Claude P Muller

Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

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Publications (230)915.23 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The external environment plays a primordial role in determining gene expression, and protein production, which may in turn define a behavioral or physiological phenotype. This control occurs at both the transcriptional and translational levels and involves a wide range of mechanisms, providing a plethora of opportunities for altering the final level of functional proteins. These mechanisms all share the common feature that they do not alter the underlying genomic sequence, but they act as biological annotations to the genome. In this section we review these mechanisms, and how they are related to health. In particular the role of the three epigenetic mechanisms in controlling the glucocorticoid receptor, as well as the stress phenotype, are reviewed in detail.
    International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioural Sciences, 2nd Edition edited by Jame D Wright, 12/2014; Elsevier.
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    ABSTRACT: As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV), rubella virus (RV) and human parvovirus B19 (B19V). The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV) and adenovirus (AdV). Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7%) cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e111541. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite hepatitis B vaccination at birth and at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to be endemic in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). We carried out a cross-sectional serological study in infants, pre-school children, school pupils and pregnant women to determine their burden of disease, risk of infection and vaccination status.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 08/2014; 14(1):457. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GR transcripts display a remarkable heterogeneity in their 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRs). These variable 5'UTRs are encoded by a series of alternative 1st exons, and together with their associated promoters they maintain tissue-specific GR expression levels. In this study we over-expressed GR transcripts containing individual 1st exons, and assessed their effect on RNA stability, 3'-splicing, translation initiation and protein isoform production. We showed that these alternative 5'UTRs influence the predicted mRNA structure and free energy, and were associated with differential levels of functional spliced mRNA. However, the 5'UTR had little influence on the relative levels of the two principal 3' splice transcripts, GR-α and -β. The overall mRNA length, the free energy of the transcript and the translational efficiency directly influenced total GR levels. However, individual N-terminal protein isoform levels appeared to depend upon elements within the 5'UTR. Membrane-GR specific labelling suggested that the mGR originates from transcripts containing exon 1D and possibly 1H, although the specific trafficking sequences or structures within these transcripts remain unidentified. The role of the alternative first exons and their associated 5'UTRs has now been expanded to translational control, influencing total GR levels, individual constituent isoform levels, as well as trafficking to the cell surface.
    Biochimica et biophysica acta. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative gel-based proteomics (2D DIGE coupled to MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) has been used to investigate effects of different measles virus (MV) strains on the host cell proteome. A549/hSLAM cells were infected either with wild type MV strains, an attenuated vaccine or a multiple passaged Vero-cell adapted strain. By including interferon beta treatment as a control it was possible to distinguish between the classical anti-viral response and changes induced specifically by the different strains. Of 38 differentially expressed proteins in total (p-value≤0.05, fold change≥2), 18 proteins were uniquely modulated following MV infection with up to 9 proteins specific per individual strain. Interestingly, wt strains displayed distinct protein patterns particularly during late phase of infection. Proteins were grouped into cytoskeleton, metabolism, transcription/translation, immune response and mitochondrial proteins. Bioinformatics analysis revealed mostly changes in proteins regulating cell death and apoptosis. Surprisingly, wt strains affected the cytokeratin system much stronger than the vaccine strain. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the MV-host proteome addressing interstrain differences.
