R Vilana

Southern Medical Clinic, San Fernando, City of San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago

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Publications (87)345.7 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the absence of hepatic artery signal on Doppler ultrasound (DUS) in the immediate postoperative period after liver transplant.
    European radiology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To prospectively assess the diagnostic accuracy of the incorporation of additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in those based on contrast enhancement pattern for the diagnosis of solitary nodules between 5 and 20mm, detected during surveillance in patients with cirrhosis. Between November 2003 and January 2010, we prospectively included 159 cirrhotic patients with a newly detected solitary nodule between 5 and 20mm in diameter by screening ultrasonography (US). Hepatic MRI and fine-needle biopsy were performed in all patients. Final diagnoses were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n=103), other malignant lesions (intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma/metastases) (n=4), and benign lesions (n=52). The specific enhancement pattern (arterial enhancement followed by washout) yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 58.3% and 96.4%, respectively. Peritumoral capsule was present in 43 HCC and in 2 non-HCC lesions. Intralesional fat was detected in 24 nodules; 5 nodules were non-HCC. Finally, the presence of both capsule and fat was observed in 10 cases, all of them HCC (100% specificity), but all of them also displayed the specific enhancement pattern, thus adding no sensitivity or specificity. Conclusive non-invasive diagnosis of HCC in cirrhosis should be based only on the contrast enhancement pattern, while other characteristics at MRI do not increase the diagnostic accuracy.
    Journal of Hepatology 02/2012; 56(6):1317-23. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional pathological analysis fails to achieve sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in small nodules. Immunohistochemical staining for glypican 3 (GPC3), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glutamine synthetase (GS) has been suggested to allow a confident diagnosis but no prospective study has established the diagnostic accuracy of this approach. The aim of this study is to assess prospectively the diagnostic accuracy of a panel of markers (GPC3, HSP70, GS) for the diagnosis of HCC in patients with cirrhosis with a small (5-20 mm) nodule detected by ultrasound screening. Sixty patients with cirrhosis with a single nodule 5-20 mm newly detected by ultrasound were included in the study. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, magnetic resonance and fine needle biopsy of the nodule (gold standard) were performed; the biopsy was repeated in case of diagnostic failures. Three consecutive sections of the first biopsy sample with meaningful material were stained with antibodies against GPC3, HSP70 and GS. Forty patients were diagnosed with HCC. The sensitivity and specificity for HCC diagnosis were: GPC3 57.5% and 95%, HSP70 57.5% and 85%, GS 50% and 90%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the different combinations were: GPC3+HSP70 40% and 100%; GPC3+GS 35% and 100%; HSP70+GS 35% and 100%; GPC3+HSP70+GS 25% and 100%. When at least two of the markers were positive (regardless of which), the sensitivity and specificity were 60% and 100%, respectively. Conventional pathological analysis yielded three false negative results, but the addition of this panel only correctly classified one of these cases as HCC. These data within a prospective study establish the clinical usefulness of this panel of markers for the diagnosis of early HCC. However, the panel only slightly increases the diagnostic accuracy in an expert setting.
    Gut 01/2012; 61(10):1481-7. · 10.73 Impact Factor
  • Hepatology 09/2011; 54(6):2238-44. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 70-year-old man with operated colorectal cancer relapsed with a solitary lung metastasis. Dual time-point PET/CT performed at 60' (standard images) and after 2 hours (delayed images) showed focal uptake in the lung nodule. A second uptake in the liver dome was also visualized only in the delayed images. Radiofrequency of the lung metastasis was performed by CT-fluoroscopy guide. A PET/CT 1 month after radiofrequency showed significant reduction of activity in the delayed images, and the uptake at 3 months was virtually normal. A fine-needle biopsy of the liver lesion confirmed the final diagnosis of metastasis from adenocarcinoma.
    Clinical nuclear medicine 07/2011; 36(7):603-5. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This addendum is aimed to review and discuss the updated non-invasive diagnostic algorithm recently published by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD).
    Radiología 03/2011; 53(2):156-8.
  • Journal of Hepatology - J HEPATOL. 01/2011; 54.
  • Journal of Hepatology - J HEPATOL. 01/2011; 54.
  • Article: Reply:
    Alejandro Forner, Ramón Vilana, Jordi Bruix
    Hepatology 08/2010; · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe the imaging features by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in cirrhosis patients. We registered the CEUS images of cirrhosis patients with histologically confirmed ICC. In all cases magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done to confirm the diagnosis and/or staging purposes. A total of 21 patients met all the criteria to be included in the study. The median nodule size was 32 mm. All nodules showed contrast enhancement at arterial phase; in 10 cases it was homogeneous and in 11 cases peripheral (rim-like). All nodules displayed washout during the venous phases; it appeared during the first 60 seconds in 10 nodules, between 60-120 seconds in five cases, and in six cases after 2 minutes. Ten nodules (five larger than 2 cm) displayed homogeneous contrast uptake followed by washout and they correspond to the specific pattern of hepatocellular carcinoma according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases criteria. However, none of these lesions displayed washout on MRI. CONCLUSION: CEUS should not be used as the sole imaging technique for conclusive hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis and if the MRI does not display the diagnostic vascular pattern, a confirmatory biopsy is mandatory.
