[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myosin motor proteins are thought to carry out important functions in the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity by moving cellular components such as organelles, vesicles, or protein complexes along the actin cytoskeleton. In Arabidopsis thaliana, disruption of the myosin XIK gene leads to reduced elongation of the highly polar root hairs, suggesting that the encoded motor protein is involved in this cell growth. Detailed live-cell observations in this study revealed that xik root hairs elongated more slowly and stopped growth sooner than those in wild type. Overall cellular organization including the actin cytoskeleton appeared normal, but actin filament dynamics were reduced in the mutant. Accumulation of RabA4b-containing vesicles, on the other hand, was not significantly different from wild type. A functional YFP-XIK fusion protein that could complement the mutant phenotype accumulated at the tip of growing root hairs in an actin-dependent manner. The distribution of YFP-XIK at the tip, however, did not match that of the ER or several tip-enriched markers including CFP-RabA4b. We conclude that the myosin XIK is required for normal actin dynamics and plays a role in the subapical region of growing root hairs to facilitate optimal growth.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e76745. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In plant cells, the Golgi apparatus consists of numerous stacks that, in turn, are composed of several flattened cisternae with a clear cis-to-trans polarity. During normal functioning within living cells, this unusual organelle displays a wide range of dynamic behaviors such as whole stack motility, constant membrane flux through the cisternae, and Golgi enzyme recycling through the ER. In order to further investigate various aspects of Golgi stack dynamics and integrity, we co-expressed pairs of established Golgi markers in tobacco BY-2 cells to distinguish sub-compartments of the Golgi during monensin treatments, movement, and brefeldin A (BFA)-induced disassembly. A combination of cis and trans markers revealed that Golgi stacks remain intact as they move through the cytoplasm. The Golgi stack orientation during these movements showed a slight preference for the cis side moving ahead, but trans cisternae were also found at the leading edge. During BFA treatments, the different sub-compartments of about half of the observed stacks fused with the ER sequentially; however, no consistent order could be detected. In contrast, the ionophore monensin resulted in swelling of trans cisternae while medial and particularly cis cisternae were mostly unaffected. Our results thus demonstrate a remarkable equivalence of the different cisternae with respect to movement and BFA-induced fusion with the ER. In addition, we propose that a combination of dual-label fluorescence microscopy and drug treatments can provide a simple alternative approach to the determination of protein localization to specific Golgi sub-compartments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Root hairs are long tubular outgrowths of root epidermis cell that form to increase the root surface in order to assist in
the uptake of water and nutrients from soil. Root hair development consists of two distinct processes: root hair initiation
and tip growth. During both events, the dynamic organization of the cytoskeleton translates local signaling events into a
focused growth response that is critical during root hair growth. Microtubules are primarily important for maintenance of
the direction of tip growth. The actin cytoskeleton, on the other hand, is crucial for the selection of the root hair initiation
site and maintenance of tip growth. The unique cytoskeletal organization found in growing root hairs controls the polar delivery
of membranes to the apex in order to enlarge the cell unidirectionally. Signaling factors, such as calcium and reactive oxygen
species, are instrumental in maintaining polarity of the cytoskeleton, vesicle trafficking, and ultimately root hair growth.
Interestingly, these regulatory factors are interdependent upon each other, so that an elaborate set of feedback loops forms
that results in a stable self-organized cell polarity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome sequencing has identified a massive number of uncharacterized genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and several other plant species. To decipher these unknown gene functions, several transient expression assays have been developed as rapid and convenient alternatives to the lengthy creation of transgenic plants. As one of these transient assays, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation harnesses the natural capability of Agrobacterium to transfer foreign DNA into plant cells with intact cell walls. However, pioneering applications of Agrobacterium-based transient transformation to Arabidopsis have led to rather limited success with great variability. In this protocol, we describe a Fast Agrobacterium-mediated Seedling Transformation (FAST) technique for transient gene expression analysis in Arabidopsis and other dicot or monocot species. This technique makes use of the cocultivation of young plant seedlings with Agrobacterium in the presence of the surfactant Silwet L-77. The young seedlings can be grown easily and were found to be more susceptible to Agrobacterium transformation compared with adult plants. The surfactant facilitates transformation of plant cells, thus replacing wounding or a device-dependent vacuum step during plant transformation. This protocol provides a quick, efficient, and economical assay for gene function in intact plants with minimal manual handling and without the need for a dedicated device.
Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 05/2010; 2010(5):pdb.prot5428. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant genome sequencing has resulted in the identification of a large number of uncharacterized genes. To investigate these unknown gene functions, several transient transformation systems have been developed as quick and convenient alternatives to the lengthy transgenic assay. These transient assays include biolistic bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation, each having advantages and disadvantages depending on the research purposes.
We present a novel transient assay based on cocultivation of young Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings with Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the presence of a surfactant which does not require any dedicated equipment and can be carried out within one week from sowing seeds to protein analysis. This Fast Agro-mediated Seedling Transformation (FAST) was used successfully to express a wide variety of constructs driven by different promoters in Arabidopsis seedling cotyledons (but not roots) in diverse genetic backgrounds. Localizations of three previously uncharacterized proteins were identified by cotransformation with fluorescent organelle markers. The FAST procedure requires minimal handling of seedlings and was also adaptable for use in 96-well plates. The high transformation efficiency of the FAST procedure enabled protein detection from eight transformed seedlings by immunoblotting. Protein-protein interaction, in this case HY5 homodimerization, was readily detected in FAST-treated seedlings with Förster resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence complementation techniques. Initial tests demonstrated that the FAST procedure can also be applied to other dicot and monocot species, including tobacco, tomato, rice and switchgrass.
The FAST system provides a rapid, efficient and economical assay of gene function in intact plants with minimal manual handling and without dedicated device. This method is potentially ideal for future automated high-throughput analysis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytoplasmic streaming is a ubiquitous process in plant cells that is thought to be driven by the active movement of myosin XI motor proteins along actin filaments. These myosin motors bind to organelles through their C-terminal globular tail domain, although recent studies have also suggested a role for the central coiled-coil region during organelle binding. Here we have investigated the relationship between these two protein domains of MYA1, an Arabidopsis myosin XI, in a series of in vivo experiments demonstrating that dimerization of the coiled-coil region stabilizes organelle binding of the globular tail. Surprisingly, yeast two-hybrid assays, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, Förster resonance energy transfer and in vitro pull-down experiments all demonstrated that dimerization of the 174-residue MYA1 coiled coils by themselves was unstable. Furthermore, only the first of the two major coiled-coil segments in MYA1 contributed significantly to dimer formation. Interestingly, dimerization of myosin tail constructs that included the organelle-binding globular tail was stable, although the globular tails by themselves did not interact. This suggests an inter-dependent relationship between dimerization and organelle binding in myosin XI, whereby each process synergistically stimulates the other.
The Plant Journal 07/2008; 55(3):478-90. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actin-based organelle movements are driven by the related multifunctional myosin motors of class V in animals and fungi and class XI in plants. The versatility of these motors depends critically on their C-terminal globular tail domain that allows them to bind to a broad variety of cargo molecules. Regulation of this motor-cargo attachment is frequently employed to modulate organelle movement. While the overall structure of the cargo-binding globular tail appears to be conserved between myosin V and XI, it has become apparent that the motor-cargo interactions differ widely even within a single organism and involve protein complexes with different architecture and completely unrelated protein domains. At the same time, indirect evidence suggests that adaptor or receptor dimerization could facilitate efficient myosin capture. Comparison of myosin V and XI across the large evolutionary distance between animals and plants will likely reveal more fundamental insights into these important motors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome sequencing has resulted in the identification of a large number of uncharacterized genes with unknown functions. It is widely recognized that determination of the intracellular localization of the encoded proteins may aid in identifying their functions. To facilitate these localization experiments, we have generated a series of fluorescent organelle markers based on well-established targeting sequences that can be used for co-localization studies. In particular, this organelle marker set contains indicators for the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, the tonoplast, peroxisomes, mitochondria, plastids and the plasma membrane. All markers were generated with four different fluorescent proteins (FP) (green, cyan, yellow or red FPs) in two different binary plasmids for kanamycin or glufosinate selection, respectively, to allow for flexible combinations. The labeled organelles displayed characteristic morphologies consistent with previous descriptions that could be used for their positive identification. Determination of the intracellular distribution of three previously uncharacterized proteins demonstrated the usefulness of the markers in testing predicted subcellular localizations. This organelle marker set should be a valuable resource for the plant community for such co-localization studies. In addition, the Arabidopsis organelle marker lines can also be employed in plant cell biology teaching labs to demonstrate the distribution and dynamics of these organelles.