    Journal of Proteomics 06/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological data about congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) are scarce and rubella vaccine is not yet included in the childhood immunization schedule in Sudan. This study aimed to identify and describe CRS cases among Sudanese infants with congenital eye or heart defects.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 06/2014; 14(1):305. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influenza pH1N1 virus caused a global flu pandemic in 2009 and continues manifestation as a seasonal virus. Better understanding of the virus-host cell interaction could result in development of better prevention and treatment options. Here we show that Akt inhibitor MK2206, blocks influenza pH1N1 virus infection in vitro. In particular, at non-cytotoxic concentrations MK2206 alters Akt signaling and inhibits endocytic uptake of the virus. Interestingly, MK2206 is unable to inhibit H3N2, H7N9 and H5N1 viruses indicating that pH1N1 evolved specific requirements for efficient infection. Thus, Akt signaling could be exploited further for development of better therapeutics against pH1N1 virus.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several viruses, amongst others human papillomaviruses, depend on endosomal acidification for successful infection. Hence, the multi-subunit enzyme vacuolar ATPase, which is mainly responsible for endosome acidification in the cell, represents an attractive target for antiviral strategies. In the present study we show that V-ATPase is required for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and that uncoating/disassembly, but not endocytosis, is affected by V-ATPase inhibition. The infection inhibitory potency of Saliphenylhalamide, a proven V-ATPase inhibitor, its derivatives and other V-ATPase inhibitors was analyzed on different HPV types in relevant cell lines. Variation in the selectivity index among V-ATPase inhibitors was high while variation for the same inhibitor against different HPV subtypes was low indicating that broad-spectrum anti-HPV activity can be provided.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection that aggravates acute and chronic liver disease. While HBV seroprevalence is very high across sub-Saharan Africa, much less is known about HDV in the region. In this study almost 2300 serum samples from Burkina Faso (n=1131), Nigeria (n=974), Chad (n=50) and the Central African Republic (n=118) were screened for HBV and HDV. Among 743 HBsAg positive sera 74 were positive for HDV-antibodies and/or HDV-RNA, with considerable differences in prevalence, ranging from <2% (pregnant women from Burkina Faso) to 50% (liver patients from Central African Republic). HDV seems to be a lot more frequent in chronic liver disease patients in CAR than in the similar cohorts in Nigeria. In a large nested mother-child cohort in Burkina Faso the prevalence of HDV antibodies was ten times higher in the children than in the mother, despite similar HBsAg prevalences, excluding vertical transmission as an important route of infection.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 03/2014; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), mumps is not a notifiable disease and mumps vaccine is currently not included in the routine childhood immunization program. In order to assess the burden of disease, we investigated the seroprevalence of mumps-specific IgG antibodies across four provinces. In addition, we genetically characterized mumps viruses from the past 3 years from several outbreaks and single cases. Blood and/or throat swabs from suspected cases were investigated for specific IgM antibodies or viral RNA. Mumps cases occurred between March and November in 2011-2013 and 5-15 year olds were most affected. Four sequences from an outbreak in the North of Lao PDR in 2011 were identical and belonged to genotype G. Eight sequences from two outbreaks and two individual cases from 2012 and 2013 belonged to genotype J. In addition, sera collected from 2379 healthy infants and school pupils between 9 months and 19 years and from pregnant women between 16 and 46 years were investigated for mumps-specific IgG. Overall, 58.2% were positive, 39.5% were negative and the remaining 2.3% were equivocal. The seropositivity increased with age, with the lowest percentage found in the <1 year old infants (9.1%) and the highest in the cohort of pregnant women (69.2%). More females than males were seropositive (60.4 versus 54.9%). There were some differences between the locations. Mumps should be a notifiable disease in Lao PDR to get more accurate case numbers and cost estimates for public health and vaccination of children and high-risk groups should be considered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 02/2014; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GR transcripts display a remarkable heterogeneity in their 5’ untranslated regions (5’UTRs). These variable 5’UTRs are encoded by a series of alternative 1st exons, and together with their associated promoters they maintain tissue-specific GR expression levels. In this study we over-expressed GR transcripts containing individual 1st exons, and assessed their effect on RNA stability, 3’-splicing, translation initiation and protein isoform production. We showed that these alternative 5’UTRs influence the predicted mRNA structure and free energy, and were associated with differential levels of functional spliced mRNA. However, the 5’UTR had little influence on the relative levels of the two principal 3’ splice transcripts, GR-α and -β. The overall mRNA length, the free energy of the transcript and the translational efficiency directly influenced total GR levels. However, individual N-terminal protein isoform levels appeared to depend upon elements within the 5’UTR. Membrane-GR specific labelling suggested that the mGR originates from transcripts containing exon 1D and possibly 1H, although the specific trafficking sequences or structures within these transcripts remains unidentified. The role of the alternative first exons and their associated 5’UTRs has now been expanded to translational control, influencing total GR levels, individual constituent isoform levels, as well as trafficking to the cell surface.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 01/2014; · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant-based antivirals.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e88062. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neutralizing antibodies against different swine influenza A viruses and pandemic H1N1 were analyzed in pigs before and after the pandemic. While in 2009 neutralization of the pandemic virus could be explained by cross-reaction with swine influenza viruses this was not the case in at least 2 farms in 2012.