    Hepatology 06/2010; 51(6):2020-9. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a tumor with a high incidence and high mortality. These data justify screening programs to enable curative treatments to improve survival rates. Screening the population at risk (mainly patients with cirrhosis of the liver) should include ultrasonographic examination twice yearly. Given the vascular characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma, it can be detected using dynamic techniques (contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, CT, and MRI). In cases in which the enhancement pattern is not characteristic, these techniques should be complemented with lesion biopsy. Once hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed, the tumor is staged, and together with the clinical condition of the patient, the stage will determine the most appropriate treatment strategy in each case.
    Radiología 01/2010; 52(5):385-98.
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    ABSTRACT: Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (CHC) are not candidates for surgical resection or liver transplantation because of their stage at the time of diagnosis. There are a series of locoregional treatments that achieve a high objective response rate in this group of patients. Percutaneous ablation is considered the best treatment option for CHC (BCLC stage 0/A) not amenable to surgical treatment. In multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma without vascular invasion or extrahepatic extension (BCLC stage B), the only treatment option that has been shown to improve survival in randomized controlled trials is chemoembolization. The evaluation of the effectiveness of these treatments is based on the reduction of viable tumor observed at CT, MRI, or contrast-enhanced US. In this article, we review the indications, technique, and therapeutic efficacy of the different locoregional treatments for CHC.
    Radiología 01/2010; 52(5):399-413.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of 10-MHz sonography in measuring melanoma thickness before biopsy or excision. Fifty-four patients with lesions suggestive of melanoma participated in the study. Lesions were measured on sonography using a 10-MHz linear transducer before routine biopsy and histopathologic analysis. Sonographic measurements were compared with histopathologic results (Breslow index) using Pearson's correlation coefficient and concordance analysis. Additional statistical analyses included sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 10-MHz sonography in identifying lesions > 1 mm thick. Histopathologic analysis identified all 54 lesions as melanoma. On sonography, 34 lesions measured < or = 1 mm and 20 lesions, > 1 mm. Histopathologic analysis showed 32 lesions with a Breslow index of < or = 1 mm and 22 lesions with a Breslow index of > 1 mm. The median thickness of the 54 lesions was 1.33 mm (range, 0-5 mm) by the Breslow index compared with 1.85 mm (range, 0-4.8 mm) by sonography. Comparison of sonographic measurements and Breslow index values gave a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and a concordance coefficient of 0.99. Overall, sonographic measurements showed 86% sensitivity, 97% specificity, 93% accuracy, 95% positive predictive value, and 91% negative predictive value in identifying lesions with a Breslow index of > 1 mm. In our series of 54 melanomas, 10-MHz sonography measured lesion thickness with good accuracy compared with histopathology. Sonography was effective in discriminating between tumors < or = 1 mm thick and those > 1 mm thick.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 09/2009; 193(3):639-43. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study assesses the magnetic resonance (MR) features of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in patients with cirrhosis with specific analysis of the contrast enhancement pattern. Cholangiocarcinoma may show increased contrast uptake in the arterial phase, and, if washout in the delayed venous phase were to be detected, the noninvasive diagnostic criteria proposed in the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines would be refuted. We reviewed the MR findings of 25 patients with cirrhosis with 31 histologically confirmed ICC nodules. Signal intensity on basal T1-weighted and T2-weighted images and characteristics of enhancement after contrast administration on arterial, portal, and delayed phase were registered. Enhancement pattern was defined according to the behavior of the lesions in each phase, and dynamic pattern was described according to the progression of enhancement throughout the different phases. The most frequent pattern displayed by ICC was a progressive contrast uptake (80.6%). Stable contrast enhancement was registered in 19.4%. None of the ICCs showed a washout pattern, a profile that is specific for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The ICC dynamic behavior differed significantly according to tumor size: progressive enhancement pattern was the most frequent (20 of 25 cases) in lesions larger than 20 mm, whereas the stable pattern was mainly identified in nodules smaller than 20 mm. The most characteristic MR contrast pattern in ICC in cirrhosis is a progressive contrast uptake throughout the different phases, whereas contrast washout at delayed phases is not observed. Because stable enhancement pattern without washout also can be registered in small HCC nodules, the evaluation of delayed phase is mandatory for a proper nodule characterization. If washout is not registered, a biopsy should be mandatory for diagnosis.
    Hepatology 06/2009; 50(3):791-8. · 12.00 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hepatology - J HEPATOL. 01/2009; 50.
