David T Eddington

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

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Publications (53)177.98 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This chapter discusses various microfluidic technologies that have been developed to study islets and β-cells. The chapter first introduces key issues in the field of pancreatic islet transplantation as a clinical therapy for Type I diabetes. It then reviews microfluidic technologies that have been developed for the study of pancreatic islet and β-cell physiology and disease pathophysiology. The chapter then describes the design, fabrication, and application of UIC’s microfluidic- based multimodal islet perifusion and live-cell imaging system. Protocols are available at the end of the chapter.
    10/2013: pages 557-593; , ISBN: 9780857097040
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    ABSTRACT: In this report, we present a novel microfluidic islet array based on a hydrodynamic trapping principle. The lab-on-a-chip studies with live-cell multiparametric imaging allow understanding of physiological and pathophysiological changes of microencapsulated islets under hypoxic conditions. Using this microfluidic array and imaging analysis techniques, we demonstrate that hypoxia impairs the function of microencapsulated islets at single islet level, showing a heterogeneous pattern reflected in intracellular calcium signaling, mitochondrial energetic, and redox activity. Our approach demonstrates an improvement over conventional hypoxia chambers that is able to rapidly equilibrate to true hypoxia levels through the integration of dynamic oxygenation. This work demonstrates the feasibility of array-based cellular analysis and opens up new modality to conduct informative analysis and cell-based screening for microencapsulated pancreatic islets.
    Analytical Chemistry 10/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mating yeast cells interpret complex pheromone gradients and polarize their growth in the direction of the closest partner. Chemotropic growth depends on both the pheromone receptor and its associated G-protein. Upon activation by the receptor, Gα dissociates from Gβγ and Gβ is subsequently phosphorylated. Free Gβγ signals to the nucleus via a MAPK cascade and recruits Far1-Cdc24 to the incipient growth site. It is not clear how the cell establishes and stabilizes the axis of polarity, but this process is thought to require local signal amplification via the Gβγ-Far1-Cdc24 chemotropic complex, as well as communication between this complex and the activated receptor. Here we show that a mutant form of Gβ that cannot be phosphorylated confers defects in directional sensing and chemotropic growth. Our data suggest that phosphorylation of Gβ plays a role in localized signal amplification and in the dynamic communication between the receptor and the chemotropic complex, which underlie growth site selection and maintenance.
    Journal of Cell Science 04/2013; · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A microfluidic oxygenator is used to deliver constant oxygen to rodent brain slices, enabling the loading of the cell-permeant calcium indicator Fura-2/AM into cells of adult brain slices. When compared to traditional methods, our microfluidic oxygenator improves loading efficiency, measured by the number of loaded cells per unit area, for all tested age groups. Loading in slices from 1-year-old mice was achieved, which has not been possible with current bulk loading methods. This technique significantly expands the age range for which calcium studies are possible without cellular injection. This technique will facilitate opportunities for the study of calcium signaling of aging and long term stress related diseases. Moreover, it should be applicable to other membrane-permeant physiological indicator varieties.
    Journal of neuroscience methods 04/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restoring tissue oxygenation has the potential to improve poorly healing wounds with impaired microvasculature. Compared with more established wound therapy using hyperbaric oxygen chambers, topical oxygen therapy has lower cost and better patient comfort, although topical devices have provided inconsistent results. To provide controlled topical oxygen while minimizing moisture loss, a major issue for topical oxygen, we have devised a novel wound bandage based on microfluidic diffusion delivery of oxygen. In addition to modulating oxygen from 0 to 100% in 60 seconds rise time, the microfluidic oxygen bandage provides a conformal seal around the wound. When 100% oxygen is delivered, it penetrates wound tissues as measured in agar phantom and in vivo wounds. Using this microfluidic bandage, we applied the oxygen modulation to 8 mm excisional wounds prepared on diabetic mice. Treatment with the microfluidic bandage demonstrated improved collagen maturity in the wound bed, although only marginal differences were observed in total collagen, microvasculature, and external closure rates. Our results show that proper topical oxygen can improve wound parameters underneath the surface. Because of the ease of fabrication, the oxygen bandage represents an economical yet practical method for oxygen wound research.
    Wound Repair and Regeneration 03/2013; 21(2):226-34. · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Shawn C Oppegard, David T Eddington
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    ABSTRACT: Oxygen gradients are increasingly implicated in a number of biological processes, including stem cell differentiation and cancer metastasis. Unfortunately, the current in vitro tools designed to mimic conditions found in vivo lack application flexibility, simplicity in operation, and precise spatial control that most researchers require for widespread dissemination. The novel microfluidic-based device presented here addresses all the above concerns, offering a simple platform for enhanced control over the oxygen microenvironment exposed to three-dimensional cell-seeded constructs. The device utilizes an oxygen diffusion membrane approach to establish a gradient across a construct sandwiched between two continually perfused microfluidic networks. The device is capable of forming steady-state gradients at both the conditions tested-0 % to 5 % O(2) and 0 % to 21 % O(2)-but a wide variety of profiles within the construct are possible. Cell viability with two model cell lines was also tested, with no adverse effects relative to the control.
    Biomedical Microdevices 01/2013; · 2.72 Impact Factor
  • David T Eddington, Justin Williams
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    ABSTRACT: A graphical abstract is available for this content
    Lab on a Chip 01/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous oxygenation and monitoring of glucose stimulus-secretion coupling factors in a single technique is critical for modeling pathophysiological states of islet hypoxia, especially in transplant environments. Standard hypoxic chamber techniques cannot modulate both stimulations at the same time nor provide real-time monitoring of glucose stimulus-secretion coupling factors. To address these difficulties, we applied a multilayered microfluidic technique to integrate both aqueous and gas phase modulations via a diffusion membrane. This creates a stimulation sandwich around the microscaled islets within the transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device, enabling monitoring of the aforementioned coupling factors via fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, the gas input is controlled by a pair of microdispensers, providing quantitative, sub-minute modulations of oxygen between 0-21%. This intermittent hypoxia is applied to investigate a new phenomenon of islet preconditioning. Moreover, armed with multimodal microscopy, we were able to look at detailed calcium and KATP channel dynamics during these hypoxic events. We envision microfluidic hypoxia, especially this simultaneous dual phase technique, as a valuable tool in studying islets as well as many ex vivo tissues.
    Journal of Visualized Experiments 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: This review outlines the current status of microfluidic devices used to study the physiology and pathophysiology of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, mainly focusing on the design features and specialized applications of existing microfluidic devices, as well as their advantages and limitations. This review then briefly concludes by describing future perspectives on ways to improve and implement microfluidic technology for islet study.
    Micro and Nanosystems. 01/2013; 5(3):216-223.
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotropism, or directed cell growth in response to a chemical gradient, is integral to many biological processes. The mating response of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a well studied model chemotropic system. Yeast cells of opposite mating type signal their positions by secreting soluble mating pheromones. The mutual exchange of pheromones induces the cells to grow towards one another, resulting in mating projections or "shmoos." Yeast cells exhibit a remarkable ability to orient their growth toward the nearest potential mating partner, and to reorient (i.e., bend their mating projections) in response to a change in the direction of the pheromone gradient. Although a number of microfluidic devices have been used to generate linear pheromone gradients and to measure initial orientation, none of them have the capability to change the direction of the gradient, other than to invert it. We have developed a microfluidic device that can produce stable pheromone gradients and rapidly rotate them in 90° increments, mimicking the dynamic gradients yeast are exposed to in situ, and allowing for the study of reorientation as well as initial orientation. The mean angle of orientation exhibited by gradient-stimulated yeast cells in this device was 56.9°. In control experiments, cells subjected to pheromone coming from all four directions showed no evidence of orientation. Switching the direction of the pheromone source by 90° induced 83.6% of the polarized cells to change their direction of growth. Of these, 85.2% bent their mating projections toward the second source, demonstrating the utility of this device in the study of reorientation with specifically controlled gradients.
    Lab on a Chip 07/2012; 12(17):3127-34. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is a common analytical electrochemistry tool used to measure chemical species. It has recently been adapted for measurement of neurotransmitters such as dopamine in awake and behaving animals (in vivo). Electrode calibration is an essential step in FSCV to relate observed current to concentration of a chemical species. However, existing methods require multiple components, which reduce the ease of calibrations. To this end, a microfluidic flow cell (μFC) was developed as a simple device to switch between buffer and buffer with a known concentration of the analyte of interest--in this case dopamine--in a microfluidic Y-channel. The ability to quickly switch solutions yielded electrode calibrations with faster rise times and that were more stable at peak current values. The μFC reduced the number of external electrical components and produced linear calibrations over a range of concentrations. To demonstrate this, an electrode calibrated with the μFC was used in FSCV recordings from a rat during the delivery of food reward--a stimulus that reliably evokes a brief increase in current due to the oxidation of dopamine. Using the linear calibration, dopamine concentrations were determined from the current responses evoked during the behavioral task. The μFC is able to easily and quickly calibrate FSCV electrode responses to chemical species for both in vitro and in vivo experiments.
    Lab on a Chip 04/2012; 12(13):2403-8. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here, we report a new method for multicomponent protein patterning in a microchannel and also a technique for improving immunoaffinity-based circulating tumor cell (CTC) capture by patterning regions of alternating adhesive proteins using the new method. The first of two proteins, antiepithelial cell adhesion molecule (anti-EpCAM), provides the specificity for CTC capture. The second, E-selectin, increases CTC capture under shear. Patterning regions with and without E-selectin allows captured leukocytes, which also bind E-selectin and are unwanted impurities in CTC isolation, to roll a short distance and detach from the capture surface. This reduces leukocyte capture by up to 82%. The patterning is combined with a leukocyte elution step in which a calcium chelating buffer effectively deactivates E-selectin so that leukocytes may be rinsed away 60% more efficiently than with a buffer containing calcium. The alternating patterning of this biomimetic protein combination, used in conjunction with the elution step, reduces capture of leukocytes while maintaining a high tumor cell capture efficiency that is up to 1.9 times higher than the tumor cell capture efficiency of a surface with only anti-EpCAM. The new patterning technique described here does not require mask alignment and can be used to spatially control the immobilization of any two proteins or protein mixtures inside a sealed microfluidic channel.
    Analytical Chemistry 04/2012; 84(9):4022-8. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous stimulation of ex vivo pancreatic islets with dynamic oxygen and glucose is a critical technique for studying how hypoxia alters glucose-stimulated response, especially in transplant environments. Standard techniques using a hypoxic chamber cannot provide both oxygen and glucose modulations, while monitoring stimulus-secretion coupling factors in real-time. Using novel microfluidic device with integrated glucose and oxygen modulations, we quantified hypoxic impairment of islet response by calcium influx, mitochondrial potentials, and insulin secretion. Glucose-induced calcium response magnitude and phase were suppressed by hypoxia, while mitochondrial hyperpolarization and insulin secretion decreased in coordination. More importantly, hypoxic response was improved by preconditioning islets to intermittent hypoxia (IH, 1 min/1 min 5-21% cycling for 1 h), translating to improved insulin secretion. Moreover, blocking mitochondrial K(ATP) channels removed preconditioning benefits of IH, similar to mechanisms in preconditioned cardiomyocytes. Additionally, the multimodal device can be applied to a variety of dynamic oxygen-metabolic studies in other ex vivo tissues.
    Analytical Chemistry 02/2012; 84(4):1987-93. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reliable long-term cell culture in microfluidic system is limited by air bubble formation and accumulation. In this study, we developed a bubble removal system capable of both trapping and discharging air bubbles in a consistent and reliable manner. Combined with PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) hydrophilic surface treatment and vacuum filling, a microfluidic perifusion system equipped with the bubble trap was successfully applied for long-term culture of mouse pancreatic islets with no bubble formation and no flow interruption. In addition to demonstrating normal cell viability and islet morphology, post-cultured islets exhibited normal insulin secretion kinetics, intracellular calcium signaling, and changes in mitochondrial potentials in response to glucose challenge. This design could be easily adapted by other microfluidic systems due to its simple design, ease of fabrication, and portability.
    Biomedical Microdevices 01/2012; 14(2):419-26. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    Gerardo Mauleon, Christopher P Fall, David T Eddington
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    ABSTRACT: The acute brain slice preparation is an excellent model for studying the details of how neurons and neuronal tissue respond to a variety of different physiological conditions. But open slice chambers ideal for electrophysiological and imaging access have not allowed the precise spatiotemporal control of oxygen in a way that might realistically model stroke conditions. To address this problem, we have developed a microfluidic add-on to a commercially available perfusion chamber that diffuses oxygen throughout a thin membrane and directly to the brain slice. A microchannel enables rapid and efficient control of oxygen and can be modified to allow different regions of the slice to experience different oxygen conditions. Using this novel device, we show that we can obtain a stable and homogeneous oxygen environment throughout the brain slice and rapidly alter the oxygen tension in a hippocampal slice. We also show that we can impose different oxygen tensions on different regions of the slice preparation and measure two independent responses, which is not easily obtainable with current techniques.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43309. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 12/2011; 50(49):11769-72. · 13.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study explores a new class of duplex microfluidic device which utilizes a dual perifusion network to simultaneously perform live-cell optical imaging of physiological activities and study insulin release kinetics on two islet populations. This device also incorporates on-chip staggered herringbone mixers (SHMs) to increase mixing efficiency and facilitate the generation of user-defined chemical gradients. Mouse islets are used to simultaneously measure dynamic insulin release, changes in mitochondrial potentials, and calcium influx in response to insulin secretagogues (glucose and tolbutamide), and show a high signal-to-noise ratio and spatiotemporal resolution of all measured parameters for both perifusion chambers. This system has many potential applications for studying β-cell physiology and pathophysiology, as well as for therapeutic drug screening. This dual perifusion device is not limited to islet studies and could easily be applied to other tissues and cells without major modifications.
    Biomedical Microdevices 08/2011; 14(1):7-16. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a need for a simple method to control fluid flow within microfluidic channels. To meet this need, a simple push pin with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tip has been integrated into microfluidic networks to be placed within the microchannel to obstruct flow. This new valve design can attain on/off control of fluid flow without an external power source using readily-available, low-cost materials. The valve consists of a 14 gauge (1.6 mm) one inch piece of metal tubing with a PDMS pad at the tip to achieve a fluidic seal when pressed against a microfluidic channel's substrate. The metal tubing or pin is then either manually pushed down to block or pulled up to allow fluid flow. The valve was validated using a pressure transducer and fluorescent dye to determine the breakthrough pressure the valve can withstand over multiple cycles. In the first cycle, the median value for pressure withstood by the valve was 8.8 psi with a range of 17.5-2.7 psi. The pressure the valves were able to withstand during each successive trial was lower suggesting they may be most valuable as a method to control the initial introduction of fluids into a microfluidic device. These valves can achieve flow regulation within microfluidic devices, have a small dead volume, and are simple to fabricate and use, making this technique widely suitable for a range of applications.
    Biomedical Microdevices 04/2011; 13(4):633-9. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many microfluidic devices operate with cells suspended in buffer solutions. Researchers who work with large cell types in such devices often run into problems with gravitational cell settling in the injection equipment and in the device itself. A method for reducing this problematic settling is discussed in this paper using tumor cell lines as an example. Microfluidic circulating tumor cell (CTC) isolation devices (MCIDs) are benchmarked using buffer solutions spiked with in-vitro tumor cell lines prior to validation with clinical samples (i.e. whole blood). However, buffer solutions have different rheological properties than whole blood. Here we describe the use of alginate in PBS buffer solutions to mimic blood rheology and reduce cell settling during preliminary validation experiments. Because alginate increases the viscosity of a solution, it helps to maintain cells in suspension. We report that vertical equipment configurations are important to further mitigate the effects of cell settling for MDA-MB-468 carcinoma cells. We also report that alginate does not disrupt the specific binding interactions that are the basis of carcinoma cell capture in MCIDs. These results indicate that vertical equipment configurations and the addition of alginates can be used to reduce cell settling in buffer based MCID testing and other applications involving large cells suspended in buffer solution.
    Biomedical Microdevices 03/2011; 13(3):549-57. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    Jacob B. Prettyman, David T. Eddington
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    ABSTRACT: Microfluidic mixers are an important component in microfluidic devices. This paper presents a micromixer which can control mixing with responsive hydrogel actuators to modulate mixing between two adjacent fluids dependant on the chemistries of the fluid. This is achieved by the responsive hydrogels swelling or contracting under different stimuli, which alters the mixing between the two fluids. We present this device using standard pH responsive hydrogels for two different device designs and demonstrate altered mixing profiles based on the pH of the fluid streams. For the T-shaped device an increase in mixing efficiency from 18.3% to 34.5% is observed between the contracted and expanded hydrogel states. For the modified T-shaped device mixing efficiency in the contracted state is 25.0% while in the expanded state efficiency increases to 72.9%. This can be used as a mixer that has on/off functionality of an active mixer, based on the pH of the mixing streams, with the advantages a passive mixer offers. Other responsive hydrogel chemistries could be substituted into the device to achieve many different triggers for mixing.
    Sensors and Actuators B-chemical - SENSOR ACTUATOR B-CHEM. 01/2011; 157(2):722-726.

Publication Stats

565 Citations
177.98 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2013
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • • Department of Bioengineering
      • • Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2010
    • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
      • Division of Surgery V
      Athens, Attiki, Greece
  • 2008–2009
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Division of Health Sciences and Technology
      Cambridge, MA, United States
    • Harvard University
      • School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002–2006
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2004
    • Dankook University
      Eidō, North Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2000
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Urbana, IL, United States