Juan Flores

Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valenza, Valencia, Spain

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Publications (20)65.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction In general, HIV co-infected patients included in clinical trials evaluating the hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy with telaprevir (TVR) or boceprevir (BOC) with advanced fibrosis, are scarce. We analyze data concerning the use of these drugs in a real-life clinical setting with patients affected by a more advanced degree of fibrosis in a Spanish cohort. Methods We evaluated safety and efficacy in an interim analysis encompassing the first 24 weeks of triple therapy with peginterferon (alfa-2a or alfa-2b), ribavirin and TVR or BOC in an observational, multicentre study. HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients beginning therapy from January 2012 to July 2013 were included. Results Enrolled patients were 155 (144 patients on TVR and 11 on BOC), average age was 47 years, 83% were male. With respect to HCV treatment, 44% were naïve, 13% relapsers, 17% partial responders, 21% null responders, and in seven patients, the previous response was unknown. All but three (98%) were under antiretroviral therapy (ART) (other than reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the backbone was raltegravir 43%, atazanavir 35%, and etravirine 28%). Median HCV-RNA at baseline was 6.1 log10, 54% were cirrhotic and 38% F3. At week 4, 93% of patients continued on therapy, 81% at w12, and 73% at w24. Virological failure was observed more frequently in: cirrhotic patients (19% [95% CI, 11–27]) vs F3 (12% [CI, 4–20]); patients with TT allele of the IL28B polymorphism (40% [CI, 18–61]) vs CT (21% [CI, 12–31]), or CC (2,2% [CI, −2–6]); previous null responders (37.5% [CI, 21–54]) vs partial responders (15.4% [CI, 1–29]), naïve (13% [CI, 5–21]) or relapsers (0% [CI, 0–0]); and in patients with a genotype subtype 1a (23.6% [CI, 57–76]) vs 1b (8.1% [CI, −1–17]). Overall, 17% had virological failure and in 8% treatment was discontinued due to adverse events. Severe adverse events occurred in 30 patients (19%). Haematologic disorders were the most common type including severe anaemia in 12 (7.7%) patients. Erythropoietin was employed in 41 patients (26.4%) and 11 (7.1%) received blood transfusions. Nineteen patients (12.2%) were treated with G-CSF, and 17 (11%) with thrombopoietin-receptor agonists. Five patients died (3.2%), three due to hepatic decompensation, one due to pneumonia and one due to pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions In a real-life setting, therapy against HCV in co-infected patients with advanced liver fibrosis shows high virologic success at 24 weeks. However, frequent haematologic disorders are observed and a close monitoring and an intensive therapy are needed to optimize the results.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19634. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19634 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction In a previous interim 24-week virological safety analysis of the PROTEST study [1], initiation of Maraviroc (MVC) plus 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in aviremic subjects based on genotypic tropism testing of proviral HIV-1 DNA was associated with low rates of virological failure. Here we present the final 48-week analysis of the study. Methods PROTEST was a phase 4, prospective, single-arm clinical trial (ID: NCT01378910) carried on in 24 HIV care centres in Spain. Maraviroc-naïve HIV-1-positive adults with HIV-1 RNA (VL) <50 c/mL on stable ART during the previous 6 months, requiring an ART change due to toxicity, with no antiretroviral resistance to the ART started, and R5 HIV by proviral DNA genotypic tropism testing (defined as a G2P FPR >10% in a singleton), initiated MVC with 2 NRTIs and were followed for 48 weeks. Virological failure was defined as two consecutive VL>50 c/mL. Recent adherence was calculated as: (# pills taken/# pills prescribed during the previous week)*100. Results Tropism results were available from 141/175 (80.6%) subjects screened: 87/141 (60%) were R5 and 74/87 (85%) were finally included in the study. Their median age was 48 years, 16% were women, 31% were MSM, 36% had CDC category C at study entry, 62% were HCV+ and 10% were HBV+. Median CD4+ counts were 616 cells/mm3 at screening, and median nadir CD4+ counts were 143 cells/mm3. Previous ART included PIs in 46 (62%) subjects, NNRTIs in 27 (36%) and integrase inhibitors (INIs) in 1 (2%). The main reasons for treatment change were dyslipidemia (42%), gastrointestinal symptoms (22%), and liver