[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate whether there was a relationship between mean platelet volume and myocardial perfusion defect in diabetic patients using myocardial perfusion imaging.
Cardiovascular journal of Africa 05/2014; 25(3):110-113. · 0.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that symptoms of migraine are related to the involvement of the autonomic nervous system. Data on atrial conduction system are limited in migraineurs. We aimed to assess atrial electromechanical delay using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in patients with migraine. Forty-five migraine patients and age- and sex-matched 26 control subjects were enrolled in the study. All the patients and controls underwent resting surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and TDI. The maximum P-wave duration (Pmax), minimum P-wave duration (Pmin) and P-wave dispersion (Pd) were measured from the 12-lead ECG. Atrial conduction time was determined from the lateral mitral annulus (PA lateral), septal mitral annulus (PA septal), and lateral tricuspid annulus (PA tricuspid) by TDI. Interatrial (PA lateral-PA tricuspid) and intraatrial (PA septal-PA tricuspid) electromechanical delays were calculated. Pd was significantly higher in migraine patients than in controls (p < 0.05), whereas Pmax and Pmin were not different between both groups (p > 0.05). PA lateral and PA septal durations were significantly higher in migraine patients than in controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). However, PA tricuspid duration was similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Both interatrial and intraatrial conduction times were delayed in migraineurs as compared to the controls (p < 0.001). Interatrial delay and intraatrial delay variables were found as an independent risk factors separately on predicting atrial conduction abnormalities in migraineurs. An interatrial delay of 18 ms and an intraatrial delay of 5 ms were found to be cutoff values in ROC analysis (p < 0.001). This is the first report to provide a hypothetical suggestion that there is an atrial electromechanical delay in patients with migraine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the association between serum uric acid (SUA) and atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Totally, 363 patients with chronic HF were included in the study. Of all, 78 patients had AF and 285 patients were in normal sinus rhythm. Serum uric acid was significantly increased in patients with AF compared with patients in normal sinus rhythm (P < .05). Comparing patients with AF and normal sinus rhythm, we found that age was significantly higher in patients group with AF. Echocardiographic parameters including ejection fraction, left atrial diameter, left ventricle end-diastolic diameter, and left ventricle end-diastolic volume were also significantly higher in patients with AF compared with patients in normal sinus rhythm. We have shown that patients with AF have significantly higher SUA and this was independently associated with AF in patients with ischemic HF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Procoagulant and prothrombotic states in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) are higher than those in patients with normal sinus rhythm. We assessed and compared serum γ-glutamyltranferase (GGT) activity in elderly patients with nonvalvular AF and control participants with normal sinus rhythm. Consecutive patients (n = 81) with nonvalvular chronic AF and 210 age- and gender-matched control participants with normal sinus rhythm were retrospectively included in the study from the outpatient cardiology clinic. Presence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, gender, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ejection fraction were comparable between the 2 groups (P > .05 for all). However, serum γ-GGT activity was significantly higher (P = .003) in patients with AF compared with those without AF. We have shown that serum γ-GGT activity is independently associated with chronic nonvalvular AF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the clinical echocardiograhic, hematological, and biochemical parameters in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP) and control individuals mainly focusing on the mean platelet volume (MPV) in terms of DCMP and left ventricle (LV) thrombus formation. Consecutive patients (n = 251) with DCMP and 266 patients without DCMP were studied. Mean platelet volume was significantly greater in patients with DCMP than in control patients (P < .05 for all comparisons). Comparing DCMP patients with LV thrombus (19 patients, 8%) and without LV thrombus (232 patients, 92%) showed that the prevalence of smokers was significantly higher and ejection fraction was significantly lower in patients with LV thrombus. We have shown that patients with DCMP have significantly higher MPV suggesting more platelet activation and the MPV of patients with DCMP and LV thrombus is comparable to those of patients without LV thrombus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have showed that BP variability is associated with cardiovascular events. However, no data were available regarding binary restenosis as an end-point after percutenous coronary intervention (PCI).
This multicenter study included 100 consecutive normotensive patients with stable coronary artery disease who were planned for PCI. Before the index procedure, office BP and 24-h ambulatory BP measurements were performed. BP variability indices including systolic and diastolic 24-h average, the day and the night values of standard deviation (SD) and variation coefficient (VC) were measured and calculated. All patients underwent repeat coronary angiography at 6-month. According to angiographic results, 2 groups were formed; a restenosis group (n=30) with binary restenosis of the stented segment and a control group (n=70) with a stenosis diameter of <50% in stented segment. Systolic SD and VC values for 24-h average (14.0±2.8mmHg vs. 9.5±1.6mmHg, p<0.001 and 16%±3 vs. 11%±2, p<0.001, respectively), the day (15.2±3.9mmHg vs. 10.6±1.7mmHg, p<0.001 and 17%±4 vs. 12%±2, p<0.001, respectively), and the night (12.8±4.1mmHg vs. 8.4±2.4mmHg, p<0.001 and 14%±5 vs. 11%±3, p=0.004, respectively) values were significantly higher in restenosis group compared to control group. Similarly, diastolic SD and VC values for 24-h average (10.6±2.5mmHg vs. 8.1±1.5mmHg, p<0.001 and 12%±3 vs. 9%±2, p=0.001, respectively), the day (11.1±2.9mmHg vs. 9.0±1.8mmHg, p=0.003 and 12%±3 vs. 10%±2, p=0.006, respectively), and the night (10.0±3.6mmHg vs. 7.2±2.0mmHg, p=0.001 and 11%±5 vs. 9%±3, p=0.059, respectively) values were significantly higher in restenosis group compared to no restenosis group except for diastolic VC night. All systolic and diastolic BP variability indices except diastolic VC night were found to be independent predictors of risk of restenosis in multivariate analysis. In addition, the cut-off values of 11.4mmHg and 13% for 24-h systolic SD and VC, respectively, were found to be highly sensitive (93% for both) and specific (94% and 91%, respectively) for predicting binary restenosis at 6-month after PCI.
BP variability indices are significantly and independently associated with binary restenosis and higher values can predict restenosis after PCI sensitively and specifically.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac resynchronization therapy has been increasingly used for patients with heart failure. However, unstable and dislocated coronary sinus leads reduce the effectiveness of this important intervention. Aim: To examine the long-term effects of coronary sinus side branch stenting on sensing and pacing parameters of the left ventricular leads.
A total of eight patients (six males; two females; mean age, 56.6 ± 14.4 years) whose coronary sinus lead dislocated during the procedure were included in the study. Targeted coronary sinus side branch stenting was performed to stabilize the leads. Sensing and pacing parameters including lead impedance, capture threshold, and R-wave amplitude were measured at implantation, first month, sixth month, and every 6-month period.
Mean follow-up period was 30.4 ± 7.4 months. At the time of implantation, lead impedance, capture threshold, and R-wave amplitude were 656 ± 162 Ω, 1.1 ± 0.5 V, and 13.0 ± 6.8 mV, respectively. No statistically significant mean lead impedance, capture threshold, and R-wave amplitude differences were observed between at the time of implantation and at the time of last follow-up (697 ± 164 Ω, 1.1 ± 0.5 V, 12.8 ± 6.9 mV, respectively).
In this long-term study, coronary sinus side branch stenting for the stabilization of dislocated leads seems to be effective.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 10/2010; 33(12):1485-9. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite recent improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, infective endocarditis (IE) is still associated with high in-hospital mortality rates. The study aim was to determine the clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic features of IE, and to evaluate the risk factors for in-hospital mortality.
A retrospective cohort study design was employed, with a main outcome measure of in-hospital mortality. A total of 107 patients (79 males, 28 females; mean age 45 +/- 16 years) admitted with the modified Duke criteria for definitive IE were included in the study during a five-year period between January 2004 and December 2008.
Among the patients, the mitral valve alone was involved in 45% of cases, the aortic valve in 36%, tricuspid valve in 11%, and multiple valves in 8%. Forty-seven patients (44%) had prosthetic valves. Blood cultures were positive in 71 patients (66%). The most common isolated microorganisms were staphylococci, streptococci and Brucella melitensis. The in-hospital mortality rate was 27%. Leading causes of death were multi-organ failure and heart failure. In univariate analysis, factors associated with death were a longer duration of symptoms before hospitalization, previous history of IE, white blood cell count > or = 10,000/mm3, serum creatinine level > or = 2 mg/dl, vegetation size >15 mm, involvement of multiple valves, existence of severe regurgitation, cardiac abscess, and neurologic complications. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for mortality were multivalvular involvement (hazard ratio (HR) 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-17.6; p = 0.021), vegetation size >15 mm (HR 5.5; 95% CI 2.1-14.6; p = 0.001), serum creatinine > or = 2 mg/dl (HR 4.1; 95% CI 1.8-9.4; p = 0.001), and previous history of IE (HR 3.5; 95% CI 1.2-11; p = 0.026).
Multivalvular involvement, vegetation length >15 mm, serum creatinine level > or = 2 mg/dl on admission, and a previous history of IE, were independent predictors for in-hospital mortality in IE.
The Journal of heart valve disease 03/2010; 19(2):216-24. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been shown that serum uric acid (SUA) constitutes an important independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We investigated SUA levels in patients with coronary artery ectasia (CAE).
Serum uric acid levels were measured in three groups of patients who underwent coronary angiography. One group consisted of 97 consecutive patients (69 males, 28 females; mean age 58.1+/-9.5 years) with isolated CAE, another group included 104 patients (79 males, 25 females; mean age 58.4+/-8.8 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD), and finally 90 subjects (66 males, 24 females; mean age 57.6+/-10.1 years) with normal coronary arteries comprised the control group. Coronary artery ectasia was defined as a luminal dilatation of at least 1.5 times of the adjacent normal coronary segments, without any stenotic lesions. In addition, patients with CAE were assessed in four groups of severity and extension.
The three groups were similar with respect to age, sex, body mass index, and the frequencies of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking (p>0.05). The mean SUA level did not differ significantly between the CAE and CAD groups (6.6+/-1.9 mg/dl and 6.3+/-1.9 mg/dl, respectively; p=0.184); however, compared with the control group (5.4+/-1.8 mg/dl), SUA levels were significantly higher in both groups (p<0.001). A significant correlation was found between the SUA level and the presence of isolated CAE (r=0.625; p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an independent relationship between isolated CAE and SUA (OR 1.896; 95% CI 1.1048-1.5014; p<0.001). Serum uric acid levels did not differ significantly among the four subgroups of CAE severity.
Our study is the first to demonstrate significantly increased SUA levels in patients with isolated CAE. Our results support relevant data suggesting an association between endothelial function and the SUA level.
Turk Kardiyoloji Dernegi arsivi: Turk Kardiyoloji Derneginin yayin organidir 10/2009; 37(7):467-72.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is accepted as a model of myocardial ischaemia in studies of ischaemia markers, especially of ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA). However, there is concern that IMA levels may reflect changes in albumin concentrations rather than myocardial ischaemia also during PCI.
Twenty-one consecutive patients (17 men and 4 women) undergoing single-vessel percutaneous coronary angioplasty were enrolled in the study. IMA and albumin levels were measured together with myoglobin, creatine kinase 2 and cardiac troponin I, before (Group 1), immediately after (Group 2) and 6 h after (Group 3) the procedure of PCI.
The IMA levels of Group 2 were significantly higher than those of Group 1 and Group 3 (P < 0.05 for both). However, correction of IMA by multiplying with the (individual albumin concentration of the patient/median albumin concentration of Group 1) ratio gave no statistical differences between the groups (P > 0.05). There were strong negative correlations between IMA levels and albumin concentrations within individual groups (r = -0.757, P < 0.001; r = -0.712, P < 0.001; and r = -0.705, P < 0.001 for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3, respectively).
The results confirm the close dependency of IMA results on albumin concentrations. Therefore, IMA results reflect albumin concentrations rather than myocardial ischaemia also in PCI. This situation and lack of standard reference materials for the albumin cobalt binding assay can lessen the diagnostic performance of IMA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mean platelet volume (MPV) is an indicator of platelet activation, a central process in the pathophysiology of coronary heart disease (CAD). The importance of slow coronary flow (SCF) phenomenon results from its association with angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, hypertension and sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the values of MPV in patients with SCF. MPV was measured in 84 consecutive patients with SCF and 88 patients with CAD and 84 control subjects. The association between thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) and MPV level and other clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in MPV between SCF group and CAD group. MPV was significantly higher in patients in the both SCF and CAD groups, compared with control group. The TFC for all the epicardial coronary arteries and the mean TFC were significantly higher in the SCF group than the both CAD group and control group. The mean TFC was positively and moderately correlated with MPV in the whole study population. To determine the independent predictors of mean TFC, a stepwise linear regression analysis was performed by including the parameters that were correlated with the mean TFC in the bivariate analysis. MPV level was the only independent predictor of the mean TFC (b = 0.312, p < 0.001). These findings have shown that MPV level is significantly associated with coronary blood flow and that elevated MPV level might be an independent predictor for the presence of SCF. We believe that further studies are needed to clarify the role of MPV in SCF complicated CAD, especially in relation to angiographic and clinical parameters, before we conclude that MPV to be used as a follow-up marker during the management of relevant patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery anomalies are evaluated by using catheter-based angiography. Multidetector row-computed tomography (MDCT) is a new noninvasive imaging technique that has excellent spatial resolution for detecting the origin and course of a coronary anomalous vessel.
To determine the sensitivity of multidetector computed tomography in patients who had coronary artery anomaly demonstrated by conventional coronary angiography.
A retrospective evaluation to identify 23 patients, who underwent retrospective electrocardiographic (ECG)-gated MDCT, was done and in whom an anomalous coronary vessel was found at a single center. Metoprolol (50-100 mg) was given orally to all patients to reduce heart rate so as to get high-quality MDCT images. After performing MDCT, the CT scans of each patient were analysed and compared with their coronary angiograms by two experienced radiologists and one cardiologist who were unaware about the study, and the sensitivity of MDCT was determined.
Twenty-three patients (age range 28-73) with seven different coronary arteries of the anomalous type were evaluated. Nineteen patients had an anomalous left coronary artery; three patients had an anomalous single coronary artery; and one patient had an anomalous right coronary artery. The most common anomaly type was the left circumflex coronary artery (52%). The origin and course of all anomalous vessels were detected by ECG-gated MDCT (Lightspeed 16, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA). The sensitivity of 100% of MDCT was detected in patients who had anomalous coronary vessels.
We suggest that MDCT could be a non-invasive alternative imaging technique to conventional coronary angiography for screening the anomalous vessels of coronary arteries because of its excellent spatial resolution, which is very important for detecting the relationship of anomalous vessels with great arteries and cardiac structures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although ischemia induced QRS complex changes have been described previously, their relationship with impaired reperfusion, which is known to be associated with poor clinical outcomes, is not clear.
To investigate the relationship of QRS duration changes with myocardial reperfusion, we studied 165 acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients who were administered fibrinolytic therapy for reperfusion. For each patient, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) with a paper speed of 50 mm/s was recorded on admission and repeated at the 60(th) and 90(th) min following fibrinolytic therapy. Based on the myocardial blush grades obtained from a control coronary angiography, patients were divided into reperfusion (grades 2, 3) and impaired reperfusion (grades 0, 1) groups. We detected impaired reperfusion in 74 patients. The patients in the impaired reperfusion group were older, more often diabetic, and had longer pain-to-needle intervals. They also had significantly longer QRS durations at admission compared to reperfusion group patients (91+/-11 vs 79+/-11 ms, p<0.001). Reperfusion group patients showed significantly greater resolution in QRS duration at the 90(th) min post fibrinolysis ECG (18+/-5 vs 5+/-4 ms, p<0.001). In regression analysis, the pain-to-needle time (odds ratio (OR): 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.88, p=0.012), QRS duration on admission (OR: 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.97, p=0.021), and change in QRS duration at the post fibrinolysis 90(th) min ECG (OR: 2.43, 95% CI, 1.29-4.60, p=0.006) were determined as independent predictors of adequate reperfusion.
The present study, for the first time, has shown that admission QRS duration and post fibrinolysis 90(th) min QRS duration changes are related to tissue reperfusion in fibrinolytic administered acute MI patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary angiography is the gold standard for diagnosing coronary artery fistulas (CAFs). Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a recently developed imaging technique for detecting coronary artery stenosis, coronary artery anomalies, and coronary artery fistulas and their courses.
We aimed to determine accuracy or sensitivity of MDCT in patients having CAF.
We evaluated 13 patients with 15 CAFs detected earlier by coronary angiography. MDCT was carried out on all patients and the results were compared with coronary angiography, following which, sensitivity of MDCT was detected.
Eleven of 15 CAFs were shown on MDCT and the overall sensitivity of MDCT was found to be 73%. Seven of 8 CAFs that coursed between two vascular structures were detected and the sensitivity of MDCT in this group was found to be 87%. However, the sensitivity of 58% of MDCT in patients with fistula coursing between coronary arteries and cardiac chambers was found.
Although coronary angiography is the gold standard diagnostic test for detection of CAF, MDCT may be an alternative test, especially, for CAF coursing between vascular structures, to detect origin, course, and the drainage site of fistula through its excellent spatial resolution and ability to show relationship of anatomic structures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to analyse and compare the major coronary risk factors of female and male patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD) aged < or = 45 years.
We evaluated 4613 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography at our institution; 572 symptomatic patients (489 men and 83 women) diagnosed as having premature CAD (age < or = 45 years) were included in our analysis. For each patient, the presence of major coronary risk factors such as family history of CAD, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cigarette smoking were recorded. Besides, clinical presentation and angiographic findings were also recorded.
The most common risk factor was cigarette smoking in young men (70.3%). However, the major coronary risk factor was hypercholesterolaemia in young women (67.5%). When we compared two groups with respect to major coronary risk factors, we found that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension were significantly higher in young women than in young men (diabetes mellitus: 27.7% vs. 12.3%, respectively, P < 0.001, hypertension: 56.6% vs. 23.4%, respectively, P < 0.001). However, cigarette smoking was found to be significantly higher in men than in women (70.3% vs. 28.9% respectively, P < 0.001).
We have shown for the first time the impact of gender on the coronary risk factor profile in young Turkish patients with premature CAD. These findings may be useful for gender-based management and risk factor modification of young patients with premature CAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiomyopathy (CMP) is a common debilitating illness, associated with a high mortality and poor quality of life. There is extensive evidence from in vitro and animal experiments that CMP is a state of increased oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are important markers to evaluate the oxidative stress and inflammatory status of patients with CMP.
A total of 28 patients with chronic stable heart failure (21 men and 7 women, ages 18-76 years) were included in the study. Causes of heart failure were ischemic CMP in 17 patients and idiopathic dilated CMP in 11 patients. A total of 28 patients (12 men and 16 women; ages 30-71 years) with normal coronary angiography were enrolled as a control group. Levels of CoQ10, albumin, total thiol groups (T-SH), bilirubin, uric acid as plasma antioxidants, hs-CRP as an inflammation marker and lipid profile were studied in patients and controls.
Plasma CoQ10, T-SH and albumin levels were significantly decreased in patients compared to controls. Uric acid, bilirubin and hs-CRP levels were found to be significantly increased compared to controls.
In this study, evidence of decreased antioxidant status was determined in CMP patients together with vascular inflammation. CoQ10, other plasma antioxidants and hs-CRP measured routinely can reflect decreased antioxidant status and inflammatory process in patients with dilated CMP. These markers can be used to monitor the status of patients with CMP.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 02/2008; 46(3):382-6. · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 52-year-old woman presented with complaints of chest discomfort and angina radiating to the neck and left arm on exertion. She reported that the severity of angina was increasing after sublingual nitrate intake. Coronary angiography showed a high-flow fistula between the left main coronary artery and pulmonary artery. Left coronary arteries were normal, but there was a stenotic lesion in the right coronary artery. Coronary artery fistula was ligated successfully under bypass surgery. It was thought that the severity of myocardial ischemia caused by the high-flow fistula was aggravated by sublingual nitrate due to coronary steal phenomenon.
Turk Kardiyoloji Dernegi arsivi: Turk Kardiyoloji Derneginin yayin organidir 02/2008; 36(7):476-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty (PBMV) on the plasma levels of N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with mitral stenosis (MS) and to investigate the relationship between the changes in hemodynamic variables and NT-proBNP levels after PBMV. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were obtained from 60 symptomatic patients with rheumatic MS who underwent PBMV, and in 35 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Patients with MS were found to have significantly higher levels of plasma NT-proBNP compared to the control group (293 [77-1093] pg/mL versus 24 [12-67] pg/mL, respectively; [P < 0.001]). The mean preprocedural NT-proBNP level fell significantly from 293 (77-1093) pg/mL to 214 (69-1028) pg/mL (P < 0.001) following PBMV. The percentage decrease in plasma NT- proBNP levels was correlated only with the percentage decrease in systolic pulmonary artery pressure (r = 0.687, P < 0.001) and this correlation persisted in linear regression analysis (beta = -0.013; 95% CI [-0.018- -0.008] and P < 0.001). However, NT-proBNP levels did not correlate with the percentage of improvement in NYHA functional class, mitral valve gradients, or left atrial pressure (all P > 0.05). These findings indicate that NT-proBNP measurement following PBMV may be valuable for evaluating changes in pulmonary artery pressure and that elevated NT- proBNP levels in patients with MS may reflect the increased wall stress in the left atrium and right side of the heart.
International Heart Journal 09/2007; 48(5):579-90. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The common coexistence with coronary artery disease has led to the suggestion that coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is a variant of coronary artery disease. The mechanisms, however, responsible for CAE formation during the atherosclerotic process and the exact clinical significance are not well known. In this study, we aimed to investigate platelet activity in patients with isolated CAE by using specific markers of platelet activation as P-selectin, beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF4).
Thirty-two patients with isolated CAE without significant stenosis and 30 control participants with angiographically normal coronary arteries were included in this study. According to the angiographic definition used in the Coronary Artery Surgery Study, a vessel is considered to be ectasic when its diameter is > or = 1.5 times that of the adjacent normal segment in segmental ectasia. Plasma P-selectin, beta-TG and PF4 levels were measured in all patients and control participants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.
Patients with isolated CAE were detected to have significantly higher levels of plasma P-selectin, beta-TG and PF4 in comparison with control participants with angiographically normal coronary arteries (P-selectin: 248+/-46 vs. 154+/-32 ng/ml, respectively, P<0.001; beta-TG: 51+/-19 vs. 21+/-9 ng/ml, respectively, P<0.001; PF4: 58+/-23 vs. 33+/-11 ng/ml, respectively, P<0.001).
In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that patients with isolated CAE have raised levels of plasma P-selectin, beta-TG and PF4 compared with control participants with angiographically normal coronary arteries, suggesting increased platelet activation in patients with CAE.