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Publications (14)15.31 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant drug indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Its abuse and diversion have been previously described in specific populations, such as students; however, few studies investigating abuse and diversion among the overall population are available. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of methylphenidate use and to explore the magnitude of its abuse and diversion in two French administrative areas using data from a reimbursement database. A proxy of 'deviant behaviour' was used for the abuse and diversion of methylphenidate, defined using the following parameters: total number of defined daily doses (DDDs) of methylphenidate dispensed; number of different pharmacies seen for dispensing of methylphenidate; number of prescribers consulted for a prescription of methylphenidate; and number of dispensings of methylphenidate. Data from the reimbursement database were analysed by clustering methods. These data were assessed from 2005 to 2008. The French General Health Insurance System (GHIS) database was used to obtain data on methylphenidate use in two French administrative areas. Individuals affiliated to the GHIS who had a prescription for methylphenidate reimbursed between 1 January and 31 March of 4 selected years (2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008) were included. After the first dispensing of methylphenidate for these individuals, all their dispensings (including methylphenidate and other psychoactive drugs) were monitored over a 9-month period. Following a descriptive analysis, a clustering method was used to identify different subgroups of subjects according to the methylphenidate consumer profile characteristics. With regard to the number of patients who had a dispensing for methylphenidate during the first quarter of the year, an 84% increase was observed between 2005 (n = 640) and 2008 (n = 1175). The clustering method identified two subgroups. One of them was characterized by a higher number of dispensings, different prescribers and pharmacies and a greater total dispensed quantity, suggesting a deviant behaviour and, thus, possible abuse and diversion of methylphenidate. These subjects were older (aged 35.4 ± 11.3 years) and were more frequently patients receiving benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics and maintenance opioid treatment. The proportion of subjects with a deviant behaviour increased from 0.5% in 2005 to 2% in 2007 and then decreased to 1.2% in 2008. This method was able to assess the magnitude of methylphenidate abuse liability and to follow its evolution. The decrease in methylphenidate abuse and diversion seen between 2007 and 2008 can be explained by the enactment in April 2008 of specific regulations for prescription drugs (such as methylphenidate) that are deemed by the French government to have the potential for misuse; these regulations require the establishment of a 'contract of care' between the GHIS, prescriber and patient.
    CNS Drugs 05/2011; 25(5):415-24. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Doctor-shopping is a patient behaviour characterized by simultaneous consultations of several physicians during the same period. Some case reports have described an abuse of tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant. Our objective was to assess the extent of abuse of this drug with a method quantifying doctor-shopping in comparison with other antidepressants and benzodiazepines (BZD). All dispensations of antidepressants and BZD during the year 2005 in a French area of 4.5 million inhabitants were extracted from a reimbursement database. For each patient, two quantities were computed: quantity dispensed and obtained by doctor-shopping. Tianeptine and other drugs were compared using their doctor-shopping indicator (DSI), defined as the percentage of drug obtained by doctor-shopping among dispensed quantity; 410 525 patients received at least one antidepressant dispensation during the year 2005. Tianeptine was the sixth most dispensed antidepressant. The DSI of tianeptine was 2.0%, ranking it first among antidepressant (the second being mianserine with a DSI of 1%). Flunitrazepam has the highest DSI (30.2%), the DSI of the five following BZD (clonazepam, zolpidem, oxazepam, diazepam, bromazepam) range from 3.0% to 2.0%. Tianeptine is associated with higher DSI, compared with other antidepressants, suggesting that it may be subject to abuse in the population. Moreover, its DSI as a measure of diversion is similar to the DSI of diazepam or bromazepam.
    Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 01/2011; 26(2):286-94. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two methods have been recently developed from a drug reimbursement database to provide useful indicators for public health authorities concerning the abuse potential of psychotropic drugs. The doctor-shopping indicator (DSI) measures the proportion of the drug obtained by doctor shopping among the overall quantity of the drug reimbursed and the clustering method reveals subgroups of deviant patients. The objective of the study was to analyze and compare indicators resulting from these two methods, applied to High Dosage Buprenorphine (HDB) (a product well-known to be diverted in France), in order to determine which public health authorities needs they answer. The patients with reimbursed HDB were grouped using the clustering method in terms of drug dispensations characteristics over a nine month period. The characteristics of the resulting subgroups, including their DSI, were then compared. 4787 Patients (73.4%) had no measurable doctor-shopping behaviour. But the comparison of the two methods demonstrated that the more a patient's profile was characterized by deviant behavior, the higher was the DSI: from 0.4% in a subgroup with a median profile to 72% in a subgroup with a deviant profile. These two methods are useful surveillance tools for public health authorities: the clustering method may help devise pertinent intervention strategies to reduce prescription drug abuse while the DSI method provides quantitative information demonstrating whether these strategies are useful. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using these two methods as useful indicators for public health authorities.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 01/2011; 113(1):29-36. · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some observations suggest the existence of clonazepam abuse. The aim of this study was to assess its magnitude in real life by a new method, using a prescription database, and to assess its evolution between 2001 and 2006. Individuals from a region affiliated to the French health reimbursement system, who had a prescription of clonazepam reimbursed between 1 January and 15 February of two selected years were included. Their deliveries were monitored over a 9-month period. After a descriptive analysis, a clustering method illustrated by a factorial analysis was used to identify different subgroups of clonazepam consumers. An increase of 82% in participants who had a delivery of clonazepam between 2001 and 2006 was observed. Using the clustering method, this study identified some deviant participants. This group comprises a higher proportion of males, benzodiazepine users, and buprenorphine users. The number of deliveries by different prescribers and pharmacies are higher. The proportion of deviant participants increased between 2001 and 2006 (from 0.86 to 1.38%). Our method can be used to assess the magnitude of abuse liability of clonazepam and is also interesting for following its evolution, two important keys for assessing patterns of abuse.
    International clinical psychopharmacology 10/2009; 24(6):318-24. · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • Revue D Epidemiologie Et De Sante Publique - REV EPIDEMIOL SANTE PUBL. 01/2009; 57.
  • Revue D Epidemiologie Et De Sante Publique - REV EPIDEMIOL SANTE PUBL. 01/2009; 57.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate medical management in patients with renal failure before dialysis, we conducted a case-control study to analyze the health benefits in 914 moderate renal failure patients with Cockcroft clearance between 30 and 60 ml/min. Health benefits reimbursed by the Social Security in this population were compared with those in 1828 controls randomly chosen in the Social Security files but matched by age and gender. Mean age of the participants was 73+/-11 year-old, 67% were women, Cockcroft clearance was 48+/-8 ml/min. Number of hospitalizations and hospitalization durations were not different between the two populations. Conversely, cases had more specialized outpatients' clinics in cardiology but not in nephrology or urology. Cases had more biological tests and radiological exams and had taken more medicines. For biology, cases had more often renal function tests and markers of renal dysfunction tests than controls. Cases had taken more medicines than controls for erythropoietin, diuretics, renin-angiotensin blockers, hypoglycemic drugs, and anticoagulants. Patients with mild renal failure had higher health benefits than controls for outpatients' clinics in cardiology, for biological tests, for radiological exams, and for some medicines.
    Néphrologie & Thérapeutique 05/2008; 4(2):99-104. · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate medical management in patients with renal failure before dialysis, we conducted a case–control study to analyze the health benefits in 914 moderate renal failure patients with Cockcroft clearance between 30 and 60 ml/min. Health benefits reimbursed by the Social Security in this population were compared with those in 1828 controls randomly chosen in the Social Security files but matched by age and gender. Mean age of the participants was 73 ± 11 year-old, 67% were women, Cockcroft clearance was 48 ± 8 ml/min. Number of hospitalizations and hospitalization durations were not different between the two populations. Conversely, cases had more specialized outpatients’ clinics in cardiology but not in nephrology or urology. Cases had more biological tests and radiological exams and had taken more medicines. For biology, cases had more often renal function tests and markers of renal dysfunction tests than controls. Cases had taken more medicines than controls for erythropoietin, diuretics, renin–angiotensin blockers, hypoglycemic drugs, and anticoagulants. Patients with mild renal failure had higher health benefits than controls for outpatients’ clinics in cardiology, for biological tests, for radiological exams, and for some medicines.
    Nephrologie & Therapeutique - NEPHROL THER. 01/2008; 4(2):99-104.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent observations suggest the existence of clonazepam abuse. In order to determine the importance of this practice and the characteristics of these consumers, a study has been carried out, based on data from the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur and Corsica health reimbursement system. Individuals from these regions affiliated to the French health reimbursement system, who have had a prescription of clonazepam reimbursed between January 1, 2001 and February 15, 2001, have been selected. The deliveries have been monitored over a 9 month-period. 9381 subjects have been selected. A sub-group of 1.5 per cent subjects with a deviant behaviour has been identified by factorial analysis and has been compared to the sub-group without deviant behaviour. The subjects with deviant behaviour are younger and mostly male. The dosage of clonazepam is higher (10.8 mg per day versus 2.1 mg per day) with a significantly higher proportion of benzodiazepine and high-dose buprenorphine. The number of deliveries is higher (19.4 versus 5.9) as well as the number of different physicians (4.5 versus 1.5) and pharmacies (5.9 versus 1.3). This study provides some arguments in favor of the potential of abuse and dependence of clonazepam and the necessity to reinforce its monitoring. This information requires to be relayed to health professionals. De récentes observations suggèrent l'existence d'un détournement du clonazépam. Afin de déterminer l'importance de cette pratique et les caractéristiques des consommateurs, une étude a été réalisée à partir des bases de données de l'Assurance Maladie de Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur et Corse. Les assurés ayant eu un remboursement de clonazépam entre le 1$^{\rm er}$ janvier et le 15 février 2001 ont été inclus, soit 9381 sujets. Leurs délivrances ont été suivies pendant 9 mois. Un sous-groupe de 1,5 pour cent de sujets ayant un comportement déviant a été identifié et comparé au sous-groupe non déviant. Les sujets déviants sont plus jeunes et à prédominance masculine. La posologie de clonazépam est élevée (10,8 mg/j versus 2,1 mg/j), avec une proportion plus importante de benzodiazépines et de buprénorphine haut dosage associées. Le nombre de délivrances est plus élevé (19,4 versus 5,9), comme le nombre de médecins (4,5 versus 1,5) et de pharmacies (5,9 versus 1,3). Cette étude pharmaco-épidémiologique apporte des arguments supplémentaires en faveur du potentiel d'abus et de dépendance du clonazépam et du besoin de renforcer sa surveillance. Ces informations nécessitent d'être relayées auprès des professionnels de santé.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2515/therapie:2006014. 01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent observations suggest the existence of clonazepam abuse. In order to determine the importance of this practice and the characteristics of these consumers, a study has been carried out, based on data from the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur and Corsica health reimbursement system. Individuals from these regions affiliated to the French health reimbursement system, who have had a prescription of clonazepam reimbursed between January 1, 2001 and February 15, 2001, have been selected. The deliveries have been monitored over a 9 month-period. 9381 subjects have been selected. A sub-group of 1.5 per cent subjects with a deviant behaviour has been identified by factorial analysis and has been compared to the sub-group without deviant behaviour. The subjects with deviant behaviour are younger and mostly male. The dosage of clonazepam is higher (10.8 mg per day versus 2.1 mg per day) with a significantly higher proportion of benzodiazepine and high-dose buprenorphine. The number of deliveries is higher (19.4 versus 5.9) as well as the number of different physicians (4.5 versus 1.5) and pharmacies (5.9 versus 1.3). This study provides some arguments in favor of the potential of abuse and dependence of clonazepam and the necessity to reinforce its monitoring. This information requires to be relayed to health professionals.
    Thérapie 01/2006; 61(1):49-55. · 0.37 Impact Factor
  • Thérapie 01/2006; 61(1):49-55. · 0.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent observations suggest the existence of trihexyphenidyl abuse linked to its hallucinogenic and euphoric effects. In order to determine the importance of this practice and the characteristics of those involved, a study based on data from the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur and the Corsica health reimbursement system was carried out. Individuals from these regions affiliated to the French health reimbursement system who had a prescription for trihexyphenidyl (Artane®, Parkinane®) reimbursed between January 1, 2001, and February 15, 2001, were selected. The delivery of prescriptions was monitored over a 9-month period. In total, 3028 subjects were selected. A subgroup comprising 2.1% of subjects with deviant behaviour was identified by factorial analysis and compared with the subgroup without deviant behaviour. The subjects with deviant behaviour were young and mostly male. The dosage of trihexyphenidyl was higher in these subjects (28 mg/day versus 7 mg/day) and a greater proportion used benzodiazepine and high-dose buprenorphine compared with those without deviant behaviour. The number of prescriptions delivered was higher (23.0 versus 7.7) as well the number of different physicians (4.9 versus 1.5) and pharmacies (5.0 versus 1.3) for those subjects with deviant behaviour. This study confirms the abuse and dependence potential associated with trihexyphenidyl use and the need to increase the supervision of this drug. De récentes observations suggèrent l'existence d'un détournement du trihexyphénidyle pour ses effets hallucinatoires et désinhibants. Afin de déterminer l'importance de cette pratique et les caractéristiques des consommateurs, une étude a été réalisée à partir des bases de données de l'Assurance Maladie de Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur (PACA) et Corse. Les assurés ayant eu un remboursement de trihexyphénidyle entre le 1$^{\rm{er}}$ janvier 2001 et le 15 février 2001 ont été inclus, soit 3028 sujets. Leurs délivrances ont été suivies pendant 9 mois. Un sous-groupe de 2,1 % de sujets ayant un comportement déviant a été identifié par analyse factorielle et comparé au sous-groupe non déviant. Les sujets déviants sont plus jeunes, à prédominance masculine. La posologie de trihexyphénidyle est élevée (28 mg/j versus 7 mg/j), avec une proportion plus importante de benzodiazépines et de buprénorphine haut dosage associées. Le nombre de délivrances est plus élevé (23,0 versus 7,7), comme le nombre de médecins (4,9 versus 1,5) et de pharmacies (5,0 versus 1,3). Cette étude confirme le potentiel d'abus et de dépendance du trihexyphénidyle et la nécessité de renforcer sa surveillance.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2515/therapie:2003088. 01/2003;
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    ABSTRACT: De récentes observations suggèrent l'existence d'un détournement du trihexyphénidyle pour ses effets hallucinatoires et désinhibants. Afin de déterminer l'importance de cette pratique et les caractéristiques des consommateurs, une étude a été réalisée à partir des bases de données de l'Assurance Maladie de Provence- Alpes-Côte-d'Azur (PACA) et Corse. Les assurés ayant eu un remboursement de trihexyphénidyle entre le 1er janvier 2001 et le 15 février 2001 ont été inclus, soit 3028 sujets. Leurs délivrances ont été suivies pendant 9 mois. Un sous-groupe de 2,1 % de sujets ayant un comportement déviant a été identifié par analyse factorielle et comparé au sous-groupe non déviant. Les sujets déviants sont plus jeunes, à prédominance masculine. La posologie de trihexyphénidyle est élevée (28 mg/j versus 7 mg/j), avec une proportion plus importante de benzodiazépines et de buprénorphine haut dosage associées. Le nombre de délivrances est plus élevé (23,0 versus 7,7), comme le nombre de médecins (4,9 versus 1,5) et de pharmacies (5,0 versus 1,3). Cette étude confirme le potentiel d'abus et de dépendance du trihexyphénidyle et la nécessité de renforcer sa surveillance.Mots clés : trihexyphénidyle, anticholinergique, abus de médicaments, surveillance épidémiologiqueAbstractRecent observations suggest the existence of trihexyphenidyl abuse linked to its hallucinogenic and euphoric effects. In order to determine the importance of this practice and the characteristics of those involved, a study based on data from the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur and the Corsica health reimbursement system was carried out. Individuals from these regions affiliated to the French health reimbursement system who had a prescription for trihexyphenidyl (Artane®, Parkinane®) reimbursed between January 1, 2001, and February 15, 2001, were selected. The delivery of prescriptions was monitored over a 9-month period. In total, 3028 subjects were selected. A subgroup comprising 2.1% of subjects with deviant behaviour was identified by factorial analysis and compared with the subgroup without deviant behaviour. The subjects with deviant behaviour were young and mostly male. The dosage of trihexyphenidyl was higher in these subjects (28 mg/day versus 7 mg/day) and a greater proportion used benzodiazepine and high-dose buprenorphine compared with those without deviant behaviour. The number of prescriptions delivered was higher (23.0 versus 7.7) as well the number of different physicians (4.9 versus 1.5) and pharmacies (5.0 versus 1.3) for those subjects with deviant behaviour. This study confirms the abuse and dependence potential associated with trihexyphenidyl use and the need to increase the supervision of this drug.Keywords: trihexyphenidyl, anticholinergic, substance abuse, epidemiological surveyTexte reçu le 19 juin 2003 ; accepté le 29 juillet 2003
    Thérapie 12/2002; 58(6):541-547. · 0.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To assess the national market penetration rate (PR) of generic high-dosage buprenorphine (HDB) in 2008 and its evolution since their marketing (2006), and making a point for each dosage and at regional level. Methods. Retrospective study over data using national and regional health reimbursement database over three years (2006-2008). Results. In 2008, the generic HDB's national MPR was 31%. The PR for each dosage were 45% for 0.4 mg, 36% for 2 mg and 19% for 8 mg. The (PR) based on Defined Daily Dose (DDD) was 23% in 2008, 15% in 2007 and 4% in 2006. In 2008, at the regional level, disparities were observed in the adjusted penetration rate from 15% in Île de France to 39% in Champagne Ardennes Lorraine. Conclusion. The national PR of generic HDB has increased. There are differences in MPR in terms of dosage and area. However, this PR is still low (in 2008, 82% of the delivered drugs are generics).
    Thérapie 67(2):129-36. · 0.37 Impact Factor