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    ABSTRACT: This study prospectively evaluates the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of nodules 20 mm or smaller detected during ultrasound (US) surveillance. We included 89 patients with cirrhosis [median age, 65 years; male 53, hepatitis C virus 68, Child-Pugh A 80] without prior hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in whom US detected a small solitary nodule (mean diameter, 14 mm). Hepatic MRI, CEUS, and fine-needle biopsy (gold standard) (FNB) were performed at baseline. Non-HCC cases were followed (median 23 months) by CEUS/3 months and MRI/6 months. FNB was repeated up to 3 times and on detection of change in aspect/size. Intense arterial contrast uptake followed by washout in the delayed/venous phase was registered as conclusive for HCC. Final diagnoses were: HCC (n = 60), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 1), and benign lesions (regenerative/dysplastic nodule, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia) (n = 28). Sex, cirrhosis cause, liver function, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were similar between HCC and non-HCC groups. HCC patients were older and their nodules significantly larger (P < 0.0001). First biopsy was positive in 42 of 60 HCC patients. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of conclusive profile were 61.7%, 96.6%, 97.4%, and 54.9%, for MRI, 51.7%, 93.1%, 93.9%, and 50.9%, for CEUS. Values for coincidental conclusive findings in both techniques were 33.3%, 100%, 100%, and 42%. Thus, diagnosis of HCC 20 mm or smaller can be established without a positive biopsy if both CEUS and MRI are conclusive. However, sensitivity of these noninvasive criteria is 33% and, as occurs with biopsy, absence of a conclusive pattern does not rule out malignancy. These results validate the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD) guidelines.
    Hepatology 02/2008; 47(1):97-104. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Image-guided tumor ablation has a major role in the therapeutic management of hepatocellular carcinoma and the assessment of the efficacy of percutaneous ablation is crucial for the management of cirrhotic patients. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is extremely sensitive in detecting the intratumoral microvasculature in real time, with the same sensitivity in the detection of residual HCC as CT. CEUS has some advantages. It can be used before and during the ablative procedure as a guide for percutaneous needle placement. Moreover, CEUS can be performed almost immediately after ablation to determine whether the tumor has been completely ablated or needs additional treatment that can be performed in the same session, improving the cost-effectiveness of the treatment.
    European Radiology 01/2008; 17 Suppl 6:F80-8. · 4.34 Impact Factor
  • Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 06/2007; 26(5):671-4. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with spiral computed tomography (SCT) for the characterization of focal liver lesions (FLL) and to determine the degree of correlation between the two techniques. Seventy-seven FLL (45 hepatocellular carcinomas; 12 metastases; ten hemangiomas; two regenerating/dysplastic nodules; eight focal nodular hyperplasias) detected with ultrasound (US) were prospectively evaluated by CEUS using a second-generation contrast agent and SCT (with an interval of no more than one month between the two techniques). Independent observers made the most probable diagnosis and the results were compared with the final diagnoses (histology n = 59; MRI n = 18). Statistical analysis was performed by the Chi-square and Kappa tests. CEUS provided a correct, specific diagnosis in 69/77 (90%) of the FLL, while SCT did so in 67/77 (87%). The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy for malignancy were 91%, 90%, and 91%, respectively, for CEUS and 88%, 89%, and 88%, respectively, for SCT. No statistically significant difference was found between CEUS and SCT in the characterization of FLL (p > 0.05). In addition, agreement between the two imaging techniques was good (k = 0.75). We conclude that CEUS and SCT provide a similar diagnostic accuracy in the characterization of FLL, with a good degree of correlation between the two techniques.
    European Radiology 04/2007; 17(4):1066-73. · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with SonoVue to evaluate the response to percutaneous treatment (ethanol injection/radiofrequency) of hepatocellular carcinoma in comparison with spiral computed tomography (CT) immediately and 1 month after treatment. Forty-one consecutive cirrhotic patients with early stage tumor (not suitable for resection) were included. Spiral CT and CEUS were performed in all patients before treatment, in the following 24 h, and 1 month later. The results of each examination were compared with the 1-month spiral CT, considered the gold standard technique. The 24-h CEUS and the 24-h spiral CT sensitivity to detect residual disease were 27% and 20%, respectively. The 24-h CEUS and the 24-h spiral CT positive predictive value of persistent vascularization detection were 75% and 66%, respectively. The 1-month CEUS detected partial responses in ten out of 11 cases (91% sensitivity, 97% specificity, 95% accuracy). Spiral CT and CEUS performed in the 24 h following treatment are slightly useful to evaluate therapeutic efficacy. The 1-month CEUS has a high diagnostic accuracy compared with spiral-CT in the usual assessment of percutaneous treatment response.
    European Radiology 12/2006; 16(11):2454-62. · 4.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
345.70 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • Southern Medical Clinic
      San Fernando, City of San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago
  • 1989–2012
    • Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
      • Servicio de Radiodiagnóstico
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1992–2010
    • University of Barcelona
      • Department of Medicine
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2000
    • IDIBAPS August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain