Kristoffer Valerie

Virginia Commonwealth University, Ричмонд, Virginia, United States

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Publications (158)896.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility 1 (BRCA1) gene are catalysts for breast and ovarian cancers. Most mutations are associated with the BRCA1 N- and C-terminal domains linked to DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. However, little is known about the role of the intervening serine-glutamine (SQ) - cluster in the DNA damage response beyond its importance in regulating cell cycle checkpoints. We show that serine-to-alanine alterations at critical residues within the SQ-cluster known to be phosphorylated by ATM and ATR result in reduced homologous recombination repair (HRR) and aberrant mitosis. While a S1387A BRCA1 mutant - previously shown to abrogate S-phase arrest in response to radiation - resulted in only a modest decrease in HRR, S1387A together with an additional alteration, S1423A (BRCA12P), reduced HRR to vector control levels and similar to a quadruple mutant also including S1457A and S1524A (BRCA14P). These effects appeared to be independent of PALB2. Furthermore, we found that BRCA14P promoted a prolonged and struggling HRR late in the cell cycle and shifted DSB repair from HRR to non-homologous end joining which, in the face of irreparable chromosomal damage, resulted in mitotic catastrophe. Altogether, SQ-cluster phosphorylation is critical for allowing adequate time for completing normal HRR prior to mitosis and preventing cells from entering G1 prematurely resulting in gross chromosomal aberrations.
    Oncotarget 08/2015; 6(29). DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.4876 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    Olga Yu. Zolotarskaya · Leyuan Xu · Kristoffer Valerie · Hu Yang
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    ABSTRACT: In the present work we report on the click synthesis of a new camptothecin (CPT) prodrug based on anionic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer intended for cancer therapy. We applied ‘click’ chemistry to improve polymer-drug coupling reaction efficiency. Specifically, CPT was functionalized with a spacer, 1-azido-3,6,9,12,15-pentaoxaoctadecan-18-oic acid (APO), via EDC/DMAP coupling reaction. In parallel, propargylamine (PPA) and methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) amine were conjugated to PAMAM dendrimer G4.5 in sequence using an effective coupling agent 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-(1,3,5)triazin-2-yl)-4-methyl-morpholinium chloride (DMTMM). CPT-APO was then coupled to PEGylated PAMAM dendrimer G4.5-PPA via a click reaction using copper bromide/2,2’-bipyridine/ dimethyl sulfoxide (catalyst/ligand/solvent). Human glioma cells were exposed to the CPT-conjugate to determine toxicity and cell cycle effects using WST-1 assay and flow cytometry. The CPT-conjugate displayed a dose-dependent toxicity with an IC50 of 5 μM, a 185-fold increase relative to free CPT, presumably as a result of slow release. As expected, conjugated CPT resulted in G2/M arrest and cell death while the dendrimer itself had little to no toxicity. Altogether, highly efficient click chemistry allows for the synthesis of multifunctional dendrimers for sustained drug delivery.