    Veterinary Microbiology 12/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In West and Central Africa, virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of recently identified genotypes XIV, XVII and XVIII are enzootic in poultry, representing a considerable threat to the sector. The increasing number of reports of virulent strains in wild birds at least in other parts of the world raised the question of a potential role of wild birds in the spread of virulent NDV also in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated 1723 asymptomatic birds sampled at live bird markets and important sites for wild bird conservation in Nigeria and 19 sick or dead wild birds in Côte d'Ivoire for NDV class I and II. Typical avirulent wild-type genotype I strains were found in wild waterfowl in wetlands in Northeastern Nigeria. They were unrelated to vaccine strains, and the involvement of inter- or intra-continental migratory birds in their circulation in the region is suggested. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that genotype VI strains found in pigeons, including some putative new subgenotype VIh and VIi strains, were introduced on multiple separate occasions in Nigeria. A single virulent genotype XVIII strain was found in a dead wild bird in Côte d'Ivoire, probably as a result of a spill back from sick poultry. In conclusion, screening of wild birds and pigeons for NDV revealed the presence a variety of virulent and avirulent strains in West Africa but did not yet provide strong evidence that wild birds play an important role in the spread of virulent strains in the region.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10/2013; · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Lao People's Democratic Republic, hepatitis B virus is highly endemic. However, blood donations are only screened for HBsAg, leaving a risk of transmission by HBsAg-negative occult infected donors. Here, we characterized first-time blood donors to assess prevalence of hepatitis B virus infections and occult infected donors. Sera were screened for HBsAg, HBeAg and anti-HBs, anti-HBc and anti-HBe antibodies. Occult HBV infections (OBIs) were assessed in HBsAg-negative sera by PCR, and sera of HBsAg positive and occult infected donors were phylogenetically characterized. 9·6% of the donors were HBsAg positive, and 45.5% were positive for at least one of the hepatitis B virus serum markers. More than 40% HBsAg carriers were HBeAg positive, with HBeAg seroconversion occurring around 30 years of age. Furthermore, 10·9% of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs-positive donors were occult infected with hepatitis B virus. Thus, at least 3·9% of blood donations would potentially be unsafe, but hepatitis B virus DNA copy numbers greatly varied between donors. In Lao People's Democratic Republic, a sizable proportion of HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc antibody-positive blood donations are potentially DNA positive and infective for hepatitis B.
    Vox Sanguinis 08/2013; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors have been implicated in many processes, particularly in negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Epigenetically programmed GR alternative promoter usage underlies transcriptional control of GR levels, generation of GR 3' splice variants, and the overall GC response in the brain. No detailed analysis of GR first exons or GR transcript variants throughout the human brain has been reported. Therefore we investigated post mortem tissues from 28 brain regions of 5 individuals. GR first exons were expressed throughout the healthy human brain with no region-specific usage patterns. First exon levels were highly inter-correlated suggesting that they are co-regulated. GR 3' splice variants (GRα and GR-P) were equally distributed in all regions, and GRβ expression was always low. GR/MR ratios showed significant differences between the 28 tissues with the highest ratio in the pituitary gland. Modification levels of individual CpG dinucleotides, including 5-mC and 5-hmC, in promoters 1D, 1E, 1F, and 1H were low, and diffusely clustered; despite significant heterogeneity between the donors. In agreement with this clustering, sum modification levels rather than individual CpG modifications correlated with GR expression. Two-way ANOVA showed that this sum modification was both promoter and brain region specific, but that there was however no promoter*tissue interaction. The heterogeneity between donors may however hide such an interaction. In both promoters 1F and 1H modification levels correlated with GRα expression suggesting that 5-mC and 5-hmC play an important role in fine tuning GR expression levels throughout the brain.