toxicity (15%). MVC was given alongside TDF/FTC in 40 (54%) subjects, ABC/3TC in 30 (40%), AZT/3TC in 2 (3%) and ABC/TDF in 2 (3%). Sixty-two (84%) subjects maintained VL<50 c/mL through week 48, whereas 12 (16%) discontinued treatment: two (3%) withdrew informed consent, one (1%) had a R5→X4 shift in HIV tropism between the screening and baseline visits, one (1%) was lost to follow-up, one (1%) developed an ART-related adverse event (rash), two (3%) died due to non-study-related causes (1 myocardial infarction at week 0 and 1 lung cancer at week 36), and five (7%) developed protocol-defined virological failure, although two of them regained VL<50 c/mL with the same MVC regimen (Table 1). Conclusions Initiation of MVC plus 2 NRTIs in aviremic subjects based on genotypic tropism testing of proviral HIV-1 DNA is associated with low rates of virological failure up to one year.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19520. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19520 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To present clinical experience with a regimen including abacavir/lamivudine + darunavir/ritonavir in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients. A retrospective, multicentre cohort study, including all consecutive adult HIV-1-infected patients who started abacavir/lamivudine + darunavir/ritonavir from April 2008 to December 2010 and had at least one follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was HIV-1 viral load (VL) <40 copies/mL at week 48. One hundred and eighty-three patients (42 naive and 141 experienced) from 19 hospitals in Spain were studied. The median follow-up was 26.7 (0.5-58.6) months, 79.8% were men, the median age was 47.1 (21.4-80.5) years, 26.2% had AIDS and 38.8% were positive for hepatitis C virus. At baseline, the median CD4 count was 246 cells/mm(3) in naive patients and 393 cells/mm(3) in experienced patients and the median VL was 4.80 and <1.59 log copies/mL, respectively. At week 48, 81.8% of naive patients and 84.2% of experienced patients receiving the regimen reached a VL <40 copies/mL, whereas at 96 weeks this occurred in 90.5% and 92.8%, respectively. CD4 cell count increases at 48 and 96 weeks were +176.5 and +283.5 cells/mm(3) in naive patients and +74.9 and +93 cells/mm(3) in experienced patients, respectively. Overall, 86 (47%) patients discontinued the study regimen, in many cases possibly related to non-medical reasons, such as drug switches to reduce cost or changes in address due to economic constraints. Three patients died of causes unrelated to therapy and 19 (10.4%) discontinued the regimen due to adverse events. In our cohort, abacavir/lamivudine + darunavir/ritonavir was safe, well tolerated and achieved high rates of virological suppression. In a proportion of patients, discontinuation of this effective regimen was possibly due to non-medical reasons.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 05/2014; 69(9). DOI:10.1093/jac/dku157 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (ATV/r) is a potent, well-tolerated, once-daily protease inhibitor (PI). Few data are available on this agent as a treatment simplification option for patients taking other PIs. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of ATV-containing regimens in patients who have simplified their antiretroviral treatment. Methods SIMPATAZ was a multicentre, prospective, noninterventional study in patients who had undetectable HIV RNA on their current PI-containing therapy and who were switched to an ATV/ r-based regimen. Patients underwent a routine physical examination, and data were collected on HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, liver function, lipid parameters, adverse reactions, adherence to treatment and patient satisfaction. Results A total of 183 patients were enrolled in the study and included in the analysis (80% were male, 29% had AIDS, and 52% were coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus). The median baseline CD4 count was 514 cells/mL. Median exposure to previous HIV therapy was 8 years, and 32% of patients had a history of PI failures. Lopinavir boosted with ritonavir was the most frequent PI replaced (62%) and tenofovir1lamivudine /emtricitabine the backbone most used during the study (29%). The study drug was discontinued early by 25 patients (14%), two of whom discontinued as a result of adverse events (Hodgkin lymphoma and vomiting). Two patients died (lung cancer and myocardial infarction). At month 12, 93% of the study population had an undetectable HIV RNA viral load. Hyperbilirubinaemia 43 mg/dL and increased alanine aminotransferase levels4200 IU/L were observed in 38.5% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Median changes from baseline to month 12 in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were �13 mg/dL (�7%; Po0.0001), �19 mg/dL (�13%; Po0.0001) and �7 mg/dL (�6%; P50.021), respectively. Conclusions In a real-world setting, switching from other PIs to ATV/r is a well-tolerated and safe option for improving the lipid profile and for retaining virological resp
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to present the most relevant musculoskeletal disorders, their diagnosis and treatment to the scientific community and the professionals in charge of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. These recommendations have been agreed by a panel of experts from the National AIDS Plan (PNS) and the AIDS Study Group (GESIDA). The group have reviewed the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials, cohort studies and pharmacokinetic studies published in biomedical journals (PubMed and Embase), or presented at conferences. Three levels of evidence have been defined according to the sources of data: level A, randomized controlled trials; level B, cohort or case-control; and level C, descriptive studies and expert opinion. Based on this evidence, the authors have decided to recommend, consider or not recommend for each situation. The decrease in bone mineral density is common in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment, especially during the first year (from 2 to 4%), with a subsequent partial recovery. A dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan is recommended in patients over 50 years old with HIV infection, history of bone fractures and/or risk factors. Treatment with bisphosphonates has been shown to be effective. Osteoarticular infections are more frequent than in the non-infected population. The level of immunosuppression, risk practice, and antiretroviral treatment should be considered for a proper diagnosis and therapeutic approach. Laboratory and imaging procedures recommended for the study of musculoskeletal processes in HIV infected subjects are the same as in the general population. Osteonecrosis and decreased bone mineral density are the most frequent alterations in children. An early diagnosis of bone disorders is needed. The influence of modifiable risk factors must be avoided and initiate treatment when necessary. Bisphosphonates have been effective in osteoporosis.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 08/2011; 29(7):515-523. DOI:10.1016/j.eimc.2011.01.009 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (ATV/r) is a potent, well-tolerated, once-daily protease inhibitor (PI). Few data are available on this agent as a treatment simplification option for patients taking other PIs. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of ATV-containing regimens in patients who have simplified their antiretroviral treatment. Methods SIMPATAZ was a multicentre, prospective, noninterventional study in patients who had undetectable HIV RNA on their current PI-containing therapy and who were switched to an ATV/r-based regimen. Patients underwent a routine physical examination, and data were collected on HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, liver function, lipid parameters, adverse reactions, adherence to treatment and patient satisfaction. Results A total of 183 patients were enrolled in the study and included in the analysis (80% were male, 29% had AIDS, and 52% were coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus). The median baseline CD4 count was 514 cells/μL. Median exposure to previous HIV therapy was 8 years, and 32% of patients had a history of PI failures. Lopinavir boosted with ritonavir was the most frequent PI replaced (62%) and tenofovir+lamivudine /emtricitabine the backbone most used during the study (29%). The study drug was discontinued early by 25 patients (14%), two of whom discontinued as a result of adverse events (Hodgkin lymphoma and vomiting). Two patients died (lung cancer and myocardial infarction). At month 12, 93% of the study population had an undetectable HIV RNA viral load. Hyperbilirubinaemia >3 mg/dL and increased alanine aminotransferase levels>200 IU/L were observed in 38.5% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Median changes from baseline to month 12 in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were −13 mg/dL (−7%; P<0.0001), −19 mg/dL (−13%; P<0.0001) and −7 mg/dL (−6%; P=0.021), respectively. Conclusions In a real-world setting, switching from other PIs to ATV/r is a well-tolerated and safe option for improving the lipid profile and for retaining virological response in controlled pretreated patients.
