P Gallian

Aix-Marseille Université, Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

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Publications (70)205.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We screened plasma samples (minipools of 96 samples, corresponding to 53,234 blood donations) from France that had been processed with solvent-detergent for hepatitis E virus RNA. The detection rate was 1 HEV-positive sample/2,218 blood donations. Most samples (22/24) from viremic donors were negative for IgG and IgM against HEV.
    Emerging infectious diseases. 11/2014; 20(11):1914-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The risk assessment for blood transfusion is an essential step that must precede any screening strategy of a pathogen transmitted by transfusion. After several cases of HEV transmission by transfusion in France, a risk assessment for this virus was performed.
    Transfusion clinique et biologique : journal de la Societe francaise de transfusion sanguine. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped RNA virus transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Autochthonous hepatitis E occurring in developed countries is caused by genotypes 3 and 4 and is a zoonotic infection. Humans are infected mostly after ingestion of undercooked meat from infected animals. Most HEV 3 and 4 infections are clinically inapparent. However, genotype 3 (HEV 3) can lead to chronic hepatitis in immuno-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. In Europe, HEV 3 is implicated in transfusion-transmitted HEV infection. In France, as observed in several European countries, prevalence of HEV RNA and specific IgG antibodies are high indicating that viral circulation is important. The systematic HEV NAT screening of blood donations used for preparation of solvent detergent plasma indicate that 1 to 2218 donation is infected by HEV RNA. The need or implementation's impacts of safety measures to prevent HEV transmission by blood transfusion are under reflexion by French's health authorities. The HEV NAT screening is the only available tool of prevention. Alternative strategies are under investigation including individual or mini pool NAT testing all or part of blood donations.
    Transfusion clinique et biologique : journal de la Societe francaise de transfusion sanguine. 09/2014;
  • Blood 06/2014; 123(23):3679-81. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Considering the worldwide dissemination of Aedes mosquitoes, several years ago some of us anticipated the globalization of Chikungunya through invasion of the Americas, and alerted that the question was not if it can happen but when it will happen [1]. Arboviruses present an ongoing challenge to medicine and public health. Chikungunya virus was first isolated in Africa in the 1950's at the border of Tanzania and Mozambique. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 05/2014; 20(7). · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped RNA virus transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Autochthonous hepatitis E occurring in developed countries is caused by genotypes 3 and 4 and is a zoonotic infection. Humans are infected mostly after ingestion of undercooked meat from infected animals. Most HEV 3 and 4 infections are clinically inapparent. However, genotype 3 (HEV 3) can lead to chronic hepatitis in immuno-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. In Europe, HEV 3 is implicated in transfusion-transmitted HEV infection. In France, as observed in several European countries, prevalence of HEV RNA and specific IgG antibodies are high indicating that viral circulation is important. The systematic HEV NAT screening of blood donations used for preparation of solvent detergent plasma indicate that 1 to 2218 donation is infected by HEV RNA. The need or implementation's impacts of safety measures to prevent HEV transmission by blood transfusion are under reflexion by French's health authorities. The HEV NAT screening is the only available tool of prevention. Alternative strategies are under investigation including individual or mini pool NAT testing all or part of blood donations.
    Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 01/2014; · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The risk assessment for blood transfusion is an essential step that must precede any screening strategy of a pathogen transmitted by transfusion. After several cases of HEV transmission by transfusion in France, a risk assessment for this virus was performed. Methods We used a method based on the prevalence of HEV-RNA in plasmas collected for the preparation of SD-plasma. To estimate the rate of HEV-RNA positive among all blood donations, data on SD-plasma were adjusted on the following HEV risk factors: gender, age group and region of residence. We assumed that HEV risk factors were the same in plasma donors and whole blood donors. Results Among 57,101 plasma donations tested for HEV-RNA in 2013, 24 were positive (crude rate of 4.2 per 10,000 donations). After adjustment, the total number of HEV-RNA positive blood donations was estimated at 788, accounting for a rate of 2.65 per 10,000 donations (95% CI: 1.6–3.7) or 1 in 3800 donations (1 in 6,200–1 in 2,700). This rate was 12 times higher in men than in women, increased with age, and varied according to region of residence. Conclusion The risk of blood donation contamination by HEV has been estimated to be 1 in 3800 donations in 2013. An essential input is still missing to assess now the risk in recipients: the minimum infectious dose. Furthermore, the risk in recipients has to be analyzed according to characteristics of transfused patients: presence of anti-HEV immunity, existence of chronic liver disease or immunodeficiency.
    Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 01/2014; · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In France, there are no consistent data estimating hepatitis delta virus (HDV) prevalence in the general population. To better characterize HDV/HBV infection and its trends over a 15-years period from 1997 to 2011, we used data retrieved from the National Epidemiological Donors database including viral and demographic characteristics of all French HBV infected blood donors. Of the 39,911,011 donations collected over the 15 year-study-period, 6214 (1.56 in 10(4) donations) were confirmed positive for HBV from which 72.3% were tested for HDV antibodies (Ab). HDV viral load was performed using a real-time PCR assay on positive HDV Ab samples and HDV genotype determined for each positive viremic sample. Among the 4492 HBV donations, 89 (1.98%) were HDV Ab positive. After being stable around 1.1% from 1997 to 2005, this rate has continuously increased to reach 6.5% in 2010, before declining to 0.85% in 2011. Of the 61 investigated HDV Ab positive individuals, 22.9% were viremic with a viral load ranging from 10(4) to 9.8×10(7)copiesmL(-1). Genotyping revealed 12 HDV-1, 1 HDV-6 and 1 HDV-7 in accordance with the geographical origin of individuals. Such a study gives unexpected features of HBV-HDV infection in the population of blood donors which is a priori, a healthy population. The increase of HDV prevalence mainly linked to migration of population from endemic countries, demonstrates that there is still no complete control of HBV infection and must encourage HBV vaccination campaigns and systematic screening for HDV in HBV-infected.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 12/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Emerging viral infections in humans are appearing at an increasing rate. Recently, we identified a new Marseillevirus, named Giant Blood Marseillevirus (GBM), by performing viral metagenomics on asymptomatic blood donors. To study and compare the prevalence of Marseillevirus between asymptomatic blood donors and thalassemia patients. Here, we present a combined molecular and serological study on 174 asymptomatic blood donors and 22 patients with thalassemia who receive repeated blood transfusions to estimate the prevalence of Marseillevirus in these two populations. We identified Marseillevirus genomic DNA in 4% of donors, whereas 9.1% of the thalassemia patients were positive for this virus. Moreover, IgG seropositivity was detected in 22.7% of patients in the thalassemia group, whereas this seropositivity was observed in 12.6% of the blood donor population. These results suggest that Marseillevirus infection is not rare in healthy persons and may be transmitted by transfusion, thus raising speculation regarding the long-term consequences of this viral infection, particularly in patients requiring repeated blood transfusions.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 10/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 06/2013; 20(3):262–263. · 0.64 Impact Factor
  • Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 06/2013; 20(3):267. · 0.64 Impact Factor
  • Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 06/2013; 20(3):279–280. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Blood incompatibility arises from individual and ethnic differences in red blood cell (RBC) antigen profiles. This underlines the importance of documenting RBC antigen variability in various ethnic groups. Central Asia is an area with a long and complex migratory history. The purpose of this article is to describe key antigen frequencies of Afghan ethnic groups in the Hindu-Kush region of Afghanistan as a basis for improving blood transfusion practices in that area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The key ABO, Rh and Kell antigens were investigated in five Afghan populations. In order to depict accurately the blood group gene diversity in the area, DNA from eight additional Pakistani populations were included, and the entire sample set screened using two multiplex polymerase chain reactions sensitive for 17 alleles in 10 blood group genetic systems (MNS, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, Cartwright, Dombrock, Indian, Colton, Diego and Landsteiner-Wiener). RESULTS: Phenotype and allele frequencies fell within the ranges observed in Western European and East Asian populations. Occurrence of DI*01, IN*01, LW*07 and FY*02N.01 and prevalence of ABO*B were consistent with migratory history as well as with putative environmental adaptation in the subtropical environment Hindu-Kush region. CONCLUSION: These findings expand the current knowledge about key antigen frequencies. Regarding occurrence of viral markers, further blood transfusion in the region requires rigorous typing.
    Transfusion Medicine 04/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    Emerging Infectious Diseases 05/2011; 17(5):941-3. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract To the Editor: Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne RNA virus (family Bunyaviridae and genus Phlebovirus) transmitted by sandflies in Mediterranean countries. TOSV causes acute meningitis and meningoencephalitis in patients. In France, cases of TOSV infections involving resident populations and cases imported by tourists traveling in TOSV-endemic countries have been reported (1,2); the virus has also been isolated from local wild-caught sandflies (1). The fact that TOSV has been isolated from human blood on several occasions (2) suggests a potential risk exists for transmitting the virus through blood transfusion or organ transplantation. We investigated the presence of TOSV antibodies in a sample of the healthy population, blood donors from southeastern France. PMID:21529423[PubMed - in process] LinkOut - more resourcesFull Text SourcesEBSCO
    Emerg Infect Dis. 01/2011; 17.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among sheltered homeless persons in Marseille, France, we retrospectively tested 490 such persons. A total of 11.6% had immunoglobulin (Ig) G and 2.5% had IgM against HEV; 1 person had HEV genotype 3f. Injection drug use was associated with IgG against HEV.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 11/2010; 16(11):1761-3. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10/2010; 16(12):1702-4. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The source and route of autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are not clearly established in industrialized countries despite evidence that it is a zoonosis in pigs. We investigated the role of figatellu, a traditional pig liver sausage widely eaten in France and commonly consumed raw, as a source of HEV infection. A case-control study was conducted of 3 patients who presented autochthonous hepatitis E and 15 members of their 3 different families. Anti-HEV immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibody testing was performed with commercial assays. HEV RNA was detected in serum samples of patients and in pig liver sausages by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction and sequenced by means of in-house sequencing assays. Genetic links between HEV sequences were analyzed. Acute or recent HEV infection, defined by detection of anti-HEV immunoglobulin M antibodies and/or HEV RNA, was observed in 7 of 13 individuals who ate raw figatellu and 0 of 5 individuals who did not eat raw figatellu (P=.041). Moreover, HEV RNA of genotype 3 was recovered from 7 of 12 figatelli purchased in supermarkets, and statistically significant genetic links were found between these sequences and those recovered from patients who ate raw figatellu. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis of HEV infection through ingestion of raw figatellu.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2010; 202(6):825-34. · 5.85 Impact Factor
  • Pierre Gallian, Philippe de Micco, Pierre Ghorra
    Transfusion 05/2010; 50(5):1156-8. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anti-West Nile virus (WNV) IgG among two populations of Tunisian blood donors living in areas where human outbreaks of WNV have occurred. Cohorts A (Monastir) and B (Mahdia) included 742 and 102 blood donors respectively. Sera were tested by IgG ELISA test and results were confirmed by PRNT test. WNV neutralizing antibodies were detected in 32 (4.3%) and in 14 (13.7%) sera in cohorts A and B respectively. The prevalence of anti-WNV IgG was significantly higher in cohort B than in cohort A (P<0.001) and was significantly lower in females than in males (P<0.001).
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 03/2010; 104(7):507-9. · 1.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
205.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Aix-Marseille Université
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2001–2014
    • Etablissement Français du Sang (EFS)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008–2010
    • Institut de Recherche sur les Phénomènes Hors Equilibre
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2003
    • Institute of Research for Development
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 1999
    • Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire
      Strasburg, Alsace, France