The Plant Journal 10/2007; 51(6):1126-36. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myosin XI are actin-based molecular motors that are thought to drive organelle movements in plants, analogous to myosin V in animals and fungi. Similar domain structure of these myosins suggests that binding to organelles may occur via the globular tail domain in both types of motors, even though sequence similarity is low. To address this hypothesis, we developed a structure homology model for the globular tail of MYA1, a myosin XI from Arabidopsis, based on the known structure of yeast myosin V (Myo2p) globular tail. This model suggested an interaction between two subdomains of the globular tail which was verified by yeast two-hybrid assay and by in vivo bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). Interface mapping demonstrated that this subdomain interaction depends critically on the C terminus of helix H6 as well as three specific residues in helices H3 and H15, consistent with the structural prediction. The reconstituted globular tails of several Arabidopsis myosin XIs in BiFC assays targeted to peroxisomes in plant cells, identifying this domain as sufficient for cargo binding. Unlike myosin V, either subdomain of myosin XI alone was targeting-competent and responsible for association with different organelles. In addition, our data suggest that organelle binding is regulated by an allosteric interaction between two tail subdomains. We conclude that the globular tail of myosin XI shares a similar structure with that of myosin V, but has evolved plant-specific cargo binding mechanisms.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2007; 282(28):20593-602. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many organelles in plant cells show amore or less random distribution in the interphase cell
but assume very specific positions during mitosis and/or cytokinesis. Most prominent among these is the
Golgi apparatus which is thought to provide the majority of raw materials for the assembly of the forming
cell plate. However, the localization of other organelles also seems to indicate specific functions during
cell division. In addition, organelle positioning mediated by the actin cytoskeleton has been implicated
in equal inheritance of organelles by the daughter cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge
of dynamic organelle positioning during mitosis and cytokinesis and discusses the mechanisms responsible
for the observed localizations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The processing of N-linked oligosaccharides in the secretory pathway requires the sequential action of a number of glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. We studied the spatial distribution of several type II membrane-bound enzymes from Glycine max, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Nicotiana tabacum. Glucosidase I (GCSI) localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), alpha-1,2 mannosidase I (ManI) and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GNTI) both targeted to the ER and Golgi, and beta-1,2 xylosyltransferase localized exclusively to Golgi stacks, corresponding to the order of expected function. ManI deletion constructs revealed that the ManI transmembrane domain (TMD) contains all necessary targeting information. Likewise, GNTI truncations showed that this could apply to other type II enzymes. A green fluorescent protein chimera with ManI TMD, lengthened by duplicating its last seven amino acids, localized exclusively to the Golgi and colocalized with a trans-Golgi marker (ST52-mRFP), suggesting roles for protein-lipid interactions in ManI targeting. However, the TMD lengths of other plant glycosylation enzymes indicate that this mechanism cannot apply to all enzymes in the pathway. In fact, removal of the first 11 amino acids of the GCSI cytoplasmic tail resulted in relocalization from the ER to the Golgi, suggesting a targeting mechanism relying on protein-protein interactions. We conclude that the localization of N-glycan processing enzymes corresponds to an assembly line in the early secretory pathway and depends on both TMD length and signals in the cytoplasmic tail.
The Plant Cell 12/2006; 18(11):3182-200. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is a natural biophysical phenomenon that underlies an emerging technique to monitor protein-protein interactions in living cells in real time. Here, we present a series of technical advances to enhance the utility of the BRET assay in plants. A series of recombination cloning vectors was generated to accelerate the expression of proteins tagged with Renilla luciferase or yellow fluorescent protein under transient assay conditions and in stable transgenic plants. Working in stably transformed Arabidopsis or tobacco, we then detected BRET between three pairs of candidate interaction partners: dimerization of the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1, interaction between COP1 and the B-box protein STH, and interaction between the light regulatory bZip transcription factors HY5 and HYH. A codon-optimized version of the Renilla luciferase gene resulted in improved expression in Arabidopsis. Renilla luciferase was active in a variety of subcellular organelles, including plastids, mitochondria, peroxisomes and Golgi stacks. In a survey of the Arabidopsis light signaling machinery as a model system, we estimated the likelihood that a known protein-protein interaction can be documented using BRET. Finally, we show that Renilla luciferase may serve as a reporter of protein stability in a cycloheximide chase assay.
The Plant Journal 11/2006; 48(1):138-52. · 6.58 Impact Factor