    HIV Medicine 10/2010; 11(9):545-553. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (ATV/r) is a potent, well-tolerated, once-daily protease inhibitor (PI). Few data are available on this agent as a treatment simplification option for patients taking other PIs. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of ATV-containing regimens in patients who have simplified their antiretroviral treatment. SIMPATAZ was a multicentre, prospective, noninterventional study in patients who had undetectable HIV RNA on their current PI-containing therapy and who were switched to an ATV/r-based regimen. Patients underwent a routine physical examination, and data were collected on HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, liver function, lipid parameters, adverse reactions, adherence to treatment and patient satisfaction. A total of 183 patients were enrolled in the study and included in the analysis (80% were male, 29% had AIDS, and 52% were coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus). The median baseline CD4 count was 514 cells/μL. Median exposure to previous HIV therapy was 8 years, and 32% of patients had a history of PI failures. Lopinavir boosted with ritonavir was the most frequent PI replaced (62%) and tenofovir+lamivudine /emtricitabine the backbone most used during the study (29%). The study drug was discontinued early by 25 patients (14%), two of whom discontinued as a result of adverse events (Hodgkin lymphoma and vomiting). Two patients died (lung cancer and myocardial infarction). At month 12, 93% of the study population had an undetectable HIV RNA viral load. Hyperbilirubinaemia >3 mg/dL and increased alanine aminotransferase levels>200 IU/L were observed in 38.5% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Median changes from baseline to month 12 in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were -13 mg/dL (-7%; P<0.0001), -19 mg/dL (-13%; P<0.0001) and -7 mg/dL (-6%; P=0.021), respectively. In a real-world setting, switching from other PIs to ATV/r is a well-tolerated and safe option for improving the lipid profile and for retaining virological response in controlled pretreated patients.
    HIV Medicine 03/2010; 11(9):545-53. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2010.00827.x · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the short-term, liver safety, immunological, and virological outcome in HIV subjects according to their hepatitis co-infection status after switching to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r)-based therapy. Rates of treatment discontinuation, changes in liver enzyme values, viral load, and CD4+ T-cell counts responses from patients included in the Bristol-Myers Squibb Atazanavir Early Access Program (BMS ATV EAP) were evaluated in hepatitis C and/or B co-infected patients (co-infected) and non-co-infected. A total of 304 subjects with known HCV and/or HBV status from 55 centers were included in the analysis: 180 co-infected and 124 HIV non-co-infected. Accumulated follow-up until study closure was 762 and 551 person-months in the co-infected and non-co-infected subjects, respectively. The proportion of discontinuations through Month 6 was 9.4% (co-infected) and 5.6% (non-co-infected). Discontinuations due to elevated liver enzymes [1.7% (co-infected) and 0% (non-co-infected)] and due to scleral icterus/jaundice [4.4% (co-infected) and 3.2% (non-co-infected)] were low and similar between groups. Only three subjects (1%) discontinued due to virological failure. Successful virological outcome (viral load <500 copies/mL or a decrease >1 log(10)) was observed in 74% of subjects in each group. CD4+ T-cell count changes were +51 (co-infected) and +53 cells/mm3 (non-co-infected). Short-term effectiveness and liver safety in HCV and or HBV co-infected patients changing to an ATV/r-based regimen was similar to that observed in non-co-infected patients.
    HIV Clinical Trials 07/2009; 10(4):269-75. DOI:10.1310/hct1004-269 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The strategy of switching nevirapine (NVP) twice daily to once daily was evaluated. Forty-eight-week randomized, open, multicenter trial. Stable HIV-infected patients on NVP twice daily for >12-18 weeks with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) <2.5, the upper normal limit were randomized to continue their regimen or switch to NVP 400 mg once daily. Primary end point was the proportion of ALT/aspartate transaminase (AST) > or =grade 3. Two hundred eighty-nine patients were included, mean CD4 620 cells per microliter. Noninferiority was demonstrated in the per protocol analysis, with 97.9% (once daily) and 99.3% (twice daily) of patients event free (difference, 1.4%; 95% confidence interval, -1.95% to 5.4%), whereas 81.8% vs. 93.8% were event free by intent-to-treat switch = toxicity analysis (difference, 12%; 95% confidence interval, 4.6% to 19.4%). Only 4 patients (3 once daily, 1 twice daily) had NVP-related grade 3/4 ALT/AST increases, but in 2 of them (once daily), transaminases decreased despite continuation with NVP. Two other once daily patients presented grade 3/4 ALT/AST increase due to well-documented acute hepatitis A virus or hepatitis C virus infection. Grade 2 ALT/AST increases occurred in 11.2% (once daily) vs. 10.3% (twice daily) of patients (P = 0.80). A larger number of once daily patients were lost to follow-up/violated protocol (15% vs. 5%). In patients on standard twice daily NVP-containing regimens for at least 12-18 weeks, per protocol analysis showed that switching to once daily NVP was not inferior to continued twice daily NVP in terms of the predefined noninferiority margin of 10% for hepatotoxicity.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 02/2009; 50(4):390-6. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318198a0cc · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the satisfaction with self-injected enfuvirtide (ENF) and the clinical outcome of HIV-infected patients without very advanced disease. ESPPE is a multicenter observational study that included 103 evaluated patients showing baseline characteristics predictive of positive outcome: CD4 >100 cells/mm3, viral load (VL) <100,000 copies/mL, previous treatment with a maximum of 10 antiretroviral drugs, and concomitant use of 2 active drugs. By using validated surveys, patients were questioned 6 months after the prescription of ENF about their quality of life (QoL) and acceptance of self-injections and adherence to the treatment. At 6 months, the mean CD4 increase was 121 cells/mm3 (p < .05) and 65% (intent-to-treat, ENF stopped=failure) had VL <50 copies/mL (p < .001). Fourteen patients discontinued the treatment, mostly due to intolerance (6). The majority (>89%) assessed all items relating QoL as "excellent," "very good," or "good." The treatment satisfaction index on a visual analog scale scored a median of 8.1 out of 10; when participants were asked about the interference of injections on their daily activities, 87% answered "never" or "only sometimes." Effectiveness and patients' perception about ENF remain good when ENF was used in patients without very advanced disease. QoL was not impaired after ENF use.
    HIV Clinical Trials 03/2008; 9(2):83-90. DOI:10.1310/hct0902-83 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2008; 11. DOI:10.1186/1758-2652-11-S1-P64 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of HAART combining 2 nucleoside analogues reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus one protease inhibitor (PI) or 2 NRTIs + 1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) has shown comparable efficacy. The study was designed to compare long term (2 years) effectiveness of two antiretroviral (ARV) treatment strategies in patients not previously treated: starting with a nelfinavir based HAART switching to nevirapine in case of failure or side effects or the reverse sequence. This multicenter, randomized, open label clinical trial enrolled ARV-naïve HIV patients with CD4 counts below 500 cells/mm3. They were randomly assigned to start ddI + d4T + nelfinavir (switching to ZDV + 3TC + NEV in case of failure or toxicity) (PI-NEV arm) or ddI + d4T + nevirapine, switching to ZDV + 3TC + NFV in case of failure or toxicity (NEV-PI arm). The primary study endpoint was the Kaplan-Meier estimates of the time to failure after switching to second regimen if necessary (considering failure as two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA determinations above 200 copies/mL, death, a new category C event or toxicity leading to treatment discontinuation of the second regimen) after a minimum follow-up of two years. A total of 137 patients were evaluable (67 and 70 in the PI-NEV and NEV-PI arms respectively). Baseline characteristics did not differ among groups. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to failure did not show differences between the two arms neither in the on-treatment (OT) analysis (log rank test, p = 0.81) nor in the intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis (p = 0.58). At 24 months, the estimated proportion of patients free of failure were 72% and 66% respectively in the PI-NEV and NEV-PI arms OT analysis (p = 0.54) and 73% and 64% in the PI-NEV and NEV-PI arms in the ITT analysis (p = 0.49). The difference in the median in CD4+ lymphocyte count at 24 months was not significantly different in the two groups: 393 and 307 CD4 cells/mm3 in the PI-NEV and NEV-PI arms respectively (p = 0.167). The incidence of adverse events (AEs) in the two arms was very similar: 50 (75%) in the PI-NEV and 54 (70%) in the NEV-PI group, as it was for grade 3-4 AEs leading to drug switching. At two years both treatments strategies (PI-NEV vs NEV-PI) had a high and comparable efficacy and were generally well tolerated.
    Revista Clínica Española 11/2007; 207(9):427-32. DOI:10.1157/13109831 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stavudine (d4T) has shown a favourable short and long-term tolerability profile. Nevertheless, its usage is currently decreasing due to some safety concerns. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of d4T low-dose-based regimens. This was a multicenter and retrospective review chart of patients receiving standard doses of d4T for > or = 6 months (weight > 60 kg: 40 mg/12 h; weight < 60 kg: 30 mg/12 h) and having undetectable viral load for at least 3 months before the d4T dose reduction (weight > 60 kg: 30 mg/12 h; weight < 60 kg: 20 mg/12 h). Immunological and viral parametres, lipid profile and side effects were determined. A total of 982 patients were included. The main reason for reducing the dose was prevention of toxicity (76%). After 6 months of follow-up, 97% and 84% patients had less than 400 and 50 cp/ml, respectively, and the CD4 cell count increased by 38 cel/ml. Lipids, lipodystrophy and peripheral polineuropathy improved but there was no statistical significance. A d4T dose reduction in an immuno-virologically stable population does not affect treatment efficacy. Longer follow-ups are required to confirm improvements in the safety profile.
    Medicina Clínica 09/2007; 129(10):361-5. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective Stavudine (d4T) has shown a favourable short and long-term tolerability profile. Nevertheless, its usage is currently decreasing due to some safety concerns. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of d4T low-dose-based regimens. Patients and method This was a multicenter and retrospective review chart of patients receiving standard doses of d4T for ≥ 6 months (weight > 60 kg: 40 mg/12 h; weight < 60 kg: 30 mg/12 h) and having undetectable viral load for at least 3 months before the d4T dose reduction (weight > 60 kg: 30 mg/12 h; weight < 60 kg: 20 mg/12 h). Immunological and viral parametres, lipid profile and side effects were determined. Results A total of 982 patients were included. The main reason for reducing the dose was prevention of tocixity (76%). After 6 months of follow-up, 97% and 84% patients had less than 400 and 50 cp/ml, respectively, and the CD4 cell count increased by 38 cel/ml. Lipids, lipodystrophy and peripheral polineuropathy improved but there was no statistical significance. Conclusions A d4T dose reduction in an immuno-virologically stable population does not affect treatment efficacy. Longer follow-ups are required to confirm improvements in the safety profile.
    Medicina Clínica 09/2007; 129(10):361-365. DOI:10.1157/13110209 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enfuvirtide is a high-cost, parenterally administered drug commonly used in late phases of HIV infection, when its efficacy may be compromised. To optimize enfuvirtide use, consensus recommendations for this purpose have been formulated by 247 physicians attending patients with HIV infection in Spain. A literature review was performed in which grades of evidence and recommendations were defined according to the origin of the data (randomized clinical trials, non-randomized studies, expert opinion). Twenty-eight local consensus meetings were held between May and September 2005 to discuss the most important aspects related to the use of enfuvirtide, following a pre-established system used in all the meetings. The main conclusions were as follows: a) enfuvirtide use is often excessively delayed and is given to patients with little chance of treatment success; b) enfuvirtide is indicated in patients who require antiretroviral treatment and for whom an optimum treatment with three other fully effective drugs cannot be designed; c) the most important prognostic factor is the availability of at least one other completely active drug; d) there is no infallible method to avoid the development of local reactions, but measures are available to decrease their incidence and severity; and e) patient counseling and training for correct administration of the drug are essential to improve adherence, the repercussions of local reactions and, of course, the efficacy of the treatment.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 03/2007; 25(2):131-42. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enfuvirtide is a high-cost, parenterally administered drug commonly used in late phases of HIV infection, when its efficacy may be compromised. To optimize enfuvirtide use, consensus recommendations for this purpose have been formulated by 247 physicians attending patients with HIV infection in Spain. A literature review was performed in which grades of evidence and recommendations were defined according to the origin of the data (randomized clinical trials, non-randomized studies, expert opinion). Twenty-eight local consensus meetings were held between May and September 2005 to discuss the most important aspects related to the use of enfuvirtide, following a pre-established system used in all the meetings. The main conclusions were as follows: a) enfuvirtide use is often excessively delayed and is given to patients with little chance of treatment success; b) enfuvirtide is indicated in patients who require antiretroviral treatment and for whom an optimum treatment with three other fully effective drugs cannot be designed; c) the most important prognostic factor is the availability of at least one other completely active drug; d) there is no infallible method to avoid the development of local reactions, but measures are available to decrease their incidence and severity; and e) patient counseling and training for correct administration of the drug are essential to improve adherence, the repercussions of local reactions and, of course, the efficacy of the treatment.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 02/2007; 25(2):131–142. DOI:10.1157/13098573 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of data on clinical epidemiology of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients. We aimed to describe patients' characteristics and natural history of this poorly known condition. All cases of symptomatic HIV-related osteonecrosis diagnosed from 1990 through 2003 in 19 Spanish clinics were reviewed. Functional status at the last visit was assessed with the validated Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index questionnaire. Of 54 patients analyzed, 29 (53.7%) had a single bone necrosis, and 25 (46.3%) had 2 or more sites involved. Progression of symptoms happened more often in patients with hip involvement (17/39 vs 0/8 patients; P = 0.019). Twenty patients (37%) required surgical intervention. Male sex and higher CD4 cell count were associated with surgery on multivariable analysis. Overall, at the end of the follow-up period, half of the patients had moderate to severe disability (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index score > or =60). During a follow-up period of 137 person-years, only 2 new episodes of osteonecrosis were observed (rate of recurrences, 1.5/100 person-years; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-5.1). HIV-related osteonecrosis is associated with significant disability over time. Location of bone necrosis, sex, and CD4 cell count may influence the outcome. The risk for recurrences for patients who have experienced 1 episode is low.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 08/2006; 42(3):286-92. DOI:10.1097/01.qai.0000225012.53568.20 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the safety and effectiveness of abacavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine (ABC/3TC/ZDV) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-infected patients. Retrospective observational cohort study. We analyzed all consecutive ART-naive HIV-infected patients who initiated ABC/3TC/ZDV in 71 centers throughout Spain and had a clinical visit and laboratory data at least 16 weeks after initiating this regimen. We assessed safety, mortality, new AIDS-defining conditions (ADCs) and treatment failure, the latter defined by any of the following: (1) reduction in plasma HIV-1 viral load (pVL) <1 log during the first 12 weeks of ART, unless it was less than the lower limit of quantification (LOQ); (2) failure to achieve a pVL <LOQ after 24 weeks of ART; and (3) rebound to 2 consecutive pVLs > or = LOQ after achieving a pVL <LOQ. A total of 730 patients were included, median patient age was 37 years, prior ADCs occurred in 20%, median pVL was 4.76 log, and median CD4 count was 255 cells/mm; 109 (14.9%) patients had <100 CD4 cells/mm. After a median follow-up of 50.5 weeks (interquartile ratio: 28-78), 104 (14.25%) patients discontinued therapy because of adverse events and 36 (4.93%) had a suspected hypersensitivity reaction to ABC. The frequency of treatment failure according to an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis of observed data was 14.4%. In a more rigorous approach considering losses to follow-up and interruptions or switches of therapy as failures, however, the frequency of treatment failure was 22.92%. Factors independently associated with treatment failure by observed data ITT analysis were adherence <90% (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.248, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.640 to 6.833), methadone use (HR = 2.116, 95% CI: 1.180 to 3.797), baseline pVL (HR = 1.651, 95% CI: 1.190 to 2.292 per log), and prior ADC (HR = 1.639, 95% CI: 1.009 to 2.662). The triple-nucleoside regimen of ABC/3TC/ZDV is a reasonable option for ART-naive patients with a pVL <100,000 copies/mL in whom, for any reason, preferred regimens are not advisable, even in patients with a baseline CD4 cell count <100 cells/mm.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 02/2006; 41(2):154-9. DOI:10.1097/01.qai.0000194231.08207.8a · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • AIDS 03/2002; 16(3):481-3. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: All cases of avascular necrosis of the bone (AVN) diagnosed in HIV-infected patients from 1990 to 2000 in two Spanish provinces were examined. The frequency of AVN has increased since 1996, reaching a high of 1.19 cases per 1000 HIV-infected patients in the year 2000. AVN was predominantly seen in patients with advanced HIV disease and 86% had at least one risk factor previously associated with AVN. Ninety-one percent had had previous exposure to antiretroviral drugs and 70% had been given HAART before developing AVN.
    AIDS 02/2002; 16(3):481-483. DOI:10.1097/00002030-200202150-00021 · 6.56 Impact Factor