    RSC Advances 06/2015; 5(72). DOI:10.1039/C5RA07987J · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Viruses have naturally evolved elegant strategies to manipulate the host’s cellular machinery, including ways to hijack cellular DNA repair proteins to aid in their own replication. Retroviruses induce DNA damage through integration of their genome into host DNA. DNA damage signaling proteins including ATR, ATM and BRCA1 contribute to multiple steps in the HIV-1 life cycle, including integration and Vpr-induced G2/M arrest. However, there have been no studies to date regarding the role of BRCA1 in HIV-1 transcription. Methods Here we performed various transcriptional analyses to assess the role of BRCA1 in HIV-1 transcription by overexpression, selective depletion, and treatment with small molecule inhibitors. We examined association of Tat and BRCA1 through in vitro binding assays, as well as BRCA1-LTR association by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results BRCA1 was found to be important for viral transcription as cells that lack BRCA1 displayed severely reduced HIV-1 Tat-dependent transcription, and gain or loss-of-function studies resulted in enhanced or decreased transcription. Moreover, Tat was detected in complex with BRCA1 aa504-802. Small molecule inhibition of BRCA1 phosphorylation effector kinases, ATR and ATM, decreased Tat-dependent transcription, whereas a Chk2 inhibitor showed no effect. Furthermore, BRCA1 was found at the viral promoter and treatment with curcumin and ATM inhibitors decreased BRCA1 LTR occupancy. Importantly, these findings were validated in a highly relevant model of HIV infection and are indicative of BRCA1 phosphorylation affecting Tat-dependent transcription. Conclusions BRCA1 presence at the HIV-1 promoter highlights a novel function of the multifaceted protein in HIV-1 infection. The BRCA1 pathway or enzymes that phosphorylate BRCA1 could potentially be used as complementary host-based treatment for combined antiretroviral therapy, as there are multiple potent ATM inhibitors in development as chemotherapeutics.
    Virology Journal 03/2015; 12(1). DOI:10.1186/s12985-015-0266-8 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many intracellular protein-protein interactions are mediated by the phosphorylation of serine, and phosphoserine-containing peptides can inhibit these interactions. However, hydrolysis of the phosphate by phosphatases, and the poor cell permeability associated with phosphorylated peptides has limited their utility in cellular and in vivo contexts. Compounding the problem, strategies to replace phosphoserine in peptide inhibitors with easily accessible mimetics (such as Glu or Asp) routinely fail. Here, we present an in vitro selection strategy for replacement of phosphoserine. Using mRNA display, we created a 10 trillion member structurally diverse unnatural peptide library. From this library, we found a peptide that specifically binds to the C-terminal domain (BRCT)2 of breast cancer associated protein 1 (BRCA1) with an affinity comparable to phosphorylated peptides. A crystal structure of the peptide bound reveals that the pSer-x-x-Phe motif normally found in BRCA1 (BRCT)2 binding partners is replaced by a Glu-x-x-4-fluoroPhe and that the peptide picks up additional contacts on the protein surface not observed in cognate phosphopeptide binding. Expression of the peptide in human cells led to defects in DNA repair by homologous recombination, a process BRCA1 is known to coordinate. Overall, this work validates a new in vitro selection approach for the development of inhibitors of protein-protein interactions mediated by serine phosphorylation.
    ACS Chemical Biology 02/2015; 10(5). DOI:10.1021/cb500757u · 5.33 Impact Factor
  • International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 09/2014; 90(1):S35. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.05.148 · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • Jason M Beckta · Syed Farhan Ahmad · Hu Yang · Kristoffer Valerie
