[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the p53 family of transcription factors have essential roles in tumor suppression and in development. MDM2 is an essential regulator of p53 that can inhibit the transcriptional activity of p53, shuttle p53 out of the nucleus, and target p53 for ubiquitination-mediated degradation. Little is known about the interaction and selectivity of different members of the p53 family (p53, p63, and p73) and the MDM2 family (MDM2 and MDMX). Here we show that the transcriptional activities of p53 and p73, but not that of p63, were inhibited by both MDM2 and MDMX. Consistent with these, we found that MDMX can physically interact with p53 and p73, but not with p63. Moreover, ectopically expressed MDM2 and MDMX could induce alterations in the subcellular localization of p73, but did not affect the subcellular localization of p53 and p63. Finally, we demonstrate that while ARF can interact with MDM2 and inhibit the regulation of p53 by MDM2, no interaction was found between ARF and MDMX. These data reveal that significant differences and selectivity exist between the regulation of different members of the p53 family by MDM2 and MDMX.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MDM2, one of the transcriptional targets of p53, can target p53 for degradation in a negative feedback loop. The p53-related protein p73, however, can bind to MDM2 but is not consequently down-regulated. Here we demonstrate that p73 could transactivate the MDM2 promoter in p53-null cell lines. In p53-null cell lines, the level of MDM2 was increased by p73 due to increases in transcription and protein stability of MDM2. In transient transfection assays, inhibition of the transcriptional activity of p73 required a higher amount of MDM2 than that of p53. This is probably due to the fact that MDM2 can target p53, but not p73, for degradation. We demonstrated further that the level of p53 could be altered by a cooperation between MDM2 and p73, but not by transcriptional inactive mutants of p73. Expression of p73 resulted in a reduction of the ectopically expressed p53 in transient transfections or of the endogenous p53 induced by Adriamycin- or UV-mediated damage. These reductions of p53 were likely to be due to an increase in MDM2-mediated proteolysis. These results suggest the possibility that different levels of p73 in the cell may act as a mechanism to modulate p53 responses after DNA damage and other stresses and that an increase rather than a decrease in p73 may play a role in tumorigenesis.
Cancer Research 03/2001; 61(4):1598-603. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous work has shown that cyclin A can be cleaved at Arg-70/Arg-71 by a proteolytic activity present in an in vitro-coupled transcription/translation system by using rabbit reticulocyte lysate programmed by plasmid DNA encoding p27(KIP1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, but not by plasmid DNAs encoding other cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors. Here we report that cyclin A is also cleaved by translation product programmed by plasmid DNA encoding cyclin B. Several findings indicate that the cleavage activity in this assay is provided by the bacterial protease OmpT, which cofractionates with cyclin B and p27(KIP1) plasmid DNAs and is thus carried over into the coupled in vitro transcription/translation reactions. (i) Cleavage activity appeared even when transcription or translation of the cyclin B or p27(KIP1) was blocked. (ii) Activity resembling OmpT, a serine protease that cleaves between dibasic residues, routinely copurifies with p27(KIP1) and cyclin B plasmid DNAs. (iii) Both cyclin A cleavage activity and OmpT activity are heat stable, resistant to denaturation, and inhibited by Zn(2+), Cu(2+), or benzamidine. (iv) Cyclin A cleavage activity is detected when using lysates or DNAs prepared from Escherichia coli strains that contained OmpT but not with strains lacking OmpT. (v) Purified OmpT enzyme itself cleaves cyclin A at R70/R71. These data indicate that OmpT can be present in certain DNA preparations obtained by using standard plasmid purification protocols, and its presence can potentially affect the outcome and interpretation of studies carried out using in vitro-translated proteins.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2001; 98(2):497-501. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulators of the human cell cycle. Here we have directly measured the concentrations of the G(1) and G(2) cyclins and their CDK partners in highly synchronized human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa). To determine the exact concentrations of cyclins and CDKs in the cell extracts, we developed a relatively simple method that combined the use of (35)S-labeled standards produced in rabbit reticulocyte lysates and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Using this approach, we formally demonstrated that CDC2 and CDK2 are in excess of their cyclin partners. We found that the concentrations of cyclin A2 and cyclin B1 (at their peak levels in the G(2) phase) were about 30-fold less than that of their partner CDC2. The peak levels of cyclin A2 and cyclin E1, at the G(2) phase and G(1) phase, respectively, were only about 8-fold less than that of their partner CDK2. These ratios are in good agreement with size fractionation analysis of the relative amount of monomeric and complexed forms of CDC2 and CDK2 in the cell. All the cyclin A2 and cyclin E1 are in complexes with CDC2 and CDK2, but there are some indications that a significant portion of cyclin B1 may not be in complex with CDC2. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the concentration of the CDK inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1) induced after DNA damage is sufficient to overcome the cyclin-CDK2 complexes in MCF-7 cells. These direct quantitations formally confirmed the long-held presumption that CDKs are in excess of the cyclins in the cell. Moreover, similar approaches can be used to measure the concentration of any protein in cell-free extracts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many cyclins are degraded by the ubiquitination/proteasome pathways involving the anaphase-promoting complex and SCF complexes. These degradations are frequently dependent on phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), providing a self-limiting mechanism for CDK activity. Here we present evidence from in vitro and in vivo assay systems that the degradation of human cyclin A can be inhibited by kinase-inactive mutants of CDK2 and CDC2. One obvious interpretation of these results is that like other cyclins, CDK-dependent phosphorylation of the cyclin A may be involved in cyclin A degradation. Our data indicated that CDK2 can phosphorylate cyclin A on Ser-154. Site-directed mutagenesis of Ser-154 abolished the phosphorylation by recombinant CDK2 in vitro and the majority of cyclin A phosphorylation in the cell. Activation of CDK2 and binding to SKP2 or p27(KIP1) were not affected by the phosphorylation of Ser-154. Surprising, in marked contrast to cyclin E, where phosphorylation of Thr-380 by CDK2 is required for proteolysis, degradation of cyclin A was not affected by Ser-154 phosphorylation. It is likely that the stabilization of cyclin A by the kinase-inactive CDKs was mainly due to a cell cycle effect. These data suggest an important difference between the regulation of cyclin A and cyclin E.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2000; 275(5):3158-67. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dinoflagellates are a major group of organisms with an extranuclear spindle. As the purpose of the spindle checkpoint is to ensure proper alignment of the chromosomes on the spindle, dinoflagellate cell cycle control may be compromised to accomodate the extranuclear spindle. In the present study, we demonstrated that nocodazole reversibly prolonged the G2 + M phase of the dinoflagellate cell cycle, in both metaphase and anaphase. The regulation of the spindle checkpoint involves the activation and inhibition of the anaphase promoting complex (APC), which in turn degrades specific cell cycle regulators in the metaphase to anaphase transition. In Crypthecodinium cohnii, nocodazole was also able to induce a prolongation of the degradation of mitotic cyclins and a delay in the inactivation of p13(suc1)-associated histone kinase activities. In addition, cell extracts prepared from C. cohnii in G1 phase and G2/M phase (or nocodazole treated) were able to activate and inhibit, respectively, the degradation of exogenous human cyclin B1 in vitro. The present study thus demonstrated the presence of the spindle checkpoint and APC-mediated cyclin degradation in dinoflagellates. This is discussed in relation to a possible role of the nuclear membrane in mitosis in dinoflagellates.
Experimental Cell Research 02/2000; 254(1):120-9. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell cycle arrest after different types of DNA damage can occur in either G1 phase or G2 phase of the cell cycle, involving the distinct mechanisms of p53/p21(Cip1/Waf1) induction, and phosphorylation of Cdc2, respectively. Treatment of asynchronously growing Swiss3T3 cells with the chemotherapeutic drug adriamycin induced a predominantly G2 cell cycle arrest. Here we investigate why Swiss3T3 cells were arrested in G2 phase and not in G1 phase after adriamycin-induced damage. We show that adriamycin was capable of inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest, both during the G0-G1 transition and during the G1 phase of the normal cell cycle. In G0 cells, adriamycin induced a prolonged cell cycle arrest. However, adriamycin caused only a transient cell cycle delay when added to cells at later time points during G0-G1 transition or at the G1 phase of normal cell cycle. The G1 arrest correlated with the induction of p53 and p21(Cip1/Waf1), and the exit from the arrest correlated with the decline of their expression. In contrast to the G1 arrest, adriamycin-induced G2 arrest was relatively tight and correlated with the Thr-14/Tyr-15 phosphorylation of cyclin B-Cdc2 complexes. The relative stringency of the G1 versus G2 cell cycle arrest may explain the predominance of G2 arrest after adriamycin treatment in mammalian cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) inhibits cell proliferation in many cell types, and acquisition of TGF-beta resistance has been linked to tumorigenesis. One class of proteins that plays a key role in the TGF-beta signal transduction pathway is the SMAD protein family. MDM2, a key negative regulator of p53, has recently been shown to suppress TGF-beta-induced growth arrest in a p53-independent manner. Here we show that MDM2 and the structurally related protein MDMX can inhibit the transcriptional activity of ectopically expressed SMAD1, SMAD2, SMAD3, and SMAD4. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that ectopically expressed SMAD4 was present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, and MDM2 and NIDMX were localized mainly to the nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively. When SMAD4 was coexpressed with either MDM2 or MDMX, nuclear accumulation of SMAD4 was strikingly inhibited. We have no evidence that SMAD4 binds directly to MDM2 or MDMX; hence, the inactivation and nuclear exclusion of SMAD4 by MDM2/MDMX may involve other indirect mechanisms.
Cancer Research 11/1999; 59(20):5075-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relative sensitivity of proliferating and quiescent cells to DNA-damaging agents is a key factor for cancer chemotherapy. Here we undertook a reevaluation of the way that proliferating and quiescent cells differ in their responses and fate to adriamycin-induced damage. Distinct types of assays that measure membrane integrity, metabolic activity, cell size, DNA content, and the ability to proliferate were used to compare growing and quiescent Swiss3T3 fibroblasts after adriamycin treatment. We found that immediately after adriamycin treatment of growing cells, p53 and p21(Cip1/Waf1) were induced but the cells remained viable. In contrast, less p53 and p21(Cip1/Waf1) were induced in quiescent cells after adriamycin treatment, but the cells were more prone to immediate cell death, possibly involving apoptosis. Adriamycin induced a G2/M cell cycle arrest in growing cells and a concomitant increase in cell size. In contrast, adriamycin induced an increase in sub-G1 DNA content in quiescent cells and a decrease in cell size. In contrast to the short-term responses, adriamycin-treated quiescent cells have a better long-term survival and proliferation potential than adriamycin-treated growing cells in colony formation assays. These data suggest that proliferating and resting cells are remarkably different in their short-term and long-term responses to adriamycin.
Experimental Cell Research 08/1999; 250(1):131-41. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin A-Cdk2 complexes bind to Skp1 and Skp2 during S phase, but the function of Skp1 and Skp2 is unclear. Skp1, together with F-box proteins like Skp2, are part of ubiquitin-ligase E3 complexes that target many cell cycle regulators for ubiquitination-mediated proteolysis. In this study, we investigated the potential regulation of cyclin A-Cdk2 activity by Skp1 and Skp2. We found that Skp2 can inhibit the kinase activity of cyclin A-Cdk2 in vitro, both by direct inhibition of cyclin A-Cdk2 and by inhibition of the activation of Cdk2 by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-activating kinase phosphorylation. Only the kinase activity of Cdk2, not of that of Cdc2 or Cdk5, is reduced by Skp2. Skp2 is phosphorylated by cyclin A-Cdk2 on residue Ser76, but nonphosphorylatable mutants of Skp2 can still inhibit the kinase activity of cyclin A-Cdk2 toward histone H1. The F box of Skp2 is required for binding to Skp1, and both the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of Skp2 are involved in binding to cyclin A-Cdk2. Furthermore, Skp2 and the CDK inhibitor p21(Cip1/WAF1) bind to cyclin A-Cdk2 in a mutually exclusive manner. Overexpression of Skp2, but not Skp1, in mammalian cells causes a G1/S cell cycle arrest.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 02/1999; 19(1):635-45. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p53 gene encodes one of the most important tumor suppressors in human cells and undergoes frequent mutational inactivation in cancers. MDM2, a transcriptional target of p53, binds p53 and can both inhibit p53-mediated transcription   and target p53 for proteasome-mediated proteolysis  . A close relative of p53, p73, has recently been identified  . Here, we report that, like p53, p73alpha and the alternative transcription product p73beta also bind MDM2. Interaction between MDM2 and p53 represents a key step in the regulation of p53, as MDM2 promotes the degradation of p53. In striking contrast to p53, the half-life of p73 was found to be increased by binding to MDM2. Like MDM2, the MDM2-related protein MDMX also bound p73 and stabilized the level of p73. Moreover, the growth suppression functions of p73 and the induction of endogenous p21, a major mediator of the p53-dependent growth arrest pathway, were enhanced in the presence of MDM2. These differences between the regulation of p53 and p73 by MDM2/MDMX may highlight a physiological difference in their action.
Current Biology 01/1999; 9(15):829-32. · 9.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skp1 interacts with cullins, F-box containing proteins, and forms a complex with cyclin A-Cdk2 in mammalian cells. Skp1 is also involved in diverse biological processes like degradation of key cell cycle regulators, glucose sensing, and kinetochore function. However, little is known about the structure and exact function of Skp1. Here we characterized the interaction between Skp1 and the F-box protein Skp2. We show that Skp1 can bind to Skp2 in vitro using recombinant proteins, and in vivo using the yeast two-hybrid system. Deletion analysis of Skp1 indicated that most of the Skp1 protein is required for binding to Skp2. In mammalian cell extracts, a large portion of Skp1 appears to associate with proteins other than Skp2. Biochemical analysis indicated that Skp1 is likely to be a flexible, non-spherical protein, and is capable of forming dimers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor p53 and its target the CDK inhibitor p21 (Cip1/Waf1) are key components of the cellular response to DNA damage. Insight into how p21 is regulated in normal cells, and how it may be deregulated in tumor cells is important for the understanding of tumorigenesis. p21 was induced in normal human diploid fibroblasts after UV irradiation-induced DNA damage, but, at a high dose of UV irradiation, a faster mobility form of p21 on SDS-PAGE (designated p21delta) was expressed. Surprisingly, in a variety of growing transformed cell lines, the level of p21 was low but p21delta was prominent. We found that p21delta appeared to be derived through a loss of around 10 amino acids from the C-terminus of p21, which theoretically would remove the PCNA binding domain, a second cyclin binding domain and the nuclear localization signal sequence. Several characteristics distinguish p21 from p21delta. Both the full length p21 and p21delta could be stabilized by a proteasome inhibitor, but only the full length p21 was associated with Cdk2 and PCNA. Consistent with this, gel filtration chromatography revealed that all the full length p21 in the cell was complexed to other proteins, whereas a significant portion of p21delta was in monomeric form. Moreover, p21 was mainly localized to the nucleus, but p21delta was mainly localized to the cytoplasm. We propose that the decrease in p21 and increase in p21delta could contribute to the deregulation of the cell cycle, and could be a mechanism involved in cellular transformation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA damage inactivates cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and arrests the cell cycle. Following DNA damage, the G1-S CDKs are inhibited by a mechanism involving p53-dependent induction of p21Cip1/Waf1; but how the Cdc2 is inhibited is less apparent. We found that the signal generated by the DNA damage checkpoint in G2 was dominant over that from the spindle microtubule-assembly checkpoint, because the high Cdc2 activity present in nocodazole or Taxol-arrested cells was reduced by DNA damage. Phosphorylation of the inhibitory residues in Cdc2, Thr14, and Tyr15 coincided with the inactivation of Cdc2 after DNA damage. Interpretation of this result, however, was not straightforward due to the regulation of Thr14/Tyr15 phosphorylation by feedback loops; hence, their phosphorylation can in principle result merely from the inhibition of Cdc2 activity. Consistent with this, Thr14/Tyr15 phosphorylation was induced when Cdc2 kinase activity was inhibited with butyrolactone-I. Given these complications, we undertook a more critical analysis of the mechanisms that regulate Cdc2 after DNA damage. Caffeine reversed the DNA damage-induced inhibition of Cdc2 by causing dephosphorylation of Cdc2, and this dephosphorylation still occurred even when the Cdc2 feedback loops were blocked with butyrolactone-I. These data suggest that the DNA damage checkpoint in part acts through Thr14/Tyr15 phosphorylation by a mechanism independent of Cdc2 activity, and this phosphorylation can be accentuated by the Cdc2 feedback loops involving Thr14/Tyr15 protein kinases and phosphatases. The kinase activity of the Wee1Hu Tyr15 protein kinase was unaltered after DNA damage, but the phosphatase activity of Cdc25C was reduced. Thus, the decrease in Cdc25C activity may in part account for the DNA damage-induced increase in Thr14/Tyr15 phosphorylation.
Cancer Research 12/1997; 57(22):5168-78. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity of most protein kinases is highly regulated, typically via phosphorylation and/or subunit association. However, the folding of protein kinases into an active state or a form capable of activation is now emerging as another important step through which they can be regulated. The 50-kDa protein Cdc37 and the associated heat-shock protein Hsp90 have been found to bind to, and be required for the activity of, diverse protein kinases, including Cdk4, v-Src, Raf and SEVENLESS. Together, Cdc37 and Hsp90 may act as a general chaperone for protein kinases, in particular those involved in signal-transduction pathways and cell-cycle control.
Trends in Cell Biology 05/1997; 7(4):157-61. · 11.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is activated by the neuronal-specific activator protein, p35. In contrast to the activation of typical CDKs by cyclin subunits, p35.Cdk5 was not further activated by the CDK-activating kinase (CAK) and was neither phosphorylated nor inhibited by the Tyr-15-specific Wee1 kinase. The previously identified proteolytic active fragment of p35, p25 (residues 91-307) as well as the slightly smaller fragment containing residues 109-291, was found to be sufficient to bind and activate Cdk5. Other CDKs, including Cdk2, associated weakly with p25. However, their kinase activity was only activated to the low level observed for cyclin A.Cdk2 without Thr-160 phosphorylation, and phosphorylation of Thr-160 in Cdk2 did not activate the p25.Cdk2 complex further. We have identified distinct regions in p35 required for binding to Cdk5 or activation of Cdk5. Residues approximately 150-200 of p35 were sufficient for binding to Cdk5, but residues approximately 279-291 were needed in addition for activation of Cdk5 in vitro.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1997; 272(9):5703-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When determining the concentration of a particular protein in a cell extract, or when comparing the amount of a protein in different samples, it is a common practice to use specific antibodies in immunoblotting to compare the samples side by side with known amounts of purified protein. Here we show that with many antibodies, in particular monoclonal antibodies, the sensitivity of detecting the cognate antigen on immunoblots can be significantly reduced when the antigen is in a mixture with other cellular proteins. The signals on the immunoblots are masked by other endogenous proteins in the cell lysate, making the amount of the protein on the immunoblot appear to be less than the actual amount, thus invalidating direct comparison with purified protein.
Journal of Immunological Methods 01/1997; 199(2):155-8. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 is induced by the tumor suppressor gene product p53 and is thought to be important for the arrest of the cell cycle following DNA damage. Here we have investigated the contribution of p21 in inhibiting different cyclin-CDK complexes that drive different cell cycle transitions following UV irradiation-induced DNA damage in normal human fibroblasts and immortalized rodent fibroblasts. When cells were exposed to a low dose of UV irradiation, both p53 and p21 were induced; the protein kinase activities associated with Cdc2, Cdk2, and Cdk4 were inhibited; and there was a good correlation between their inhibition and binding to p21. p21 alone is likely to be sufficient for the inhibition of Cdk2 because all the cyclin-complexed forms of Cdk2 were associated with p21 after irradiation. In contrast, only a small proportion of Cdk4 and Cdc2 was complexed with p21, although the level of Cdk4 associated with either p21 or p27 was increased after irradiation. Furthermore, recombinant p21 added to an unirradiated cell lysate at the same level as that induced by irradiation damage inhibited only the kinase activity associated with Cdk2. Cdc2 is likely to be inhibited by Thr-14/Tyr-15 phosphorylation after irradiation because Cdc2 was tyrosine-phosphorylated, and recombinant Cdc25 was able to increase its kinase activity significantly. Taken together, these results suggest that different CDKs are inhibited by different mechanisms following UV-induced DNA damage: Cdk2 is inhibited by the elevated level of p21; Cdk4 is inhibited by cooperation of p21 with other CDK inhibitors, like p27, and possibly by phosphorylation; and Cdc2 is inhibited by Thr-14/Tyr-15 phosphorylation. It is likely that these underlying mechanisms that inactivate CDKs are similar for other kinds of DNA damage.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/1996; 271(22):13283-91. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adenovirus oncoprotein E1A and the simian virus SV40 large T antigen can both reverse the strong growth-inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor(TGF)-beta on mink lung epithelial cells: exposure of TGF-beta causes these cells to arrest late in the G1 phase of the cell cycle (ref. 3). This arrest correlates with an increase in expression of the protein p15Ink4B (ref. 4), inactivation of the cyclin E/A-cdk2 complex by the inhibitory protein p27Kip1 (refs 5-7), and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated retinoblastoma protein. The rescue by E1A of cells from TGF-beta arrest is partly independent of its binding to retinoblastoma protein. Here we show that E1A directly affects the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 in TGF-beta-treated cells by binding to it and blocking its inhibitory effect, thereby restoring the activity of the cyclin-cdk2 kinase complex. In this way, E1A can overcome the effect of TGF-beta and modulate the cell cycle. To our knowledge, E1A provides the first example of a viral oncoprotein that can disable a cellular protein whose function is to inhibit the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases.