Lynn M Schuchter

University of Pennsylvania, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (52)496.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) extend survival in BRAF mutant melanoma but can promote the growth of Ras mutant neoplasms. This study determined if gastrointestinal polyps found in BRAFi-treated patients harbored Ras mutations. Colonic and gastric polyps were resected from BRAFi-treated melanoma patients. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on polyps. The ability of BRAFi to promote polyp formation was functionally characterized in Apc Min +/- mice. MAPK and beta catenin pathway activity was assessed by immunohistochemistry in mouse and human polyps. 14 patients treated with BRAFi underwent endoscopy to assess for polyps. Seven out of 7 patients >40 years of age and treated for >2 years were found to have colonic tubular adenomas with 4 out of the 7 patients having 5 or more polyps.No patient had adenocarcinoma. One patient presented with bleeding from hyperplastic gastric polyps that recurred 6 months after BRAFi rechallenge. NGS performed on polyps found no mutations in MAPK pathway genes, but found APC mutations in all tubular adenomas. A significant increase in the number of polyps was observed in BRAFi-treated compared to control-treated Apc Min +/- mice (20.8 ± 9.2 v. 12.8 ± 0.1; p=0.016). No polyps were observed in BRAFi-treated wild type mice. BRAF inhibitors may increase the risk of developing hyperplastic gastric polyps and colonic adenomatous polyps. Due to the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and the possibility of malignant transformation, further studies are needed to determine whether or not endoscopic surveillance should be recommended for patients treated with BRAF inhibitors. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Clinical Cancer Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-0469 · 8.19 Impact Factor
  • Tara C. Gangadhar · Lynn M. Schuchter
    07/2015; 1(4). DOI:10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.1237
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor signaling in the tumor microenvironment appear to cooperate in promoting tumor angiogenesis. We conducted a phase I trial combining bevacizumab (i.v. every 2 weeks) and imatinib (oral daily). Once a recommended phase II dose combination was established, a phase II trial was initiated in patients with metastatic melanoma. A Simon 2-stage design was used with 23 patients required in the first stage and 41 patients in total should the criteria to proceed be met. We required that 50% of the patients be progression-free at 16 weeks. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and power Doppler ultrasonography were performed in patients with metastatic tumors amenable to imaging with these methods at baseline and after 4 weeks. A total of 17 patients were accrued to 4 dose and combination levels. Bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks could be safely combined with imatinib 800 mg daily. Common toxicities included fatigue, nausea, vomiting, edema, proteinuria, and anemia, but were not commonly severe. A total of 23 patients with metastatic melanoma (48% with American Joint Commission on Cancer stage M1c; median age, 63 years) were enrolled in the first stage of phase II. The 16-week progression-free survival rate was 35%, leading to termination of phase II after the first stage. In the small subset of patients who remained on study with lesions evaluable by DCE-MRI, significant decreases in tumor vascular permeability were noted, despite early disease progression using the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. Bevacizumab and imatinib can be safely combined at the maximum doses used for each agent. We did not observe significant clinical activity with this regimen in melanoma patients. ©AlphaMed Press.
    The Oncologist 06/2015; DOI:10.1634/theoncologist.2015-0108 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immune checkpoint inhibitors result in impressive clinical responses, but optimal results will require combination with each other and other therapies. This raises fundamental questions about mechanisms of non-redundancy and resistance. Here we report major tumour regressions in a subset of patients with metastatic melanoma treated with an anti-CTLA4 antibody (anti-CTLA4) and radiation, and reproduced this effect in mouse models. Although combined treatment improved responses in irradiated and unirradiated tumours, resistance was common. Unbiased analyses of mice revealed that resistance was due to upregulation of PD-L1 on melanoma cells and associated with T-cell exhaustion. Accordingly, optimal response in melanoma and other cancer types requires radiation, anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-L1/PD-1. Anti-CTLA4 predominantly inhibits T-regulatory cells (Treg cells), thereby increasing the CD8 T-cell to Treg (CD8/Treg) ratio. Radiation enhances the diversity of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of intratumoral T cells. Together, anti-CTLA4 promotes expansion of T cells, while radiation shapes the TCR repertoire of the expanded peripheral clones. Addition of PD-L1 blockade reverses T-cell exhaustion to mitigate depression in the CD8/Treg ratio and further encourages oligoclonal T-cell expansion. Similarly to results from mice, patients on our clinical trial with melanoma showing high PD-L1 did not respond to radiation plus anti-CTLA4, demonstrated persistent T-cell exhaustion, and rapidly progressed. Thus, PD-L1 on melanoma cells allows tumours to escape anti-CTLA4-based therapy, and the combination of radiation, anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-L1 promotes response and immunity through distinct mechanisms.
    Nature 03/2015; 520(7547). DOI:10.1038/nature14292 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To investigate the roles of melanoma-associated macrophages in melanoma resistance to BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi). Experimental Design: An in vitro macrophage and melanoma cell co-culture system was used to investigate whether macrophages play a role in melanoma resistance to BRAFi. The effects of macrophages in tumor resistance were examined by proliferation assay, cell death assay and western blot analyses. Furthermore, two mouse preclinical models were used to validate whether targeting macrophages can increase the anti-tumor activity of BRAFi. Finally, the number of macrophages in melanoma tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry. Results: We demonstrate that in BRAF mutant melanomas, BRAFi paradoxically activate the MAPK pathway in macrophages to produce VEGF, which reactivates the MAPK pathway and stimulates cell growth in melanoma cells. Blocking the MAPK pathway or VEGF signaling, then reverses macrophage-mediated resistance. Targeting macrophages increases the anti-tumor activity of BRAFi in mouse and human tumor models. The presence of macrophages in melanomas predicts early relapse after therapy. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that macrophages play a critical role in melanoma resistance to BRAFi, suggesting that targeting macrophages will benefit patients with BRAF mutant melanoma. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Clinical Cancer Research 01/2015; 21(7). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-1554 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Prevention and early detection measures for melanoma, such as sun avoidance and skin examinations, are important, but are practiced inconsistently. In this replication of the Project SCAPE trial, we sought to determine whether tailored print materials were more effective at improving adherence than generic print materials for patients at increased-risk of skin cancer. Methods: Participants were randomized to receive personalized mailed communications about their skin cancer risk and recommended sun protection, or generic mailings. Participants were Caucasian adults, at moderate or high risk for skin cancer, recruited in outpatient primary care. The main outcomes were overall sun protection behaviors and specific protective behaviors including use of sunscreen, shirt, hat, sunglasses, shade and sun avoidance; recent sunburns; and skin self-examination and provider skin examination. Results: One hundred ninety-two (93.2%) subjects completed the study. Six outcome variables showed significant intervention condition effects in mixed effects models: overall sun protection behavior (p = .025); sunscreen use (p = .026); use of sunglasses (p = .011); sunburns in the past three months (p = .033); recency of last skin self-exam (p = .017); and frequency of skin exams by health care provider (p = .016). Conclusions: Relative to generic communications, tailored risk communications resulted in improved adherence to six skin cancer protective behaviors, including a composite sun protection behavior measure, sunburns, and health care provider skin examinations. Impact: Tailored interventions can be more effective in improving patient prevention behaviors than non-tailored, generic information for patients at moderate to high risk of skin cancer. Copyright © 2014, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 11/2014; 24(2). DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0926 · 4.32 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 10/2014; 74(19 Supplement):933-933. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2014-933 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Direct immune activation via agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is a potentially complimentary approach to therapeutic blockade of inhibitory immune receptors in cancer. Here, we provide genetic analysis of the immunological consequences associated with use of an agonistic CD40 mAb in a patient with metastatic melanoma who responded, underwent a single metastasectomy, and then achieved a complete remission ongoing for more than 9 years after starting therapy. Tumor microenvironment after immunotherapy was associated with pro-inflammatory modulations and emergence of a de novo T-cell repertoire as detected by next-generation sequencing of T cell receptors (TCR) in tumor and blood. The de-novo T cell repertoire identified in the post-treatment metastasectomy sample was also present - and in some cases expanded - in the circulation years after completion of therapy. Comprehensive study of this "exceptional responder" highlights the emerging potential of direct immune agonists in the next wave of cancer immunotherapies and a potential role for TCR deep sequencing in cancer immune assessment.
    09/2014; 2(11). DOI:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-14-0154
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    ABSTRACT: Sorafenib is an inhibitor of VEGFR, PDGFR, and RAF kinases, amongst others. We assessed the association of somatic mutations with clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes in patients with metastatic melanoma treated on E2603, comparing treatment with carboplatin, paclitaxel +/- sorafenib (CP vs. Pre-treatment tumor samples from 179 unique individuals enrolled on E2603 were analyzed. Genotyping was performed using a custom iPlex panel interrogating 74 mutations in 13 genes. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test, logistic regression, and Cox's proportional-hazards models. Progression free survival and overall survival were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. BRAF and NRAS mutations were found at frequencies consistent with other metastatic melanoma cohorts. BRAF-mutant melanoma was associated with worse performance status, increased number of disease sites, and younger age at diagnosis; NRAS-mutant melanoma was associated with better performance status, fewer sites of disease, and female gender. BRAF and NRAS mutations were not significantly predictive of response or survival when treated with CPS vs. CP. However, patients with NRAS-mutant melanoma trended towards a worse response and PFS on CP than those with BRAF-mutant or WT/WT melanoma, an association that was reversed for this group on the CPS arm. This study of somatic mutations in melanoma is the last prospectively collected phase III clinical trial population prior to the era of BRAF targeted therapy. A trend towards improved clinical response in patients with NRAS-mutant melanoma treated with CPS was observed, possibly due to sorafenib's effect on CRAF.
    Clinical Cancer Research 06/2014; 20(12):3328-3337. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-0093 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Testing for somatic mutations in tumor samples is becoming standard practice in a number of tumor types where targeted therapies are available. Since clinical care is dependent upon the identification of the presence or absence of specific mutations, it is important that these mutations be identified consistently and accurately. Here we identify a novel, complex mutation involving BRAF c.1798A>T (p.T599T), c.1799T>A (p.V600E), and c.1803A>T (p.K601N) in a patient with metastatic melanoma that was identified by next generation sequencing, but not by standard testing methods. The patient was started on a combination therapy inhibiting both BRAF and MEK, and demonstrated a dramatic clinical response. This case highlights the need for improved methods of mutation testing in tumor samples, and exposes a pitfall in allele specific testing methods that can be overcome using next generation sequencing.
    Cancer Genetics 06/2014; 207(6). DOI:10.1016/j.cancergen.2014.06.022 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blocking autophagy with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) augments cell death associated with alkylating chemotherapy in preclinical models. This phase I study evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, preliminary activity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of HCQ in combination with dose-intense temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Forty patients (73% metastatic melanoma) were treated with oral HCQ 200 to 1200 mg daily with dose-intense oral TMZ 150 mg/m (2) daily for 7/14 d. This combination was well tolerated with no recurrent dose-limiting toxicities observed. An MTD was not reached for HCQ and the recommended phase II dose was HCQ 600 mg twice daily combined with dose-intense TMZ. Common toxicities included grade 2 fatigue (55%), anorexia (28%), nausea (48%), constipation (20%), and diarrhea (20%). Partial responses and stable disease were observed in 3/22 (14%) and 6/22 (27%) patients with metastatic melanoma. In the final dose cohort 2/6 patients with refractory BRAF wild-type melanoma had a near complete response, and prolonged stable disease, respectively. A significant accumulation in autophagic vacuoles (AV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was observed in response to combined therapy. Population pharmacokinetics (PK) modeling, individual PK simulations, and PK-pharmacodynamics (PD) analysis identified a threshold HCQ peak concentration that predicts therapy-associated AV accumulation. This study indicates that the combination of high-dose HCQ and dose-intense TMZ is safe and tolerable, and is associated with autophagy modulation in patients. Prolonged stable disease and responses suggest antitumor activity in melanoma patients, warranting further studies of this combination, or combinations of more potent autophagy inhibitors and chemotherapy in melanoma.
    Autophagy 05/2014; 10(8). DOI:10.4161/auto.29118 · 11.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of temsirolimus (TEM), an MTOR inhibitor, and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an autophagy inhibitor, augments cell death in preclinical models. This phase 1 dose-escalation study evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, preliminary activity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of HCQ in combination with TEM in cancer patients. In the dose escalation portion, 27 patients with advanced solid malignancies were enrolled, followed by a cohort expansion at the top dose level in 12 patients with metastatic melanoma. The combination of HCQ and TEM was well tolerated, and grade 3 or 4 toxicity was limited to anorexia (7%), fatigue (7%), and nausea (7%). An MTD was not reached for HCQ, and the recommended phase II dose was HCQ 600 mg twice daily in combination with TEM 25 mg weekly. Other common grade 1 or 2 toxicities included fatigue, anorexia, nausea, stomatitis, rash, and weight loss. No responses were observed; however, 14/21 (67%) patients in the dose escalation and 14/19 (74%) patients with melanoma achieved stable disease. The median progression-free survival in 13 melanoma patients treated with HCQ 1200mg/d in combination with TEM was 3.5 mo. Novel 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) measurements predicted clinical outcome and provided further evidence that the addition of HCQ to TEM produced metabolic stress on tumors in patients that experienced clinical benefit. Pharmacodynamic evidence of autophagy inhibition was evident in serial PBMC and tumor biopsies only in patients treated with 1200 mg daily HCQ. This study indicates that TEM and HCQ is safe and tolerable, modulates autophagy in patients, and has significant antitumor activity. Further studies combining MTOR and autophagy inhibitors in cancer patients are warranted.
    Autophagy 05/2014; 10(8). DOI:10.4161/auto.29119 · 11.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melanomas that result from mutations in the gene encoding BRAF often become resistant to BRAF inhibition (BRAFi), with multiple mechanisms contributing to resistance. While therapy-induced autophagy promotes resistance to a number of therapies, especially those that target PI3K/mTOR signaling, its role as an adaptive resistance mechanism to BRAFi is not well characterized. Using tumor biopsies from BRAFV600E melanoma patients treated either with BRAFi or with combined BRAF and MEK inhibition, we found that BRAFi-resistant tumors had increased levels of autophagy compared with baseline. Patients with higher levels of therapy-induced autophagy had drastically lower response rates to BRAFi and a shorter duration of progression-free survival. In BRAFV600E melanoma cell lines, BRAFi or BRAF/MEK inhibition induced cytoprotective autophagy, and autophagy inhibition enhanced BRAFi-induced cell death. Shortly after BRAF inhibitor treatment in melanoma cell lines, mutant BRAF bound the ER stress gatekeeper GRP78, which rapidly expanded the ER. Disassociation of GRP78 from the PKR-like ER-kinase (PERK) promoted a PERK-dependent ER stress response that subsequently activated cytoprotective autophagy. Combined BRAF and autophagy inhibition promoted tumor regression in BRAFi-resistant xenografts. These data identify a molecular pathway for drug resistance connecting BRAFi, the ER stress response, and autophagy and provide a rationale for combination approaches targeting this resistance pathway.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2014; 124(3). DOI:10.1172/JCI70454 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a cytokine critical to inflammation, immunological activation, response to infection, and bone marrow hematopoiesis. Cyclophosphamide downmodulates immune suppressor cells and is cytotoxic to a variety of tumors. A phase I trial of IL-1 and cyclophosphamide was conducted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. This study evaluated 3 dose levels and 3 schedules in patients with solid tumors. The goal was to evaluate the hematopoietic supportive care effect and possible antitumor effect. Toxicity was fever, chills, hypotension, nausea/emesis, hepatic, and neutropenia. Toxicity increased with dose increases of interleukin-1. Treatment at all dose levels resulted in significant increases in total white blood cell (WBC) counts above baseline. Nadir WBC and nadir absolute neutrophil counts were not significantly different by dose level of IL-1 or schedule of IL-1. Toxicity due to IL-1 at higher doses prohibited further evaluation of this agent for hematopoietic support, particularly in view of the activity and tolerability of more lineage-specific hematopoietic cytokines. Therapeutic interventions in the role of IL-1 in inflammatory conditions and cancer may be further informed by our definition of its clinical and biological effects in this evaluation of dose and schedule.
    Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 01/2014; DOI:10.1089/jir.2013.0010 · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An emerging concept in melanoma biology is that of dynamic, adaptive phenotype switching, where cells switch from a highly proliferative, poorly invasive phenotype to a highly invasive, less proliferative one. This switch may hold significant implications not just for metastasis, but also for therapy resistance. We demonstrate that phenotype switching and subsequent resistance can be guided by changes in expression of receptors involved in the non-canonical Wnt5A signaling pathway, ROR1 and ROR2. ROR1 and ROR2 are inversely expressed in melanomas and negatively regulate each other. Further, hypoxia initiates a shift of ROR1-positive melanomas to a more invasive, ROR2-positive phenotype. Notably, this receptor switch induces a 10-fold decrease in sensitivity to BRAF inhibitors. In melanoma patients treated with the BRAF inhibitor, Vemurafenib, Wnt5A expression correlates with clinical response and therapy resistance. These data highlight the fact that mechanisms that guide metastatic progression may be linked to those that mediate therapy resistance.
    Cancer Discovery 10/2013; 3(12). DOI:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-13-0005 · 19.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although BRAF and MEK inhibitors have proven clinical benefits in melanoma, most patients develop resistance. We report a de novo MEK2-Q60P mutation and BRAF gain in a melanoma from a patient who progressed on the MEK inhibitor trametinib and did not respond to the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib. We also identified the same MEK2-Q60P mutation along with BRAF amplification in a xenograft tumor derived from a second melanoma patient resistant to the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib. Melanoma cells chronically exposed to trametinib acquired concurrent MEK2-Q60P mutation and BRAF-V600E amplification, which conferred resistance to MEK and BRAF inhibitors. The resistant cells had sustained MAPK activation and persistent phosphorylation of S6K. A triple combination of dabrafenib, trametinib, and the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor GSK2126458 led to sustained tumor growth inhibition. Hence, concurrent genetic events that sustain MAPK signaling can underlie resistance to both BRAF and MEK inhibitors, requiring novel therapeutic strategies to overcome it.
    Cell Reports 09/2013; 4(6). DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2013.08.023 · 8.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and histological regression in primary melanoma are generally considered indicators of the local immune response but their roles as prognostic factors have been variably reported. We examined the prognostic role of these variables in patients with high risk (T4) primary melanomas in a large series of patients with long-term follow-up. From a prospectively maintained cohort of patients diagnosed between 1971 and 2004, 161 patients were retrospectively identified with primary thick melanomas (>4 mm), no clinical evidence of regional nodal disease (RND) at diagnosis and complete histopathologic data. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were performed to identify clinical and histopathologic predictors of disease-specific survival (DSS) and to identify subgroups with differential survival. Factors significantly associated with decreased DSS by univariate analysis included male gender, age ≥ 60 years, axial anatomic location, presence of ulceration, RND, absence of TIL, and presence of regression. In the final multivariate model, TIL and regression, as interacting variables, and RND status remained significantly associated with DSS. In the presence of TIL, concomitant regression was associated with significantly worse survival (p ≤ 0.0001). In the absence of TIL, there was no effect of regression on survival (p = 0.324). Primary TIL and regression status and RND status are independently associated with melanoma-specific survival in patients with T4 melanomas; presence of TIL in the primary melanoma with concomitant radial growth phase regression is associated with a poor prognosis and may reflect an ineffective local regional immune response.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 07/2013; 20(11). DOI:10.1245/s10434-013-3086-3 · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • ASCO Annual Meeting, Chicago; 05/2013
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying adaptive resistance of melanoma to targeted therapies remain unclear. By combining ChIP sequencing with microarray-based gene profiling, we determined that ERBB3 is upregulated by FOXD3, a transcription factor that promotes resistance to RAF inhibitors in melanoma. Enhanced ERBB3 signaling promoted resistance to RAF pathway inhibitors in cultured melanoma cell lines and in mouse xenograft models. ERBB3 signaling was dependent on ERBB2; targeting ERBB2 with lapatinib in combination with the RAF inhibitor PLX4720 reduced tumor burden and extended latency of tumor regrowth in vivo versus PLX4720 alone. These results suggest that enhanced ERBB3 signaling may serve as a mechanism of adaptive resistance to RAF and MEK inhibitors in melanoma and that cotargeting this pathway may enhance the clinical efficacy and extend the therapeutic duration of RAF inhibitors.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 04/2013; 123(5). DOI:10.1172/JCI65780 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEThe landscape of managing potential conflicts of interest (COIs) has evolved substantially across many disciplines in recent years, but rarely are the issues more intertwined with financial and ethical implications than in the health care setting. Cancer care is a highly technologic arena, with numerous physician-industry interactions. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognizes the role of a professional organization to facilitate management of these interactions and the need for periodic review of its COI policy (Policy). METHODS To gauge the sentiments of ASCO members and nonphysician stakeholders, two surveys were performed. The first asked ASCO members to estimate opinions of the Policy as it relates to presentation of industry-sponsored research. Respondents were classified as consumers or producers of research material based on demographic responses. A similar survey solicited opinions of nonphysician stakeholders, including patients with cancer, survivors, family members, and advocates.ResultsThe ASCO survey was responded to by 1,967 members (1% of those solicited); 80% were producers, and 20% were consumers. Most respondents (93% of producers; 66% of consumers) reported familiarity with the Policy. Only a small proportion regularly evaluated COIs for presented research. Members favored increased transparency about relationships over restrictions on presentations of research. Stakeholders (n = 264) indicated that disclosure was "very important" to "extremely important" and preferred written disclosure (77%) over other methods. CONCLUSIONCOI policies are an important and relevant topic among physicians and patient advocates. Methods to simplify the disclosure process, improve transparency, and facilitate responsiveness are critical for COI management.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2013; 31(13). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2012.47.5475 · 18.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
496.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2015
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • "Abramson" Cancer Center
      • • Division of Hematology/Oncology
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • American Society of Clinical Oncology
      Alexandria, Virginia, United States
  • 2003–2014
    • William Penn University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2001–2012
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • • Division of Hematology/Oncology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2009
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008
    • Loyola University Medical Center
      Maywood, Illinois, United States