguish eosinophilic inflammation of the airway and pertussis. FeNO is not expected to be associated with pertussis. METHODS: We compared 183 cases with laboratory-confirmed pertussis using serology and polymerase chain reaction and 1,132 cases without laboratory-confirmed pertussis. RESULTS: Among pertussis patients, paroxysmal cough was common with 90% sensitivity, but the specificity was low (25%). Posttussive vomiting and whoop were less common (sensitivity 25% and 19%, respectively), but both showed greater specificity for pertussis (80% and 86%, respectively). Posttussive gagging was observed with intermediate frequency and provided greater specificity (49% and 77%, respectively). Pertussis cases were most frequent between May and August with a peak in June. The mean FeNO value for the pertussis patients was 18.2 +/- 9.2 ppb, which was significantly lower than that in asthma patients (56.9 +/- 20.3 ppb, p <0.001). The most useful definition was posttussive vomiting and/or gagging, and a plus normal FeNO value, which had a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 70%. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical symptoms and laboratory data are of limited value in making the diagnosis of pertussis, and it was clinically difficult to differentiate adolescent and adult patients with or without pertussis. However, pertussis should be considered if patients have posttussive vomiting and/or gagging and a normal FeNO concentration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 27-year-old, previously healthy woman was admitted to our hospital for mild pneumonia. After 2 days ceftriaxone sodium administration, her chest radiograph revealed a rightward mediastinal shift caused by atelectasis of the upper portion of the right lung. Bronchoscopic examination showed swelling in the right upper lobe bronchus and obstruction in the B1 segmental bronchus caused by complete edematous swelling. Histopathology showed acute cellular bronchitis with edema of the bronchial wall containing lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected by culture and a polymerase chain reaction test using sputum collected during bronchoscopy, and treatment was changed to minocycline. After 7 days antibiotic therapy, her condition improved and no relapse was observed. Identification of point mutations in domain V of the 23S rRNA for macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae was performed, and an A-to-G transition at position 2063 in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene was identified. Atelectasis caused by M. pneumoniae is thought to be a common associated finding in pediatric patients, but it is rare in adults. In addition, our patient showed extremely unusual findings with obstruction caused by complete edematous swelling.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 03/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nursing and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP) is a new category that is distinct from community-acquired pneumonia that has been documented in the 2011 Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) guidelines. We aimed to evaluate an ELNAS Plate test for detecting anti-Chlamydophila pneumoniae-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in patients with NHCAP, by comparing the results of the ELNAS test with those of the Hitazyme enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Hitazyme-ELISA) and those of immunoblotting and microimmunofluorescence (MIF) tests. During the study period, we enrolled 739 patients with pneumonia in a university hospital and 812 patients with pneumonia in a community hospital; of these, 250 (34 %) and 349 (43 %), respectively, were classified as having NHCAP. C. pneumoniae pneumonia was detected in five cases by the MIF test and ELNAS test. All five cases demonstrated significant IgG antibody seroconversion, while one case was IgM-positive. Sixty-seven of the total of 599 patients (11 %) were C. pneumoniae IgM-positive on the Hitazyme-ELISA. One of the IgM-positive cases was confirmed by other methods and was shown to be a true positive. In the remaining cases, however, three other tests-the ELNAS test, the MIF test, and immunoblotting analysis-did not reveal any positive cases. The ELNAS, Hitazyme-ELISA, and MIF tests did not detect any significant increases in IgG or IgA antibody titers between paired sera. The results of the newly available ELNAS test for detecting anti-C. pneumoniae-specific IgM antibody correlated well with the results of the other established serological tests. To increase the diagnostic rate in patients with NHCAP, physicians should measure IgG antibody rather than IgM antibody using paired sera.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 10/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atypical pathogens Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae play an important role in community-acquired pneumonia. However, it has been pointed out that positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Hitazyme C. pneumoniae) IgM reactivity is frequent among M. pneumoniae pneumonia patients. To clarify the reactivity of ELISA IgM in M. pneumoniae pneumonia, findings were compared with immunoblotting, ELNAS Plate C. pneumoniae (ELNAS) and the micro-immunofluorescence (MIF) test. Ninety-eight serologically confirmed cases with M. pneumoniae pneumonia and 10 cases with C. pneumoniae pneumonia were enrolled in this study. C. pneumoniae IgM-positive cases measured by the ELISA were observed in 30 (30 %) patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia. However, there were no positive cases by immunoblotting, ELNAS, or MIF test. These cases determined to be IgM positive only in the ELISA were all negative by another serological test, recombinant enzyme immunoassay (rEIA), and these positive results in the ELISA were considered to be false-positive reactions. In contrast, IgM-positive findings in patients with C. pneumoniae pneumonia did not show any positive reaction in M. pneumoniae antibody titer. ELISA showed a high frequency of false-positive findings in patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia, which included false-positive cases with a high titer for IgM. To accurately diagnose C. pneumoniae infection in various studies, including respiratory infections, researchers should consider the IgM false-positive reaction with ELISA in patients with suspected atypical pneumonia.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 10/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates in Japanese pediatric patients has increased rapidly, there have been no reports concerning macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infection in adolescents aged 16 to 19 years old. The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in adolescent patients with community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: A total of 99 cases with M. pneumoniae pneumonia confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture were analyzed. Forty-five cases were pediatric patients less than 16 years old, 26 cases were 16 to 19-year-old adolescent patients and 28 cases were adult patients. Primers for domain V of 23S rRNA were used and DNA sequences of the PCR products were compared with the sequence of an M. pneumoniae reference strain. RESULTS: Thirty of 45 pediatric patients (66%), 12 of 26 adolescent patients (46%) and seven of 28 adult patients (25%) with M. pneumoniae pneumonia were found to be infected with macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MR patients). Although the prevalence of resistant strains was similar in pediatric patients between 2008 and 2011, an increase in the prevalence of resistant strains was observed in adolescent patients. Among 30 pediatric MR patients, 26 had an A-to-G transition at position 2063 (A2063G) and four had an A-to-G transition at position 2064 (A2064G). In 12 adolescent MR patients, 10 showed an A2063G transition and two showed an A2064G transition, and in seven adult MR patients, six showed an A2063G transition and one showed an A2064G transition. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae is high among adolescent patients as well as pediatric patients less than 16-years old. To prevent outbreaks of M. pneumoniae infection, especially macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae, in closed populations including among families, in schools and in university students, physicians should pay close attention to macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objective: The Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) scoring system is a useful tool for the early and simple presumptive diagnosis of atypical pneumonia (Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia). However, it has been suggested that it is difficult to diagnose atypical pneumonia in the elderly using this system. In the present study, we evaluated the accuracy and usefulness of the JRS scoring system for diagnosing atypical pneumonia in different age groups. Methods: Cases of M. pneumoniae (n = 262), C. pneumoniae (n = 98) and common bacterial pneumonia (n = 364) were analysed. Results: For both atypical pneumonias, the frequency of comorbid illnesses and being in a higher risk category were significantly greater in elderly (age ≥60 years) than in non-elderly patients (age <60 years). One or more additional aetiological factors were more frequently present in elderly than in non-elderly patients. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for atypical pneumonia were 39% and 88%, respectively, in the elderly group, and 86% and 88%, respectively, in the non-elderly group. When the patients were stratified into 10-year age groups, the diagnostic sensitivity was highest in the 18- to 29-year age group and decreased from the youngest to the oldest age group. Conclusions: These results indicate that it is difficult to distinguish between atypical pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia in the elderly using the JRS scoring system. When treating patients aged ≥60 years, physicians should use fluoroquinolones or β-lactam antibiotics + macrolides as empirical first-choice drugs so as to always provide antibiotic protection against potential atypical pathogens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the positive response rate with QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex disease.
We evaluated 62 subjects with M. avium complex disease. QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube was performed for all the subjects. The positive response rate with QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube and the history of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients who showed a positive response were evaluated.
Seven patients (11.3%) showed a positive response with QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube. These patients were elderly (age, 72-87 years) and had a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Eleven other patients with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis showed a negative response with QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube.
Half or less than half of the elderly patients with M. avium complex disease and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis showed a positive response with QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Japan Respiratory Society documented a new category of guidelines for nursing and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP), which is distinct from community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological differences between NHCAP patients in a teaching university hospital and a community hospital. In addition, to clarify the strategy for treatment of NHCAP, we investigated the role of atypical pathogens.
We analyzed 250 NHCAP and 421 CAP cases in a university hospital and 349 NHCAP and 374 CAP cases in a community hospital.
Patient age and the incidences of poor general condition were significantly higher in the community hospital compared with those in the university hospital. The distribution and frequency of pathogens, especially multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, were significantly different between the two hospitals. Central nervous system disorders, dementia and poor performance status, which was possibility related to aspiration pneumonia, were significantly more frequent in patients with NHCAP compared with those with CAP in both hospitals. Atypical pathogens were detected in a few cases in patients with NHCAP.
There were many differences in the clinical characteristics between NHCAP patients in a university hospital and a community hospital even for hospitals located in the same area. Aspiration pneumonia was thought to be the main characteristic of NHCAP in both hospitals. Thus, all NHCAP patients did not need the same empiric therapy with a multidrug regimen directed against MDR pathogens. In addition, physicians rarely need to consider atypical pathogens in NHCAP treatment.
Internal Medicine 01/2012; 51(6):585-94. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Moxifloxacin is a respiratory quinolone that is expected to be useful for treating community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, but few clinical studies and not a detailed evaluation of its pharmacokinetics have been conducted in Japan in patients with pneumonia. We assessed the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin in 18 patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis. There was significant improvement in body temperature, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, and chest X-ray score on day 3 of moxifloxacin treatment, which persisted until the completion of treatment (all p < 0.05). Nine strains, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Enterobacter cloacae, were isolated from sputum cultures of nine patients. The isolated strains were eradicated by moxifloxacin. The mean area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 hours [AUC(0-24 h) (AUC(0-24 h,ss))], maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), and trough plasma level (C(trough)) of moxifloxacin at steady state was 52.0 μg h/ml, 4.5, and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively. Mean AUC(0-24 h,ss)/mimimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and C(max)/MIC ratios for patients in whom MICs of moxifloxacin were determined for pathogenic bacteria were 723 and 62, respectively. The median AUC(0-24 h,ss)/MIC and C(max)/MIC ratios (based on Monte Carlo simulation employing MICs for 257 strains of S. pneumoniae collected during a respiratory infection survey by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2007) were 209.56 and 17.88, respectively. Thus, when the target for the AUC/MIC ratio was set at ≥30 and that for the C(max)/MIC ratio at ≥5, the achievement rate for these two parameters was 97.36% and 96.71%, respectively. Two patients (11%) experienced three adverse effects [one nausea, another increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)], but the events were not serious. Based on these results, moxifloxacin (400 mg once daily) was considered useful for treating community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and is expected to show excellent efficacy and safety as well as suppressing the emergence of resistance.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 08/2011; 17(5):678-85. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 62-year-old female dialysis patient with chronic glomerulonephritis had been receiving hemodialysis therapy for 32 years. In 1985 she underwent a parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT); however, her parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels gradually increased. Her serum calcium level ranged from 9.0 to 10.0 mg/dL, which caused difficulties in performing vitamin D injection therapy. No parathyroid glands were seen by echography or scintigraphy. On 31 March 2008 her intact PTH (iPTH) level was 895 pg/mL so treatment with cinacalcet 25 mg/day was started. After 3 months her iPTH level decreased to 269 pg/mL and her hemoglobin level increased from 9.3 to 12.9 g/dL. In some cases of severe HPT, anemia improves after parathyroidectomy; however, in this case, cinacalcet improved not only secondary HPT but also anemia.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 04/2011; 15(4):607-10. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thoracic radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be offered to selected elderly patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The Okayama Lung Cancer Study Group (OLCSG) 0007 trial with patients up to 75 years showed that with concurrent RT, docetaxel and cisplatin (DP) chemotherapy was an alternative to mitomycin C, vindesine, and cisplatin (MVP) chemotherapy.
Of the 99 patients in the DP arm, 73 were younger than 70 years and 26 were 70 years or older. Of the 101 patients in the MVP arm, 75 were younger than 70 years and 26 were 70 years or older. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared using an early period weighted log-rank test. Toxicities and treatment intensities were compared by χ(2) and t tests, respectively.
OS and PFS tended to be longer in the DP arm versus MVP arm: median OS (months), 27.5 versus 22.9 (p = 0.109) and 25.6 versus 23.4 (p = 0.064) in the ≥70-year and <70-year groups, respectively; median PFS (months), 19.0 versus 11.5 (p = 0.175) and 12.0 versus 9.3 (p = 0.132) in the ≥70-year and less than 70-year groups, respectively. Severe toxicity (neutropenia, esophagitis, and pneumonitis) rates did not differ between age groups. Nevertheless, the absence of statistically significant differences in this retrospective analysis might be due to the small number of patients. Radiation intensity was similar between the groups, but chemotherapy intensity was lower in the ≥70-year group.
Chemotherapy with concurrent RT may be effective and tolerable in elderly patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 03/2011; 6(6):1087-91. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 59-year-old man with hypertension developed general fatigue, fever, and precordialgia in early March 2007. An antibacterial agent was intravenously administered; however, no improvement in his symptoms or laboratory findings was observed. He had acne and pustulosis, and radiographs and CT of the chest revealed sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis. As a result, the diagnosis was revised to SAPHO syndrome, and he improved with steroid administration. SAPHO syndrome is a condition that is rarely found at the initial examination in the Department of Internal Medicine. We report a case with a discussion of the literature.
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 11/2010; 48(11):810-4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is slowly progressive inflammatory pulmonary syndrome due to Aspergillus spp. The evidence regarding CPA treatment is limited. We conducted a randomized, multicenter, open-label trial comparing intravenous micafungin (MCFG) of 150-300 mg once daily with intravenous voriconazole (VRCZ) of 6 mg/kg twice on Day 1 followed by 4 mg/kg twice daily for the treatment of 107 in patients with CPA to compare the efficacy and safety of both drugs as initial treatment in Japan. Treatment effectiveness was defined by clinical, mycological, radiological and serological responses 2 weeks after the initial administration and at the end of therapy. The total of 50 and 47 patients were assigned to the MCFG and VRCZ groups, respectively. The difference in efficacy rates between MCFG and VRCZ was not significant, either after 2 weeks [68.0% vs. 58.7%; the absolute difference, 9.3% with a 95% confidence interval (CI), -9.97 to 28.58, P = 0.344] or at the end of therapy (60.0% vs. 53.2%; the absolute difference, 6.8% with a 95% CI, -12.92 to 26.54, P = 0.499). In the safety evaluation, fewer adverse events occurred in the MCFG than VRCZ group (26.4% vs. 61.1%, P = 0.0004). MCFG was as effective as VRCZ and significantly safer than as an initial treatment of CPA. (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number, UMIN000001786.).
The Journal of infection 11/2010; 61(5):410-8. · 4.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we clinically reviewed 13 patients with Proteus mirabilis pneumonia who were admitted for treatment to Kawasaki Medical School Kawasaki Hospital, Okayama, Japan, between April 2006 and July 2009. Clinical features were retrospectively reviewed. Results showed that: (1) hospital-acquired pneumonia occurred in elderly patients with underlying diseases such as cerebrovascular disease; (2) some patients had complications of urinary tract infection due to P. mirabilis; (3) preadministration of antibacterial agents did not become a risk factor; (4) resistance for levofloxacin (LVFX) was observed; (5) prognosis was comparatively good (effective rate 84.7%).
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 10/2010; 16(5):364-6. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli pneumonia was clinically reviewed. Twenty-two patients with E. coli pneumonia were admitted for treatment to Kawasaki Medical School Kawasaki Hospital, between January 2006 and December 2008. Clinical features were retrospectively reviewed. Results showed that: (1) hospital-acquired pneumonia occurred in elderly patients with underlying diseases, such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; (2) more patients had complications of urinary-tract infection or alimentary infection due to E. coli; (3) previous administration of antibacterial agents did not become a risk factor; (4) resistance to ampicillin (ABPC) and levofloxacin (LVFX) was observed; and (5) mortality was 22.7%.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 03/2010; 16(3):216-8. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between procalcitonin and the severity and prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia. The subjects were 162 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (disease severity, mild, 39 patients; moderate, 81 patients; severe, 37 patients; and super severe, 5 patients) in whom we examined the serum procalcitonin concentration at the start of treatment; we determined the relationship of procalcitonin status with disease severity and prognosis. The results showed that procalcitonin was positive in 12.8% of the patients with mild disease, 27.1% of the patients with moderate disease, 59.5% of the patients with severe disease, and 80.0% of the patients with super severe disease. The mortality of procalcitonin-positive patients was 37.7%, whereas that of the procalcitonin-negative patients was 12.8%. Based on the above findings, it is concluded that the more severe the community-acquired pneumonia, the higher is the positivity rate for procalcitonin, and the prognosis in procalcitonin-positive patients is worse than that in procalcitonin-negative patients.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 12/2009; 15(6):426-7. · 1.55 Impact Factor