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    ABSTRACT: Despite intense studies, highly effective therapeutic strategies against cancer have not yet been fully exploited, because few true cancer-specific targets have been identified. Most modalities, perhaps with the exception of radiation therapy, target proliferating cells, which are also abundant in normal tissues. Thus, most current cancer treatments have significant side effects. More than 10 years ago, the tumor suppressor p53 was first explored as a cancer-specific target. At the time, the approach was to introduce a normal p53 gene into mutant p53 (mp53) tumor cells to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, this strategy did not hold up and mostly failed in subsequent clinical studies. Recent research developments have now returned p53 to the limelight. Several studies have reported that mutant or null p53 tumor cells undergo apoptosis more easily than genetically matched, normal p53 counterparts when inhibiting a specific stress kinase in combination with standard chemotherapy or when exposed to an ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase inhibitor and radiation, thus achieving true cancer specificity in animal tumor models. This short review highlights several of these recent studies, discusses possible mechanism(s) for mp53-mediated "synthetic lethality," and the implications for cancer therapy.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 02/2014; 13(5). DOI:10.4161/cc.28108 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To track the processing of damaged DNA double-strand break (DSB) ends in vivo, a method was devised for quantitative measurement of 3′-phosphoglycolate (PG) termini on DSBs induced by the non-protein chromophore of neocarzinostatin (NCS-C) in the human Alu repeat. Following exposure of cells to NCS-C, DNA was isolated, and labile lesions were chemically stabilized. All 3′-phosphate and 3′-hydroxyl ends were enzymatically capped with dideoxy termini, whereas 3′-PG ends were rendered ligatable, linked to an anchor, and quantified by real-time Taqman polymerase chain reaction. Using this assay and variations thereof, 3′-PG and 3′-phosphate termini on 1-base 3′ overhangs of NCS-C-induced DSBs were readily detected in DNA from the treated lymphoblastoid cells, and both were largely eliminated from cellular DNA within 1 h. However, the 3′-PG termini were processed more slowly than 3′-phosphate termini, and were more persistent in tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1-mutant SCAN1 than in normal cells, suggesting a significant role for tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 in removing 3′-PG blocking groups for DSB repair. DSBs with 3′-hydroxyl termini, which are not directly induced by NCS-C, were formed rapidly in cells, and largely eliminated by further processing within 1 h, both in Alu repeats and in heterochromatic α-satellite DNA. Moreover, absence of DNA-PK in M059J cells appeared to accelerate resolution of 3′-PG ends.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2013; 42(5). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt1347 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite similar structures and DNA binding profiles, two recently synthesized dinuclear platinum compounds are shown to elicit highly divergent effects on cell cycle progression. In colorectal HCT116 cells, BBR3610 shows a classical G2/M arrest with initial accumulation in S phase, but the derivative compound BBR3610-DACH, formed by introduction of the 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (DACH) as carrier ligand, results in severe G1/S as well as G2/M phase arrest, with nearly complete S phase depletion. The origin of this unique effect was studied. Cellular interstrand crosslinking as assayed by comet analysis was similar for both compounds, confirming previous in vitro results obtained on plasmid DNA. Immunoblotting revealed a stabilization of p53 and concomitant transient increases in p21 and p27 proteins after treatment with BBR3610-DACH. Cell viability assays and cytometric analysis of p53 and p21 null cells indicated that BBR3610-DACH-induced cell cycle arrest was p21-dependent and partially p53-dependent. However, an increase in the levels of cyclin E was observed with steady state levels of CDK2 and Cdc25A, suggesting that the G1 block occurs downstream of CDK/cyclin complex formation. The G2/M block was corroborated with decreased levels of cyclin A and cyclin B1. Surprisingly, BBR3610-DACH-induced G1 block was independent of ATM and ATR. Finally, both compounds induced apoptosis, with BBR3610-DACH showing a robust PARP-1 cleavage that was not associated with caspase-3/7 cleavage. In summary, BBR3610-DACH is a DNA binding platinum agent with unique inhibitory effects on cell cycle progression that could be further developed as a chemotherapeutic agent complementary to cisplatin and oxaliplatin.