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 08/2013; · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of fish-allergic patients are sensitized to parvalbumin, known to be the cause of important IgE cross-reactivity among fish species. Little is known about the importance of fish allergens other than parvalbumin. The aim of this study was to characterize hitherto undefined fish allergens in three commonly consumed fish species, cod, salmon and tuna, and to evaluate their importance for in vitro IgE-diagnosis in addition to parvalbumin and fish gelatin. Sixty-two patients were diagnosed by clinical history, skin prick tests and specific IgE to fish extracts. Two new fish allergens from cod, salmon and tuna were identified by microsequencing. These proteins were characterized by immunoblot, ELISA and mediator release assay. Purified parvalbumin, enolase, aldolase and fish gelatin were used for quantification of specific IgE in ELISA. Parvalbumin and two other allergens of 50 and 40 kDa were detected in IgE-immunoblots of cod, salmon and tuna extracts by most patient sera. The 50 and 40 kDa proteins were identified as beta-enolase and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A respectively. Both purified enzymes showed allergenic activity in the mediator release assay. Indeed, 72.6% of the patients were sensitized to parvalbumin, 20% of these had specific IgE to salmon parvalbumin only. IgE to enolases were found in 62.9% (0.5-95.0 kUA /L), to aldolases in 50.0% (0.4-26.0 kUA /L) and to fish gelatin in 19.3% (0.4-20.0 kUA /L) of the patients. Inter-species cross-reactivity, even though limited, was found for enolases and aldolases by IgE-inhibition ELISA. Fish enolase and aldolase have been identified as important new fish allergens. In fish allergy diagnosis, IgE to enolase and aldolase are especially relevant when IgE to parvalbumin are absent.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 07/2013; 43(7):811-822. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As most data on hepatitis in resource-poor countries relate to urban communities, surveys in the rural environment are necessary to determine the 'true' prevalence of these viral infections. We undertook a survey to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in an apparently healthy rural population in the Central African Republic (CAR). The cross-sectional study was based on dried blood spots (DBS) from 273 people recruited in four prefectures (Lobaye, Nana-Mambere, Ouham and Ouaka). Eluates from DBS were tested with commercial ELISA kits to detect markers of HBV infection. DBS were directly used for DNA extraction, followed by PCR and genotyping based on preS/S gene sequences. The overall prevalence of HBc antibodies was 27.1% (Lobaye 29%, Nana-Mambere 28%, Ouaka 29% and Ouham 23%) and that of HBsAg was 10.6% (Lobaye 9%, Nana-Mambere 9%, Ouaka 19% and Ouham 8%), with no statistically significant difference among the surveyed communities. Nineteen sequences obtained from 74 anti-HBc-positive patients all belonged to genotype E. Risk factor analysis of HBV infection pointed to sexual transmission of the virus. The prevalence of HBV is high in rural communities in the CAR and comparable to that observed in urban areas. In addition, genotype E is prevalent in these areas. These findings underline the importance of instituting a programme of active HBV surveillance and vaccination of the population.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 06/2013; 13(1):286. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rabbits are increasingly kept as domestic pets. Several rabbit allergens have been characterized. However, their sequences are still elusive, and none of these molecules are available for diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to isolate major allergens from the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and to investigate their importance in sensitized patients. METHODS: Proteins were extracted from rabbit hair, and IgE-reactive proteins were purified by using sequential chromatography. Allergens were characterized by means of N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. IgE reactivity to a new allergen was analyzed in sera of 35 patients sensitized to rabbits in a domestic setting. A model of the crystal structure of the isolated proteins was constructed. RESULTS: A new IgE-reactive allergen, Ory c 3, was identified as rabbit lipophilin. The molecule that belongs to the secretoglobin family is a heterodimer of 18 to 19 kDa composed of 2 polypeptide chains, CL2 and AL. CL2 has a predicted N-linked glycosylation site confirmed by using mass spectrometry. Of the 35 patients with rabbit allergy studied, 27 (77%) had IgE to both the glycosylated and deglycosylated Ory c 3 heterodimer. Allergenicity of Ory c 3 was confirmed by using skin prick tests and the basophil activation assay. Modeling of the structure revealed a marked homology to Fel d 1, the major cat allergen. However, no IgE cross-reactivity was detected between Fel d 1 and Ory c 3. CONCLUSION: The rabbit lipophilin heterodimer AL-CL2 has been identified as a major rabbit allergen. After Fel d 1, Ory c 3 is the second mammalian secretoglobin shown to be a major allergen.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 06/2013; · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immune cell trafficking is crucial for surveillance and effector functions of the immune system. Circadian rhythms of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and of cortisol have been implicated in circadian redistribution of circulating lymphocytes and granulocytes. However, information regarding the diurnal redistribution of immune cells and their temporal correlations with cortisol is scarce. In this study, we investigated the diurnal redistribution of T, B, and natural killer (NK) cell subsets in relation to the endogenous cortisol rhythm. Saliva and blood samples were collected every 15 min over an 8-h period. Salivary-free cortisol was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Surface markers (CD3, CD19, CD8, CD56, CD16, KIR) were measured in whole blood samples by 6-color flow cytometry and cell subsets quantified as a percentage of the total lymphocyte population. To study associations between the diurnal cortisol rhythm and the redistribution of T, B, and NK cells, we calculated cross-correlations with lag periods of 15 min. The salivary cortisol levels showed the typical diurnal variations with a significant morning cortisol awakening response (CAR) peaking around 07:30 h followed by an afternoon nadir. Whereas B cells remained stable throughout the 8 h, T cells (CD3 + CD8+ and CD3 + CD8-) showed a significant positive cross-correlation with cortisol levels when a delay of 30-105 min was taken into account. This was followed by a negative correlation covering a period of 165-285 min after the cortisol peak. Conversely, NK cells showed an initial negative correlation at 45-105 min, followed by a positive correlation at 120-285 min. The major CD56 + CD16+ subset and the CD56 - CD16+ population showed similar temporal correlation profiles. The minor CD56 + CD16- NK cell subset showed no temporal changes. The major NK subset (CD56 + CD16+) contains cells with higher cytolytic activity (KIR+) cells, whereas the single-positive subsets CD56 + CD16- and CD56 - CD16+ are mainly involved in cytokine production. Significant positive correlations were observed in KIR+ subsets coincident with this of NK cells covering a period of 105-300 min after the cortisol peak. In conclusion, our results suggest that cortisol and the HPA axis orchestrate tidal waves of immune cells that are alternatively based toward innate and acquired immune surveillance. (Author correspondence: claude.muller@CRP-SANTE.LU).
    Chronobiology International 05/2013; · 4.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
915.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Chiang Mai University
      • Department of Pathology
      Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
    • University of Lorraine
      Nancy, Lorraine, France
  • 2007–2013
    • Universität Trier
      • Institute of Psychobiology
      Trier, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
    • Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2012
    • Republican Research and Practical Center for Epidemiology & Microbiology
      Myenyesk, Minsk, Belarus
  • 2009–2012
    • Public Research Centre "Gabriel Lippmann"
      • Environment and Agro-Biotechnologies Department (EVA)
      Belvaux, District de Luxembourg, Luxembourg
  • 2000–2012
    • University of Ibadan
      • • Department of Chemical Pathology & Immunology
      • • Department of Veterinary Medicine
      • • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
      • • Department of Virology
      Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria
  • 2011
    • National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Bulgaria
      Ulpia Serdica, Sofia-Capital, Bulgaria
    • Clinical Center University of Sarajevo
      Bosna-Sarai, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • 1993–2011
    • Laboratoire National de Santé
      Letzeburg, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
  • 2010
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Memphis, TN, United States
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2003
    • Institut de biologie moléculaire des plantes, Strasbourg
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
  • 1990–2003
    • University of Tuebingen
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Institute of Inorganic Chemistry
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1998–1999
    • Université Libre de Bruxelles
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium