D B West

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States

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Publications (24)80.46 Total impact

  • B K Smith, J Volaufova, D B West
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    ABSTRACT: Nutrient preferences and orosensory responses were characterized in two mouse inbred strains. In two-bottle solution tests (tastant vs. vehicle; ascending concentrations), the effects of strain and chow type (12 or 26% fat) on preference thresholds for sucrose and corn oil were compared in AKR/J and SWR/J mice. SWR/J mice displayed lower preference thresholds and ingested more sucrose than AKR/J mice did. SWR/J mice also showed lower preference thresholds and consumed more corn oil than AKR/J mice did; corn oil preference was suppressed 3.5-fold in AKR/J mice compared with SWR/J mice when fed 26% fat chow. Next, licking was recorded during 30-s access to sucrose or corn oil across a range of concentrations. SWR/J mice licked the tastants more than AKR/J mice did. Analysis of modal interlick intervals during lick training revealed that SWR/J mice licked water faster than AKR/J mice when water deprived, suggesting that motor as well as sensory factors may determine lick responses to tastants in brief-access tests. Finally, in two-bottle tests pitting maximally preferred concentrations of sucrose (8 or 16%) against corn oil (20%), SWR/J mice highly preferred sucrose over corn oil at either sucrose concentration. AKR/J mice preferred corn oil over 8% sucrose but reversed their preference when 16% sucrose was offered. These results support a primary role of flavor in the nutrient preferences of SWR/J mice. In AKR/J mice, the low lick activity for sucrose and corn oil and greater suppression of corn oil preference by the high-fat chow suggest that their preferences depend more on postingestive factors than on flavor.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 09/2001; 281(2):R596-606. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased flavor preference and lick activity for su-crose and corn oil in SWR/J vs. AKR/J mice. Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 281: R596–R606, 2001.—Nutrient preferences and orosensory responses were characterized in two mouse inbred strains. In two-bottle solution tests (tastant vs. vehicle; ascending concentrations), the effects of strain and chow type (12 or 26% fat) on prefer-ence thresholds for sucrose and corn oil were compared in AKR/J and SWR/J mice. SWR/J mice displayed lower prefer-ence thresholds and ingested more sucrose than AKR/J mice did. SWR/J mice also showed lower preference thresholds and consumed more corn oil than AKR/J mice did; corn oil preference was suppressed 3.5-fold in AKR/J mice compared with SWR/J mice when fed 26% fat chow. Next, licking was recorded during 30-s access to sucrose or corn oil across a range of concentrations. SWR/J mice licked the tastants more than AKR/J mice did. Analysis of modal interlick intervals during lick training revealed that SWR/J mice licked water faster than AKR/J mice when water deprived, suggesting that motor as well as sensory factors may determine lick responses to tastants in brief-access tests. Finally, in two-bottle tests pitting maximally preferred concentrations of sucrose (8 or 16%) against corn oil (20%), SWR/J mice highly preferred sucrose over corn oil at either sucrose concentra-tion. AKR/J mice preferred corn oil over 8% sucrose but reversed their preference when 16% sucrose was offered. These results support a primary role of flavor in the nutrient preferences of SWR/J mice. In AKR/J mice, the low lick activity for sucrose and corn oil and greater suppression of corn oil preference by the high-fat chow suggest that their preferences depend more on postingestive factors than on flavor. taste; drinking; inbred strains; mouse PREVIOUS STUDIES of the mouse inbred strains AKR/J and SWR/J have revealed a strain difference in their self-selected intake of fat and carbohydrate (25–27) and in their susceptibility to dietary obesity (31). Overall, AKR/J mice self-select a higher proportion of energy from fat sources, and SWR/J mice select a higher pro-portion of carbohydrate across a variety of experimen-tal diet paradigms (25–27). The strain difference in this model is due largely to the robust and reliable fat preference of the AKR/J mice. In contrast, the carbo-hydrate preference by SWR/J mice is more variable across paradigms, suggesting a greater responsivity by this strain to some orosensory or postingestive fac-tor(s). Responses to carbohydrate-and fat-containing diets in studies of nutrient self-selection are not simply a function of generic macronutrient composition. Exper-imental animals respond also to nutrient type and physical form, which contribute to the specific sensory properties of a diet formulation (3) and to its postin-gestive effects. Therefore, the aim of the present stud-ies was to isolate and investigate two common diet components that may influence patterns of macronu-trient diet selection in AKR/J and SWR/J mice. First, preference thresholds for sucrose and corn oil were evaluated separately in naive mice. Because baseline fat intake may affect fat preference in experimental tests (29), mice were maintained on rodent chow con-taining either 12 or 26% fat. Next, lick responses to sucrose or corn oil were investigated in brief-access tests designed to minimize the influence of postinges-tive effects. Finally, the preference behavior of AKR/J and SWR/J mice for corn oil vs. sucrose was examined by pitting the maximally preferred concentration of corn oil against two sucrose concentrations identified as maximal or submaximal, on the basis of results from experiment 1.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 01/2001; 281:R595-R606. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AKR/J mice fed a high fat diet were treated with a 1% (1 g/100 g) admixture of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) for 5 wk and compared with control mice. Body weights, energy intakes and energy expenditure (EE) determined by indirect calorimetry were measured weekly. CLA treatment reduced adipose depot weights by approximately 50% but had no significant effects on either body weight or energy intake. CLA increased EE persistently by an average of 7.7% throughout the 5-wk experiment. This greater EE, despite no difference in energy intake, was sufficient to account for the lower body fat stores in the CLA-treated mice. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis in adipose tissue, measured by incorporation of deuterium-labeled water, was not decreased by CLA treatment and therefore did not explain the lower adipose lipid in these mice. Expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) in skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue and kidney was not affected by CLA treatment. In brown adipose tissue, UCP1 expression was not affected by CLA treatment. However, UCP2 expression, although quite low, was significantly greater in CLA-fed mice. We conclude that CLA acts to reduce body fat stores by chronically increasing metabolic rate. This effect on metabolic rate is likely not due to increased UCP gene expression. Furthermore, the reduced body fat is not due to decreased de novo fatty acid synthesis in white adipose tissue.
    Journal of Nutrition 11/2000; 130(10):2471-7. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • J P DeLany, D B West
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    ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to reduce body fat accumulation in several animal models. We have conducted several studies in AKR/J mice showing that CLA reduces body fat accumulation whether animals are fed a high-fat or low-fat diet, with no effect on food intake. One mechanism by which CLA reduces body fat is by increased energy expenditure, which is observed within one week of CLA feeding and is sustained for at least six weeks. The increased energy expenditure is sufficient to account for the decreased fat accumulation. Increased uncoupling protein gene expression does not appear to be involved in the increased energy expenditure. We have observed increased fat oxidation but no decrease in de novo fat biosynthesis with CLA feeding. We have also observed increased liver weights and plasma insulin levels with higher doses of CLA. In all of the studies we have conducted to date we have used a CLA preparation that contains several isomers, primarily c9,t11 and t10,c12. It was assumed that the active form was c9,t11, as CLA was identified as an anticarcinogenic compound from cooked beef, of which the c9,t11 form accounts for 60% to 80% of the CLA. Most of the studies conducted so far must be repeated using the purified isomers in order to determine which isomers are responsible for each of the identified actions of CLA.
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition 09/2000; 19(4):487S-493S. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    B K Smith, P K Andrews, D B West
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    ABSTRACT: The strain distribution for macronutrient diet selection was described in 13 mouse strains (AKR/J, NZB/B1NJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6ByJ, DBA/2J, SPRET/Ei, CD-1, SJL/J, SWR/J, 129/J, BALB/cByJ, CAST/Ei, and A/J) with the use of a self-selection protocol in which separate carbohydrate, fat, and protein diets were simultaneously available for 26-30 days. Relative to carbohydrate, nine strains consumed significantly more calories from the fat diet; two strains consumed more calories from carbohydrate than from fat (BALB/cByJ, CAST/Ei). Diet selection by SWR/J mice was variable over time, resulting in a lack of preference. One strain (A/J) failed to adapt to the diet paradigm due to inadequate protein intake. Comparisons of proportional fat intake across strains revealed that fat selection/consumption ranged from 26 to 83% of total energy. AKR/J, NZB/B1NJ, and C67BL/6J mice self-selected the highest proportion of dietary fat, whereas the CAST/Ei and BALB/cByJ strains chose the lowest. Finally, epididymal fat depot weight was correlated with fat consumption. There were significant positive correlations in AKR/J and C57BL/6J mice, which are highly sensitive to dietary obesity. However, absolute fat intake was inversely correlated with epididymal fat in two of the lean strains: SWR/J and CAST/Ei. We hypothesize that the SWR/J and CAST/Ei strains are highly sensitive to a negative feedback signal generated by increasing body fat, but the AKR/J and C67BL/6J mice are not. The variation in dietary fat selection across inbred strains provides a tool for dissecting the complex genetics of this trait.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 05/2000; 278(4):R797-805. · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Smith, B.K, P.K. Andrews, D.B. West
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    ABSTRACT: These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that the contrasting patterns of macronutrient selection described previously in AKR/J (fat preference) and SWR/J (carbohydrate preference) mice are not dependent on a single diet paradigm. The effect of mouse strain on proportional fat intake was tested in naive mice by presenting two-choice diets possessing a variety of physical, sensory, and nutritive properties. In three separate experiments, AKR/J mice preferentially selected and consumed a higher proportion of energy from the high-fat diet than SWR/J mice. Specifically, this phenotypic difference was observed with 1) fat-protein vs. carbohydrate-protein diets, independent of fat type (vegetable shortening or lard), 2) isocaloric, high- vs. low-fat liquid diet preparations, and 3) high- vs. low-fat powdered-granular diets. These results confirm our previous observation of a higher proportional fat intake by AKR/J compared with SWR/J mice using the three-choice macronutrient selection diet and show that this strain difference generalizes across several diet paradigms. This strain difference is due largely to the robust and reliable fat preference of the AKR/J mice. In contrast, macronutrient preference in SWR/J mice varied across paradigms, suggesting a differential response by this strain to some orosensory or postingestive factor(s).
    The American journal of physiology 10/1999; 277(3 Pt 2):R776-85. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported suggestive evidence for a locus on Chromosome (Chr) 7 that affects adiposity in F2 mice from a CAST/Ei x C57BL/6J intercross fed a high-fat diet. Here we characterize the effect of a high-fat (32.6 Kcal% fat) diet on male and female congenic mice with a C57BL/6J background and a CAST/Ei-derived segment on Chr 7. Adiposity index (AI) and weights of certain fat pads were approximately 50% lower in both male and female congenic mice than in control C57BL/6J mice, and carcass fat content was significantly reduced. The reduction of fat depot weights was not seen, however, in congenic animals fed a low-fat chow diet (12 Kcal% fat). The congenic segment is approximately 25 cM in length, extending from D7Mit213 to D7Mit41, and includes the tub, Ucp2 and Ucp3, genes, all of which are candidate genes for this effect. Some polymorphisms have been found on comparing c-DNA sequences of the Ucp2 gene from C57BL/6J and CAST/Ei mice. These results suggest that one or more genes present in the congenic segment modulate the susceptibility to fat deposition on feeding a high-fat diet. We were unable to show any significant difference between the energy intakes of the congenic and the control C57BL/6J mice on the high-fat diet. Also, measurements of energy expenditure in male mice at 6 weeks of age, during the first 2 weeks of exposure to the high-fat diet, failed to show any differences between control and congenic animals.
    Mammalian Genome 06/1999; 10(5):457-62. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent reports have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has effects on body fat accumulation. In our previous work, CLA reduced body fat accumulation in mice fed either a high-fat or low-fat diet. Although CLA feeding reduced energy intake, the results suggested that some of the metabolic effects were not a consequence of the reduced food intake. We therefore undertook a study to determine a dose of CLA that would have effects on body composition without affecting energy intake. Five doses of CLA (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0% by weight) were studied in AKR/J male mice (n = 12/group; age, 39 days) maintained on a high-fat diet (%fat 45 kcal). Energy intake was not suppressed by any CLA dose. Body fat was significantly lower in the 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0% CLA groups compared with controls. The retroperitoneal depot was most sensitive to the effects of CLA, whereas the epididymal depot was relatively resistant. Higher doses of CLA also significantly increased carcass protein content. A time-course study of the effects of 1% CLA on body composition showed reductions in fat pad weights within 2 wk and continued throughout 12 wk of CLA feeding. In conclusion, CLA feeding produces a rapid, marked decrease in fat accumulation, and an increase in protein accumulation, at relatively low doses without any major effects on food intake.
    The American journal of physiology 05/1999; 276(4 Pt 2):R1172-9. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to characterize changes in peripheral vascular resistance with weight gain, and whether these changes are correlated with insulin and/or sympathetic activity. Femoral vascular resistance (FVR), mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and plasma insulin were measured before and during overfeeding in seven dogs with unilateral lumbar ganglionectomy (L3 to L6). Measurements were taken standing and while walking on a treadmill. There was a significant main effect of weight gain to increase mean arterial pressure (16.5+/-8.4 mmHg and 12.5+/-6.8 mmHg increase for standing and walking baseline, respectively) and heart rate (increase from week 1 of 31.6+/-10.6 beats/minute standing and 38.3+/-9.1 walking beat/minute). FVR increased immediately with overfeeding/ weight gain [standing: denervated (DNX):1.32+/-0.3 to 2.34+/-0.5; intact: 0.88+/-0.17 to 1.9+/-0.33 mmHg/mL.min(-1)], but returned to baseline with continued weight gain. Return of FVR to baseline occurred between weeks 2 and 3 of overfeeding in the DNX limb, but did not return to baseline until week 6 in the innervated limb. These changes were not correlated with plasma insulin levels. These data suggest that vascular resistance may be normal in the obese, but increases in vascular resistance occur early with weight gain (before changes in arterial pressure). This initial increase in vascular resistance could initiate the series of events leading to obesity-associated hypertension. Additionally, changing vascular resistance during weight gain may be influenced by sympathetic activity, because DNX limb FVR returned to baseline approximately 3 weeks earlier than the innervated limb.
    Obesity research 02/1999; 7(1):68-75. · 4.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring group of dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid found in the fat of beef and other ruminants. CLA is reported to have effects on both tumor development and body fat in animal models. To further characterize the metabolic effects of CLA, male AKR/J mice were fed a high-fat (45 kcal%) or low-fat (15 kcal%) diet with or without CLA (2.46 mg/kcal; 1.2 and 1.0% by weight in high- and low-fat diets, respectively) for 6 wk. CLA significantly reduced energy intake, growth rate, adipose depot weight, and carcass lipid and protein content independent of diet composition. Overall, the reduction of adipose depot weight ranged from 43 to 88%, with the retroperitoneal depot most sensitive to CLA. CLA significantly increased metabolic rate and decreased the nighttime respiratory quotient. These findings demonstrate that CLA reduces body fat by several mechanisms, including a reduced energy intake, increased metabolic rate, and a shift in the nocturnal fuel mix.
    The American journal of physiology 10/1998; 275(3 Pt 2):R667-72. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    D B West, B York
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    ABSTRACT: This review focuses on animal studies that examine the role of dietary fat in obesity. It is evident from animal experiments that the percentage of energy derived from fat in the diet is positively correlated with body fat content. With few exceptions, obesity is induced by high-fat diets in monkeys, dogs, pigs, hamsters, squirrels, rats, and mice. The mechanisms responsible for this correlation between body fat and dietary fat content are not clear. It has been proposed that a high-fat diet produces hyperphagia, which is solely responsible for the increased body fat content. However, several studies in various rodent models showed that increased body fat content still results when the hyperphagia is prevented. This suggests that some metabolic effects of high-fat diets, independent of hyperphagia, may also be contributing to the obesity induced by high-fat diets. It is also clear from animal studies that genetic factors significantly modulate the body's response to diets high in fat-derived energy. In contrast with the animal studies, studies in humans that have examined the relation between dietary fat content and body fat are inconclusive. The limitations of cross-sectional studies, the lack of controlled feeding trials, and the importance of genetic variation in response explain the absence of conclusive evidence. The lessons learned from animal models point to dietary fat as one potentially important component in the etiology of human obesity. Additional comprehensive studies are warranted to determine the role of dietary fat in the etiology of human obesity.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 04/1998; 67(3 Suppl):505S-512S. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were evaluated in 15 female spayed dogs before and after they became obese on either a saturated fat (LD, lard, n=8) or unsaturated fat (CO, corn oil, n=7) diet. Body weight and body fat increased significantly in both groups, although no differences occurred between diet groups. Dogs receiving the LD diet exhibited a greater increase in mean arterial pressure than those receiving the CO diet (p<0.01; 15.9 +/- 2.1 vs. 9.8 +/- 3.3 mm Hg increase). The CO diet stimulated a greater increase in heart rate than the LD diet (p<0.05; 32.8 +/- 7.8 vs. 14.1 +/- 5.8 bpm increase). Ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine caused an increase in HR in both lean groups and in the obese CO group, but not the obese LD group, consistent with a decrease in parasympathetic tone to the heart in the dogs overfed saturated fat. Obesity enhanced the heart rate response to beta-adrenergic stimulation by isoproterenol in the LD, but not CO group. The LD diet increased circulating insulin and decreased insulin sensitivity, whereas the CO diet had no effect on either parameter. These findings suggest that the composition of dietary fat can modulate the autonomic and metabolic adaptations induced by dietary obesity.
    Obesity research 03/1998; 6(2):137-46. · 4.95 Impact Factor
  • B York, K Lei, D B West
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we describe the contribution of matrilineal and patrilineal effects on the adiposity, body weight, and on the weights of individual fat pads in F2 male mice derived from an SWR/J x AKR/J cross. AKR/J mice become obese after 12 weeks on a high-fat diet, whereas SWR/J mice remain relatively lean. Here we report that mice with AKR maternal and AKR paternal grandmothers have significantly larger epidydimal and retroperitoneal fat pads than those with SWR maternal and paternal grandmothers. However, grandparental strain had no effect on the overall adiposity (AI) or the weights of the inguinal, subcutaneous or mesenteric fat pads. The strain of the paternal grandparents had a small but significant effect on body weight. These effects can be attributed to in utero effects, imprinting effects, cytoplasmic and/or Y chromosome transmission of factors controlling body fat. We also describe the presence of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on Chromosome X, close to DXMit174, which is linked to adiposity, body weight, and to the weights of the individual fat depots. However, this QTL is not responsible for the grandparental strain effects described above.
    Mammalian Genome 11/1997; 8(10):726-30. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    B K Smith, D B West, D A York
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    ABSTRACT: As a first step toward developing a mouse model to characterize genetic factors linked to the preferential intake of dietary carbohydrate or fat, we have identified two mouse strains that exhibit distinctly different patterns of macronutrient selection. Macronutrient selection was evaluated in AKR/J and SWR/J mice, two strains that have been characterized previously for their sensitivity to high-fat dietary obesity. Mice were adapted to a self-selection protocol in which separate carbohydrate, fat, and protein sources were simultaneously available. AKR/J mice ate 30% more calories than the SWR/J mice. Furthermore, strain comparisons revealed a significantly higher proportion of fat intake by the AKR/J mice (69 vs. 28%), and in the SWR/J mice a significantly higher intake of carbohydrate (62 vs. 24%). The mice were then returned to a standard chow diet for 10 wk. These mice subsequently were allowed to self-select from two composite energy diets (carbohydrate and protein, or fat and protein). Once again, AKR/J mice selected a greater proportion of energy from the fat/protein diet (85%) than did the SWR/J strain (32%). These findings suggest a possible relationship between sensitivity to dietary obesity and fat selection.
    The American journal of physiology 02/1997; 272(1 Pt 2):R357-62. · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • B York, K Lei, D B West
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    ABSTRACT: Details of a new model of diet-dependent polygenic obesity are presented. CAST/Ei (Mus m. castaneus) mice remain lean after 12 weeks on a high-fat (32 kcal% fat) diet, while C57BL/6J mice become obese. The genes responsible for the obesity segregate in an F2 population derived from an intercross between CAST/Ei and C57BL/6J mice. Quantitative trait analysis, with simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs) at loci previously linked to rodent obesities, identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on Chromosome (Chr) 15, accounting for approximately 9% of the variance in adiposity and 14% of the variance in mesenteric depot size. This locus appears to be at the same location as the dietary obesity-3 (Do3) locus controlling body fat content, which was previously identified in an F2 population derived from an SWR/J x AKR/J cross. This is also at the same location as the multigenic obesity-4 (Mob4) locus found in BSB mice, which display spontaneous polygenic obesity. Suggestive linkage also was found at loci close to the single gene mutations Ay on Chr 2 and tub on Chr 7.
    Mammalian Genome 10/1996; 7(9):677-81. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of dietary fat and fiber in energy restriction for the management of obesity was examined. Twelve male castrated dogs were energy restricted for 7 weeks by feeding 60% of their calculated maintenance energy requirements (MER = 1500 kcal/m2/d) for ideal body weight. Six dogs were restricted on a high-fat (35.4 kcal% from fat), low-fiber (2.9% dry matter basis [DMB]) diet while the other six dogs were restricted on a low-fat (24.5 kcal% from fat), high-fiber (27% DMB) diet. Compared with the high-fat, low-fiber diet, energy restriction on the low-fat, high-fiber diet resulted in significantly greater decreases in body fat (1472 +/- 166 vs. 853 +/- 176 g; p < 0.05) and total serum cholesterol concentrations (108.7 +/- 11.3 vs. 51.5 +/- 13.9 mg/dL; p < 0.005). Reductions in body weight (2.86 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.14 +/- 0.3 kg; p < 0.09), and mean arterial blood pressure (17.4 +/- 6.1 vs. 6.7 +/- 2.9 mmHg; p < 0.12) were also greater on the low-fat diet; however, these diet effects did not reach statistical significance. These data suggest that the fat and fiber content of the diet during energy restriction are important factors in the management of obesity.
    Obesity research 08/1996; 4(4):337-45. · 4.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autonomic control of cardiovascular function was evaluated in nine dogs before and after a high-fat overfeeding regimen. Body weight increased significantly (from 19.8 +/- 0.9 to 29.5 +/- 2.1 kg; P < 0.01) with overfeeding. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased from 94.6 +/- 2.1 to 105.5 +/- 3.7 mmHg (P < 0.05), and heart rate (HR) increased from 94.8 +/- 3.5 to 112.3 +/- 5.6 beats/min (P < 0.01). After ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine, dose response of MAP and HR to methoxamine (alpha-agonist) or isoproterenol (beta-agonist) was evaluated. Peak MAP response to methoxamine was blunted in obese dogs. HR response to isoproterenol was not different between lean and obese dogs. Atropine in the presence of propranolol increased HR from 80.8 +/- 7 to 202.8 +/- 8.9 beats/min in lean dogs and from 113.8 +/- 12.1 to 131.7 +/- 18.2 in obese dogs. These data suggest the increase in HR observed in obese dogs may be due to a decrease in parasympathetic inhibition rather than an increase in sympathetic stimulation. The blunted response to methoxamine in obese hypertensive dogs suggests that the sympathetic control of peripheral vascular resistance is altered in obesity.
    The American journal of physiology 03/1996; 270(3 Pt 2):R541-9. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Race and level of physical activity may be important factors affecting cardiovascular responsiveness to acute sodium intake. We examined the effects of a 4-day sodium loading procedure on heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, 24-hour electrolyte excretion, and extracellular fluid volume (ECF) in African-American (n = 16) and Caucasian (n = 16) adult males. All subjects were normotensive with either moderately high (> or = 3 day/wk; > or = 20 min/day) or low (< or = 3 day/wk; < or = 20 min/day) physical activity levels. Subjects ingested either placebo or NaCl (0.2 g/kg/day) during two 4-day periods. Sodium loading increased SBP and decreased HR in all high physical activity subjects but not in low physical activity subjects (p < 0.05). Na+ excretion did not differ among groups, although urine volume and K+ excretion were lower, and Na+/K+ excretion ratio was higher in African-American compared to Caucasian subjects (p < 0.05). ECF, as measured by NaBr dilution, was greater in high physical activity subjects compared to low physical activity subjects (p < 0.05). These data suggest that high physical activity levels do not attenuate but rather exaggerate SBP response to a sodium load.
    Ethnicity & disease 02/1996; 6(3-4):255-65. · 1.12 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/1996; 28.