    Biochemical pharmacology 10/2013; 86(12). DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2013.10.012 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stat3 is a key mediator in the development of many cancers. For 20 years it has been assumed that Stat3 mediates its biological activities as a nuclear localized transcription factor activated by many cytokines. However, recent studies from this lab and others indicate that Stat3 has an independent function in the mitochondria (mitoStat3) where it controls the activity of the electron transport chain (ETC) and mediates Ras induced transformation of mouse mebryo fibroblasts (MEFs). The actions of mitoStat3 in controlling respiration and Ras transformation are mediated by the phosphorylation state of serine 727. To address the role of mitoStat3 in the pathogenesis of cells that are transformed we used 4T1 breast cancer cells which form tumors that metastasize in immunocompetent mice. Substitution of Ser727 for an alanine or aspartate in Stat3 that has a mitochondrial localization sequence, (MLS-Stat3), has profound effects on tumor growth, complex I activity of the ETC and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Cells expressing MLS-Stat3(S727A) display slower tumor growth, decreased complex I activity of the ETC and increased ROS accumulation under hypoxia compared with cells expressing MLS-Stat3. In contrast, cells expressing MLS-Stat3(S727D) show enhanced tumor growth, and complex I activity and decreased production of ROS. These results highlight the importance of serine 727 of mitoStat3 in breast cancer and suggest a novel role for mitoStat3 in regulation of ROS concentrations through its action on the ETC.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2013; 288(43). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.505057 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 08/2013; 73(8 Supplement):437-437. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2013-437 · 9.33 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 08/2013; 73(8 Supplement):4539-4539. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2013-4539 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a relatively new noninvasive technology used for quantitative assessment of tumor growth and therapeutic effect in living animal models. BLI involves the generation of light by luciferase-expressing cells following administration of the substrate luciferin in the presence of oxygen and ATP. In the present study, the effects of hypoxia, hypoperfusion, and pH on BLI signal (BLS) intensity were evaluated in vitro using cultured cells and in vivo using a xenograft model in nude mice. The intensity of the BLS was significantly reduced in the presence of acute and chronic hypoxia. Changes in cell density, viability, and pH also affected BLS. Although BLI is a convenient non-invasive tool for tumor assessment, these factors should be considered when interpreting BLS intensity, especially in solid tumors that could be hypoxic due to rapid growth, inadequate blood supply, and/or treatment.
    07/2013; 2013:287697. DOI:10.1155/2013/287697
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal form of brain cancer with a median survival of only 12 to 15 months. Current standard treatment consists of surgery followed by chemoradiation. The poor survival of patients with GBM is due to aggressive tumor invasiveness, an inability to remove all tumor tissue, and an innate tumor chemo- and radioresistance. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an excellent target for radiosensitizing GBM because of its critical role in regulating the DNA damage response and p53, among other cellular processes. As a first step toward this goal, we recently showed that the novel ATM kinase inhibitor KU-60019 reduced migration, invasion, and growth, and potently radiosensitized human glioma cells in vitro. Experimental design: Using orthotopic xenograft models of GBM, we now show that KU-60019 is also an effective radiosensitizer in vivo. Human glioma cells expressing reporter genes for monitoring tumor growth and dispersal were grown intracranially, and KU-60019 was administered intratumorally by convection-enhanced delivery or osmotic pump. Results: Our results show that the combined effect of KU-60019 and radiation significantly increased survival of mice 2- to 3-fold over controls. Importantly, we show that glioma with mutant p53 is much more sensitive to KU-60019 radiosensitization than genetically matched wild-type glioma. Conclusions: Taken together, our results suggest that an ATM kinase inhibitor may be an effective radiosensitizer and adjuvant therapy for patients with mutant p53 brain cancers.
    Clinical Cancer Research 04/2013; 19(12). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-3408 · 8.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, intraperitoneal (IP) injection of D-luciferin is the preferred method of providing substrate for bioluminescent imaging (BLI); however it has a failure rate of 3-10% due to accidental intestinal injection. The present study evaluates the quality of BLI after subcutaneous (SC) injection of D-luciferin and demonstrates the effectiveness of SC injection in anatomically disparate tumor models. Mice bearing luciferase-expressing tumors underwent BLI after SC or IP injection of D-luciferin. The average time to maximal luminescence was 6 min (range 5-9 min) after SC injection and 8 min (range 5-8 min) after IP injection. Within 7 minutes of injection, SC and IP routes yielded similar luminescence in subcutaneous, intracranial, tongue, and lung xenograft tumor models. In a model of combined subcutaneous and intracranial xenografts, SC injection resulted in proportional luminescence at all sites, confirming that preferential delivery of substrate does not occur. While tumors were occasionally not visualized with IP injection, all tumors were visualized reliably with SC injection. Thus, SC injection of D-luciferin is a convenient and effective alternative to IP injection for BLI in nude mice. It may be a preferable approach, particularly for tumors with weaker signals and/or when greater precision is required.
    01/2013; 2013. DOI:10.1155/2013/689279
  • Jason M Beckta · Scott C Henderson · Kristoffer Valerie
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    ABSTRACT: Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious DNA lesions a cell can encounter. If left unrepaired, DSBs harbor great potential to generate mutations and chromosomal aberrations(1). To prevent this trauma from catalyzing genomic instability, it is crucial for cells to detect DSBs, activate the DNA damage response (DDR), and repair the DNA. When stimulated, the DDR works to preserve genomic integrity by triggering cell cycle arrest to allow for repair to take place or force the cell to undergo apoptosis. The predominant mechanisms of DSB repair occur through nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR) (reviewed in(2)). There are many proteins whose activities must be precisely orchestrated for the DDR to function properly. Herein, we describe a method for 2- and 3-dimensional (D) visualization of one of these proteins, 53BP1. The p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) localizes to areas of DSBs by binding to modified histones(3,4), forming foci within 5-15 minutes(5). The histone modifications and recruitment of 53BP1 and other DDR proteins to DSB sites are believed to facilitate the structural rearrangement of chromatin around areas of damage and contribute to DNA repair(6). Beyond direct participation in repair, additional roles have been described for 53BP1 in the DDR, such as regulating an intra-S checkpoint, a G2/M checkpoint, and activating downstream DDR proteins(7-9). Recently, it was discovered that 53BP1 does not form foci in response to DNA damage induced during mitosis, instead waiting for cells to enter G1 before localizing to the vicinity of DSBs(6). DDR proteins such as 53BP1 have been found to associate with mitotic structures (such as kinetochores) during the progression through mitosis(10). In this protocol we describe the use of 2- and 3-D live cell imaging to visualize the formation of 53BP1 foci in response to the DNA damaging agent camptothecin (CPT), as well as 53BP1's behavior during mitosis. Camptothecin is a topoisomerase I inhibitor that primarily causes DSBs during DNA replication. To accomplish this, we used a previously described 53BP1-mCherry fluorescent fusion protein construct consisting of a 53BP1 protein domain able to bind DSBs(11). In addition, we used a histone H2B-GFP fluorescent fusion protein construct able to monitor chromatin dynamics throughout the cell cycle but in particular during mitosis(12). Live cell imaging in multiple dimensions is an excellent tool to deepen our understanding of the function of DDR proteins in eukaryotic cells.
    Journal of Visualized Experiments 10/2012; DOI:10.3791/4251 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Water-soluble camptothecin (CPT)-polyoxetane conjugates were synthesized using a clickable polymeric platform P(EAMO) that was made by polymerization of acetylene-functionalized 3-ethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)oxetane (i.e., EAMO). CPT was first modified with a linker 6-azidohexanoic acid via an ester linkage to yield CPT-azide. CPT-azide was then click coupled to P(EAMO) in dichloromethane using bromotris(triphenylphosphine)copper(I)/N,N-diisopropylethylamine. For water solubility and cytocompatibility improvement, methoxypolyethylene glycol azide (mPEG-azide) was synthesized from mPEG 750 g mol(-1) and click grafted using copper(II) sulfate and sodium ascorbate to P(EAMO)-g-CPT. (1)H NMR spectroscopy confirmed synthesis of all intermediates and the final product P(EAMO)-g-CPT/PEG. CPT was found to retain its therapeutically active lactone form. The resulting P(EAMO)-g-CPT/PEG conjugates were water-soluble and produced dose-dependent cytotoxicity to human glioma cells and increased γ-H2AX foci formation, indicating extensive cell cycle-dependent DNA damage. Altogether, we have synthesized CPT-polymer conjugates able to induce controlled toxicity to human cancer cells.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 10/2012; 9(11). DOI:10.1021/mp3005066 · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 06/2012; 72(8 Supplement):1450-1450. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2012-1450 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is notoriously resistant to treatment. Therefore, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. ATM elicits the DNA damage response (DDR), which confers cellular radioresistance; thus, targeting the DDR with an ATM inhibitior (ATMi) is very attractive. Herein, we show that dynamic ATM kinase inhibition in the nanomolar range results in potent radiosensitization of human glioma cells, inhibits growth and does not conflict with temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. The second generation ATMi analog KU-60019 provided quick, reversible and complete inhibition of the DDR at sub-micromolar concentrations in human glioblastoma cells. KU-60019 inhibited the phosphorylation of the major DNA damage effectors p53, H2AX and KAP1 as well as AKT. Colony-forming radiosurvival showed that continuous exposure to nanomolar concentrations of KU-60019 effectively radiosensitized glioblastoma cell lines. When cells were co-treated with KU-60019 and TMZ, a slight increase in radiation-induced cell killing was noted, although TMZ alone was unable to radiosensitize these cells. In addition, without radiation, KU-60019 with or without TMZ reduced glioma cell growth but had no significant effect on the survival of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived astrocytes. Altogether, transient inhibition of the ATM kinase provides a promising strategy for radiosensitizing GBM in combination with standard treatment. In addition, without radiation, KU-60019 limits growth of glioma cells in co-culture with human astrocytes that seem unaffected by the same treatment. Thus, inter-fraction growth inhibition could perhaps be achieved in vivo with minor adverse effects to the brain.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 03/2012; 11(6):1167-73. DOI:10.4161/cc.11.6.19576 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    Seth M Dever · E Railey White · Matthew C T Hartman · Kristoffer Valerie
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    ABSTRACT: Despite intense studies, questions still remain regarding the molecular mechanisms leading to the development of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Research focused on elucidating the role of the breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) in the DNA damage response may be of the most critical importance to understanding these processes. The BRCA1 protein has an N-terminal RING domain possessing E3 ubiquitinligase activity and a C-terminal BRCT domain involved in binding specific phosphoproteins. These domains are involved directly or indirectly in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. As the two terminal domains of BRCA1 represent two separate entities, understanding how these domains communicate and are functionally altered in regards to DSB repair is critical for understanding the development of BRCA1-related breast and ovarian cancers and for developing novel therapeutics. Herein, we review recent findings of how altered functions of these domains might lead to cancer through a mechanism of increased aberrant homologous recombination and possible implications for the development of BRCA1 inhibitors.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 02/2012; 11(4):687-94. DOI:10.4161/cc.11.4.19212 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research into the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases has been enhanced by rapid advances in nanotechnology and an expansion in the library of nanostructured carriers. This review discusses the latest applications of nanomaterials in the CNS with an emphasis on brain tumors. Novel administration routes and transport mechanisms for nanomaterial-mediated CNS delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to bypass or cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) are also discussed. These include temporary disruption of the BBB, use of impregnated polymers (polymer wafers), convection-enhanced delivery (CED), and intranasal delivery. Moreover, an in vitro BBB model capable of mimicking geometrical, cellular and rheological features of the human cerebrovasculature has been developed. This is a useful tool that can be used for screening CNS nanoparticles or therapeutics prior to in vivo and clinical investigation. A discussion of this novel model is included.
    Advanced drug delivery reviews 12/2011; 64(7):605-13. DOI:10.1016/j.addr.2011.11.014 · 15.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
896.70 Total Impact Points


  • 1990–2015
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • • Department of Human and Molecular Genetics
      • • Massey Cancer Center
      • • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      • • Department of Microbiology & Immunology
      Ричмонд, Virginia, United States
  • 1985–2008
    • Temple University
      • • Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2002–2007
    • Columbia University
      • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      New York, New York, United States
    • Children's Hospital Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1990–2002
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis
      Maryland, United States
  • 1989
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States