Markus Kleinewietfeld

Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (20)227.19 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The incidence of autoimmune diseases in Western civilizations is increasing rapidly, suggesting an influence of environmental factors, such as diet. The pathogenesis of several of these autoimmune diseases is characterized by aberrant activation of T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Recent reports have shown that the differentiation of Th17 cells is sensitive to changes in local microenvironments, in particular salt (NaCl) concentrations, in a molecular mechanism centered around the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). In this review, we summarize the recently disclosed mechanisms by which salt has been shown to affect SGK1 and, subsequently, Th17 activation.
    Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified loci underlying human diseases, but the causal nucleotide changes and mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we developed a fine-mapping algorithm to identify candidate causal variants for 21 autoimmune diseases from genotyping data. We integrated these predictions with transcription and cis-regulatory element annotations, derived by mapping RNA and chromatin in primary immune cells, including resting and stimulated CD4(+) T-cell subsets, regulatory T cells, CD8(+) T cells, B cells, and monocytes. We find that ∼90% of causal variants are non-coding, with ∼60% mapping to immune-cell enhancers, many of which gain histone acetylation and transcribe enhancer-associated RNA upon immune stimulation. Causal variants tend to occur near binding sites for master regulators of immune differentiation and stimulus-dependent gene activation, but only 10-20% directly alter recognizable transcription factor binding motifs. Rather, most non-coding risk variants, including those that alter gene expression, affect non-canonical sequence determinants not well-explained by current gene regulatory models.
    Nature 10/2014; · 38.60 Impact Factor
  • Markus Kleinewietfeld, David A. Hafler
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    ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells are the central element for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Several subtypes of regulatory T (Treg) cells have been described, and most of them belong to the CD4+ T-helper (Th) cell lineage. These specific subtypes can be discriminated according to phenotype and function. Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)-expressing natural Treg cells (Tregs) and IL-10-producing, T-regulatory type 1 cells (Tr1) are the best-studied types of CD4+ regulatory T cells in humans and experimental animal models. It was shown that they play a crucial role during autoimmune neuroinflammation. Both cells types seem to be particularly important for multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we discuss the role of CD4+ regulatory T cells in autoimmune neuroinflammation with an emphasis on Tregs and Tr1 cells in MS.
    Immunological Reviews 05/2014; 259(1). · 12.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Developed societies, although having successfully reduced the burden of infectious disease, constitute an environment where metabolic, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases thrive. Living in westernized countries has not fundamentally changed the genetic basis on which these diseases emerge, but has strong impact on lifestyle and pathogen exposure. In particular, nutritional patterns collectively termed the "Western diet", including high-fat and cholesterol, high-protein, high-sugar, and excess salt intake, as well as frequent consumption of processed and 'fast foods', promote obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. These factors have also gained high interest as possible promoters of autoimmune diseases. Underlying metabolic and immunologic mechanisms are currently being intensively explored. This review discusses the current knowledge relative to the association of "Western diet" with autoimmunity, and highlights the role of T cells as central players linking dietary influences to autoimmune pathology.
    Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 01/2014; 14(1):404. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    Theofilos Poutahidis, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Susan E Erdman
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    ABSTRACT: It is recently shown that beneficial environmental microbes stimulate integrated immune and neuroendocrine factors throughout the body, consequently modulating regulatory T-lymphocyte phenotypes, maintaining systemic immune balance, and determining the fate of preneoplastic lesions toward regression while sustaining whole body good health. Stimulated by a gut microbiota-centric systemic homeostasis hypothesis, we set out to explore the influence of the gut microbiome to explain the paradoxical roles of regulatory T-lymphocytes in cancer development and growth. This paradigm shift places cancer prevention and treatment into a new broader context of holobiont engineering to cultivate a tumor-suppressive macroenvironment.
    Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:157.
  • Markus Kleinewietfeld, David A Hafler
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    ABSTRACT: CD4(+) T helper cells are a central element of the adaptive immune system. They protect the organism against a wide range of pathogens and are able to initiate and control many immune reactions in combination with other cells of the adaptive and the innate immune system. Starting from a naive cell, CD4(+) T cells can differentiate into various effector cell populations with specialized function. This subset specific differentiation depends on numerous signals and the strength of stimulation. However, recent data have shown that differentiated CD4(+) T cell subpopulations display a high grade of plasticity and that their initial differentiation is not an endpoint of T cell development. In particular, FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and Th17 effector T cells demonstrate a high grade of plasticity, which allow a functional adaptation to various physiological situations during an immune response. However, the plasticity of Treg and Th17 cells might also be a critical factor for autoimmune disease. Here we discuss the recent developments in CD4(+) T cell plasticity with a focus on Treg and Th17 cells and its role in human autoimmune disease, in particular multiple sclerosis (MS).
    Seminars in Immunology 11/2013; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases in the past half-century. Although the underlying genetic basis of this class of diseases has recently been elucidated, implicating predominantly immune-response genes, changes in environmental factors must ultimately be driving this increase. The newly identified population of interleukin (IL)-17-producing CD4+ helper T cells (TH17 cells) has a pivotal role in autoimmune diseases. Pathogenic IL-23-dependent TH17 cells have been shown to be critical for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, and genetic risk factors associated with multiple sclerosis are related to the IL-23-TH17 pathway. However, little is known about the environmental factors that directly influence TH17 cells. Here we show that increased salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) concentrations found locally under physiological conditions in vivo markedly boost the induction of murine and human TH17 cells. High-salt conditions activate the p38/MAPK pathway involving nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5; also called TONEBP) and serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) during cytokine-induced TH17 polarization. Gene silencing or chemical inhibition of p38/MAPK, NFAT5 or SGK1 abrogates the high-salt-induced TH17 cell development. The TH17 cells generated under high-salt conditions display a highly pathogenic and stable phenotype characterized by the upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines GM-CSF, TNF-α and IL-2. Moreover, mice fed with a high-salt diet develop a more severe form of EAE, in line with augmented central nervous system infiltrating and peripherally induced antigen-specific TH17 cells. Thus, increased dietary salt intake might represent an environmental risk factor for the development of autoimmune diseases through the induction of pathogenic TH17 cells.
    Nature 03/2013; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recent epidemiological study showed that eating 'fast food' items such as potato chips increased likelihood of obesity, whereas eating yogurt prevented age-associated weight gain in humans. It was demonstrated previously in animal models of obesity that the immune system plays a critical role in this process. Here we examined human subjects and mouse models consuming Westernized 'fast food' diet, and found CD4(+) T helper (Th)17-biased immunity and changes in microbial communities and abdominal fat with obesity after eating the Western chow. In striking contrast, eating probiotic yogurt together with Western chow inhibited age-associated weight gain. We went on to test whether a bacteria found in yogurt may serve to lessen fat pathology by using purified Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 in drinking water. Surprisingly, we discovered that oral L. reuteri therapy alone was sufficient to change the pro-inflammatory immune cell profile and prevent abdominal fat pathology and age-associated weight gain in mice regardless of their baseline diet. These beneficial microbe effects were transferable into naïve recipient animals by purified CD4(+) T cells alone. Specifically, bacterial effects depended upon active immune tolerance by induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and interleukin (Il)-10, without significantly changing the gut microbial ecology or reducing ad libitum caloric intake. Our finding that microbial targeting restored CD4(+) T cell balance and yielded significantly leaner animals regardless of their dietary 'fast food' indiscretions suggests population-based approaches for weight management and enhancing public health in industrialized societies.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e68596. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin (Ang) II induces vascular injury in part by activating innate and adaptive immunity; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated the role of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-23 signaling. We infused Ang II into IFN-γ receptor (IFN-γR) knockout mice and wild-type controls, as well as into mice treated with neutralizing antibodies against IL-23 receptor and IL-17A. Ang II-treated IFN-γR knockout mice exhibited reduced cardiac hypertrophy, reduced cardiac macrophage and T-cell infiltration, less fibrosis, and less arrhythmogenic electric remodeling independent of blood pressure changes. In contrast, IL-23 receptor antibody treatment did not reduce cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, or electric remodeling despite mildly reduced inflammation. IL-17A antibody treatment behaved similarly. In the kidney, IFN-γR deficiency reduced inflammation and tubulointerstitial damage and improved glomerular filtration rate. Nonetheless, albuminuria was increased compared with Ang II-treated wild-type controls. The glomeruli of Ang II-treated IFN-γR knockout mice exhibited fewer podocytes, less nephrin and synaptopodin staining, and impaired podocyte autophagy. Thus, IFN-γ blockade, but not IL-23 receptor antibody treatment, protects from Ang II-induced cardiac damage and electric remodeling. In the kidney, IFN-γ signaling acts in a cell type-specific manner. Glomerular filtration rate is preserved in the absence of the IFN-γR, whereas podocytes may require the IFN-γR in the presence of Ang II for normal integrity and function.
    Hypertension 10/2012; · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) are often present at the sites of tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases, which has led to the conclusion that T(H)17 cells are main drivers of autoimmune tissue injury. However, not all T(H)17 cells are pathogenic; in fact, T(H)17 cells generated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and IL-6 produce IL-17 but do not readily induce autoimmune disease without further exposure to IL-23. Here we found that the production of TGF-β3 by developing T(H)17 cells was dependent on IL-23, which together with IL-6 induced very pathogenic T(H)17 cells. Moreover, TGF-β3-induced T(H)17 cells were functionally and molecularly distinct from TGF-β1-induced T(H)17 cells and had a molecular signature that defined pathogenic effector T(H)17 cells in autoimmune disease.
    Nature Immunology 09/2012; 13(10):991-9. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) are often present at the sites of tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases, which has led to the conclusion that T(H)17 cells are main drivers of autoimmune tissue injury. However, not all T(H)17 cells are pathogenic; in fact, T(H)17 cells generated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and IL-6 produce IL-17 but do not readily induce autoimmune disease without further exposure to IL-23. Here we found that the production of TGF-β3 by developing T(H)17 cells was dependent on IL-23, which together with IL-6 induced very pathogenic T(H)17 cells. Moreover, TGF-β3-induced T(H)17 cells were functionally and molecularly distinct from TGF-β1-induced T(H)17 cells and had a molecular signature that defined pathogenic effector T(H)17 cells in autoimmune disease.
    Nature Immunology 09/2012; · 26.20 Impact Factor
  • Dominik N Müller, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Heda Kvakan
    Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 06/2011; 12(2):125-8. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertensive target organ damage, especially cardiac hypertrophy with heart failure and arrhythmia, is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Angiotensin II, a major mediator of hypertension and cardiac damage, has proinflammatory properties. Inflammation and activation of the immune system play a pivotal role in pathogenesis of hypertensive target organ damage. However, the role of immunosuppressive CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in the pathogenesis of hypertensive target organ damage is unexplored. We conducted adoptive transfer of Treg cells into angiotensin II-infused hypertensive mice. Treg cell recipients exhibited improved cardiac hypertrophy and less cardiac fibrosis despite sustained hypertension. Amelioration of cardiac morphology was accompanied by an improvement in arrhythmogenic electric remodeling, indicating the functional significance of the enhanced cardiac morphology. Delocalization of the connexin 43 gap junction protein is one of the major pathomechanisms in electric remodeling. Pronounced connexin 43 immunoreactivity was found at the lateral borders of cardiomyocytes in angiotensin II-treated mice. In contrast, connexin 43 was restricted to the intercalated disk regions in sham controls. Surprisingly, angiotensin II+Treg-treated mice showed normal connexin 43 gap junction protein localization. Adoptive Treg cell transfer resulted in a marked reduction in cardiac CD4+, CD8+, and CD69+ cell and macrophage infiltration. Immunosuppressive effects of transferred Treg cells ameliorated cardiac damage and accounted for the improved electric remodeling independently of blood pressure-lowering effects. Our results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of hypertensive cardiac damage and could therefore lead to new therapeutic approaches that involve manipulation of the immune system.
    Circulation 07/2009; 119(22):2904-12. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    Blood 03/2009; 113(9):2119-20; author reply 2120. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The adoptive transfer of regulatory Foxp3(+) T (Treg) cells has been shown in various animal models to prevent inflammatory immune and autoimmune diseases. Translation into therapeutic applications, however, is hindered by the lack of suitable techniques and markers. CD25, commonly used to isolate Treg cells from mice, has only limited value in humans as it is also present on proinflammatory CD4(+) effector cells. Here we show that clean populations of human Foxp3(+) Treg cells can be obtained with antibodies directed against CD49d. The marker is present on proinflammatory peripheral blood mononuclear cells but is absent on immune-suppressive Treg cells. Depletion with alpha-CD49d removes contaminating interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)- and interleukin-17 (IL-17)-secreting cells from Treg preparations of CD4(+)CD25(high) cells. More importantly, in combination with alpha-CD127 it allows the isolation of "untouched" Foxp3(+) Treg (ie, cells that have not been targeted by an antibody during purification). The removal of CD49d(+)/CD127(+) cells leaves a population of Foxp3(+) Treg virtually free of contaminating CD25(+) effector cells. The cells can be expanded in vitro and are effective suppressors both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, CD49d provides access to highly pure populations of untouched Foxp3(+) Treg cells conferring maximal safety for future clinical applications.
    Blood 11/2008; 113(4):827-36. · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • Markus Kleinewietfeld, Mireille Starke, Olaf Rötzschke, Kirsten Falk
    Clinical Immunology - CLIN IMMUNOL. 01/2008; 127.
  • Blood 01/2008; 111(2):965-966. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the immune system, extracellular ATP functions as a "natural adjuvant" that exhibits multiple proinflammatory effects. It is released by damaged cells as an indicator of trauma and cell death but can be inactivated by CD39 (nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 [NTPDase 1]), an ectoenzyme that degrades ATP to AMP. Here, we show that CD39 is expressed primarily by immune-suppressive Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells. In mice, the enzyme is present on virtually all CD4(+)CD25(+) cells. CD39 expression is driven by the Treg-specific transcription factor Foxp3 and its catalytic activity is strongly enhanced by T-cell receptor (TCR) ligation. Activated Treg cells are therefore able to abrogate ATP-related effects such as P2 receptor-mediated cell toxicity and ATP-driven maturation of dendritic cells. Also, human Treg cells express CD39. In contrast to mice, CD39 expression in man is restricted to a subset of Foxp3(+) regulatory effector/memory-like T (T(REM)) cells. Notably, patients with the remitting/relapsing form of multiple sclerosis (MS) have strikingly reduced numbers of CD39(+) Treg cells in the blood. Thus, in humans CD39 is a marker of a Treg subset likely involved in the control of the inflammatory autoimmune disease.
    Blood 09/2007; 110(4):1225-32. · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Immunology - CLIN IMMUNOL. 01/2006; 119.
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    ABSTRACT: Regulatory CD25(+)CD4+ T cells (Treg cells) are a central element of peripheral tolerance. Little is known, however, about phenotypic and functional characteristics of these cells with regard to memory. In this study we show that the chemokine receptor CCR6 is expressed on a distinct subset of mouse Treg cells. Similar to their CD25- counterparts, CCR6+ Treg cells exhibit markers of activation, memory, and expansion that are indicative for an effector-memory function. They are memory-like cells, generated in vivo from CCR6(-)CD25+ T cells after the encounter of antigen. As conventional CD25- effector-memory T cells, they have a high turnover rate and, in contrast to CCR6- Treg cells, they respond rapidly to restimulation in vitro with up-regulation of interleukin 10. CCR6+ Treg cells are enriched in the peripheral blood and accumulate in the central nervous system after induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This subset therefore seems to represent a population of regulatory effector-memory T cells (T(REM)), destined to control potentially destructive immune responses directly in inflamed tissues. Importantly, these cells are also present in humans. Here the expression of CCR6 fully cosegregates with CD45RO, an established marker of human memory T cells.
    Blood 05/2005; 105(7):2877-86. · 9.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

834 Citations
227.19 Total Impact Points

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Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2013
    • Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005–2008
    • Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2007
    • Foundation Santa Lucia
      • Laboratory of Neuroimmunology
      Roma, Latium, Italy