Claude P Muller

LIH Luxembourg Institute of Health, Letzeburg, Luxembourg, Luxembourg

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Publications (239)977.22 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of asthma cases upon exposure to hamsters and anaphylactic reactions following hamster bites are being reported, but the allergens responsible are still poorly characterized. In the Golden hamster, male-specific submaxillary gland protein (MSP), a lipocalin expressed in a sex- and tissue-specific manner in the submaxillary and lacrimal glands, is secreted in the saliva, tears and urine. The purpose of this study was to determine if MSP is an allergen, to identify IgE-reactive proteins of different hamster species and to analyse potential cross-reactivities. Fur extracts were prepared from four hamster species. Hamster-allergic patients were selected based on a history of positive IgE-test to hamster epithelium. The IgE-reactivity of patients' sera was investigated by means of immunoblot and ELISA. IgE-reactive proteins in fur extracts and the submaxillary gland were identified using anti-MSP antibodies, Edman sequencing or mass spectrometry. MSP was purified from Golden hamster and recombinant MSP was expressed in E. coli. Four patients had IgE-antibodies against 20.5-kDa and 24-kDa proteins of Golden hamster fur extract, which were identified as MSP. IgE-reactive MSP-like proteins were detected in European hamster fur extract. Three patient sera showed IgE-reactive bands at 17-21 kDa in Siberian and Roborovski hamster fur extracts. These proteins were identified as two closely related lipocalins. Immunoblot inhibition experiments showed that they are cross-reactive and are different from MSP. MSP lipocalin of the Golden hamster was identified as an allergen, and it is different from the cross-reactive lipocalin allergens of Siberian and Roborovski hamsters. Our findings highlight the need for specific tools for the in vitro and in vivo diagnosis of allergy to different hamster species. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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    ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization (WHO) has adopted an elimination goal for measles and rubella, which is supposed to be met in the WHO European Region (EUR) by 2015. For verification of elimination, it is required that the genotyping data of detected measles viruses provide evidence for the interruption of endemic transmission. In order to record and assess the extent of endemic measles virus (MV) circulation in a part of the EUR, we analyzed transmission chains of the epidemiologically most relevant MV variants identified in Central and continental Western Europe (CCWE) from 2006 to 2013. Based on MV sequence data deposited in the WHO global database for molecular surveillance of measles (MeaNS), the circulation period was calculated for each MV variant at the country-level and for the entire region of CCWE. The MV variants "D5-Okinawa," "D4-Hamburg," "D4-Manchester," and "D8-Frankfurt-Main" spread widely in CCWE; they caused large and long-lasting outbreaks with secondary spread that resulted in additional outbreaks. Nation-wide outbreaks (epidemics) with thousands of measles cases occurred in four countries (Switzerland, France, Bulgaria, and Romania) and were characterized by continuous detection of the same MV variant for more than 12 months suggesting endemic transmission. In the entire region of CCWE, the circulation period of the four predominant MV variants ranged from 18 to 44 months. The long-lasting MV transmission which affected predominantly unvaccinated individuals in different hard-to-reach groups and in the general population is not consistent with the measles elimination goal. Additional efforts are necessary to meet the elimination target in the EUR.
    Virus Genes 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11262-015-1173-1 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The worst Ebola virus (EV) outbreak in history has hit Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea hardest and the trendlines in this crisis are grave, and now represents global public health threat concern. Limited therapeutic and/or prophylactic options which are available for humans suffering from Ebola virus disease (EVD) further complicate situation. Previous studies suggested that the EV glycoprotein (GP) is the main determinant causing structural damage of endothelial cells that triggers the hemorrhagic diathesis, but molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remains elusive. Using the informational spectrum method (ISM), a virtual spectroscopy method for analysis of the protein-protein interactions, the interaction of GP with endothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) was investigated. Presented results of this in silico study suggest that Elastin Microfibril Interface Located Proteins (EMILINs) are involved in interaction between GP and ECM. This finding could contribute to better understanding of EV/endothelium interaction and its role in pathogenesis, prevention and therapy of EVD.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 02/2015; 6:135. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00135 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objective: Early life adverse events may influence susceptibility/resistance to chronic inflammatory diseases later in life by permanently dysregulating brain-controlled immune-regulatory systems. We have investigated the impact of infant-mother separation during early postnatal life on the severity of experimental periodontitis, as well as systemic stress and immune responses, in adulthood. Material and Methods: Pups of periodontitis resistant Lewis rats were separated from their mothers for 3 h daily during postnatal days 2-14 (termed maternal deprivation; MD), separated for 15 min daily during the same time period (termed handling; HD), or left undisturbed. As adults, their behaviour was tested in a novel stressful situation, and ligature-induced periodontitis applied for 21 days. Two h before sacrifice all rats were exposed to a gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge to induce a robust immune and stress response. Results: Compared to undisturbed controls, MD rats developed significantly more periodontal bone loss as adults, whereas HD rats showed a tendency to less disease. MD and HD rats exhibited depression-like behaviour in a novel open field test, while MD rats showed higher glucocorticoid receptor (Gr) expression in the hippocampus, and HD rats had altered methylation of genes involved in the expression of hippocampal Gr. LPS provoked a significantly lower increase in circulating levels of the cytokine TGF-1β in MD and HD rats, but there were no significant differences in levels of the stress hormone corticosterone. Conclusion: Stressful environmental exposures in very early life may alter immune responses in a manner that influences susceptibility/resistance to periodontitis.
    The Open Dentistry Journal 01/2015; DOI:10.2174/1874210601509010065
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    ABSTRACT: Besides birds, pigs are another important reservoir of influenza A viruses that can be transmitted to human, as highlighted by the emergence and spread of the pandemic (H1N1) virus (pdm/09) in 2009. Surveillance in pigs is therefore necessary for public health and influenza pandemic preparedness. Nevertheless, there is a serious lack of data on influenza in Africa, especially in swine. We therefore collected serum samples from pigs in Nigeria (2009, 2012) and Cameroon (2011) in which the presence of anti-influenza A neutralizing antibodies was investigated. Our serological survey suggests that, before the 2009 pandemic, only rare swine and human H3N2 or human H1N1 infections occurred in Nigeria in swine. However, in 2011-2012, 27.4% of pigs in Nigeria and 5,6% in Cameroon had antibodies against H1N1 viruses. Higher antibody titers against pdm/09 suggested that pigs were exposed to this or a similar virus, either by multiple introductions or sustained circulation, and that reactivity against American and European swine H1N1 viruses resulted from cross-reaction.
    Veterinary Microbiology 01/2015; 176(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.12.022 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The external environment plays a primordial role in determining gene expression, and protein production, which may in turn define a behavioral or physiological phenotype. This control occurs at both the transcriptional and translational levels and involves a wide range of mechanisms, providing a plethora of opportunities for altering the final level of functional proteins. These mechanisms all share the common feature that they do not alter the underlying genomic sequence, but they act as biological annotations to the genome. In this section we review these mechanisms, and how they are related to health. In particular the role of the three epigenetic mechanisms in controlling the glucocorticoid receptor, as well as the stress phenotype, are reviewed in detail.
    International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioural Sciences, 2nd Edition edited by Jame D Wright, 12/2014; Elsevier.
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    ABSTRACT: As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV), rubella virus (RV) and human parvovirus B19 (B19V). The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV) and adenovirus (AdV). Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7%) cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e111541. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111541 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite hepatitis B vaccination at birth and at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to be endemic in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). We carried out a cross-sectional serological study in infants, pre-school children, school pupils and pregnant women to determine their burden of disease, risk of infection and vaccination status.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 08/2014; 14(1):457. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-457 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GR transcripts display a remarkable heterogeneity in their 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRs). These variable 5'UTRs are encoded by a series of alternative 1st exons, and together with their associated promoters they maintain tissue-specific GR expression levels. In this study we over-expressed GR transcripts containing individual 1st exons, and assessed their effect on RNA stability, 3'-splicing, translation initiation and protein isoform production. We showed that these alternative 5'UTRs influence the predicted mRNA structure and free energy, and were associated with differential levels of functional spliced mRNA. However, the 5'UTR had little influence on the relative levels of the two principal 3' splice transcripts, GR-α and -β. The overall mRNA length, the free energy of the transcript and the translational efficiency directly influenced total GR levels. However, individual N-terminal protein isoform levels appeared to depend upon elements within the 5'UTR. Membrane-GR specific labelling suggested that the mGR originates from transcripts containing exon 1D and possibly 1H, although the specific trafficking sequences or structures within these transcripts remain unidentified. The role of the alternative first exons and their associated 5'UTRs has now been expanded to translational control, influencing total GR levels, individual constituent isoform levels, as well as trafficking to the cell surface.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 08/2014; 1839(11). DOI:10.1016/j.bbagrm.2014.08.010 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative gel-based proteomics (2D DIGE coupled to MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) has been used to investigate effects of different measles virus (MV) strains on the host cell proteome. A549/hSLAM cells were infected either with wild type MV strains, an attenuated vaccine or a multiple passaged Vero-cell adapted strain. By including interferon beta treatment as a control it was possible to distinguish between the classical anti-viral response and changes induced specifically by the different strains. Of 38 differentially expressed proteins in total (p-value≤0.05, fold change≥2), 18 proteins were uniquely modulated following MV infection with up to 9 proteins specific per individual strain. Interestingly, wt strains displayed distinct protein patterns particularly during late phase of infection. Proteins were grouped into cytoskeleton, metabolism, transcription/translation, immune response and mitochondrial proteins. Bioinformatics analysis revealed mostly changes in proteins regulating cell death and apoptosis. Surprisingly, wt strains affected the cytokeratin system much stronger than the vaccine strain. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the MV-host proteome addressing interstrain differences.
    Journal of Proteomics 06/2014; 108. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2014.05.029 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundEpidemiological data about congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) are scarce and rubella vaccine is not yet included in the childhood immunization schedule in Sudan. This study aimed to identify and describe CRS cases among Sudanese infants with congenital eye or heart defects.MethodsBetween February and September 2010, paired oral fluid and dried blood spot samples were collected from 98 infants aged up to 12 months. These infants were enrolled during their visits to five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan. Clinical samples were screened for rubella IgM and for ≥ 6 months old infants also for IgG antibodies by ELISA. The oral fluid of IgM and/or IgG positive patients was tested for rubella RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR.ResultsOur findings revealed that two children (2.0%) were IgM positive and another five children (5.1%) were positive for IgG antibodies. None of the five infants of which enough oral fluid was available for RNA investigation was PCR positive.ConclusionsThis study documented the presence of CRS in Sudan and highlighted the importance of rubella vaccine introduction for preventing future CRS cases in the country.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 06/2014; 14(1):305. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-305 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influenza pH1N1 virus caused a global flu pandemic in 2009 and continues manifestation as a seasonal virus. Better understanding of the virus-host cell interaction could result in development of better prevention and treatment options. Here we show that Akt inhibitor MK2206, blocks influenza pH1N1 virus infection in vitro. In particular, at non-cytotoxic concentrations MK2206 alters Akt signaling and inhibits endocytic uptake of the virus. Interestingly, MK2206 is unable to inhibit H3N2, H7N9 and H5N1 viruses indicating that pH1N1 evolved specific requirements for efficient infection. Thus, Akt signaling could be exploited further for development of better therapeutics against pH1N1 virus.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2014; 58(7). DOI:10.1128/AAC.02798-13 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several viruses, amongst others human papillomaviruses, depend on endosomal acidification for successful infection. Hence, the multi-subunit enzyme vacuolar ATPase, which is mainly responsible for endosome acidification in the cell, represents an attractive target for antiviral strategies. In the present study we show that V-ATPase is required for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and that uncoating/disassembly, but not endocytosis, is affected by V-ATPase inhibition. The infection inhibitory potency of Saliphenylhalamide, a proven V-ATPase inhibitor, its derivatives and other V-ATPase inhibitors was analyzed on different HPV types in relevant cell lines. Variation in the selectivity index among V-ATPase inhibitors was high while variation for the same inhibitor against different HPV subtypes was low indicating that broad-spectrum anti-HPV activity can be provided.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2014; 58(5). DOI:10.1128/AAC.02284-13 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection that aggravates acute and chronic liver disease. While HBV seroprevalence is very high across sub-Saharan Africa, much less is known about HDV in the region. In this study almost 2300 serum samples from Burkina Faso (n=1131), Nigeria (n=974), Chad (n=50) and the Central African Republic (n=118) were screened for HBV and HDV. Among 743 HBsAg positive sera 74 were positive for HDV-antibodies and/or HDV-RNA, with considerable differences in prevalence, ranging from <2% (pregnant women from Burkina Faso) to 50% (liver patients from Central African Republic). HDV seems to be a lot more frequent in chronic liver disease patients in CAR than in the similar cohorts in Nigeria. In a large nested mother-child cohort in Burkina Faso the prevalence of HDV antibodies was ten times higher in the children than in the mother, despite similar HBsAg prevalences, excluding vertical transmission as an important route of infection.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 03/2014; 52(5). DOI:10.1128/JCM.02297-13 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), mumps is not a notifiable disease and mumps vaccine is currently not included in the routine childhood immunization program. In order to assess the burden of disease, we investigated the seroprevalence of mumps-specific IgG antibodies across four provinces. In addition, we genetically characterized mumps viruses from the past 3 years from several outbreaks and single cases. Blood and/or throat swabs from suspected cases were investigated for specific IgM antibodies or viral RNA. Mumps cases occurred between March and November in 2011-2013 and 5-15 year olds were most affected. Four sequences from an outbreak in the North of Lao PDR in 2011 were identical and belonged to genotype G. Eight sequences from two outbreaks and two individual cases from 2012 and 2013 belonged to genotype J. In addition, sera collected from 2379 healthy infants and school pupils between 9 months and 19 years and from pregnant women between 16 and 46 years were investigated for mumps-specific IgG. Overall, 58.2% were positive, 39.5% were negative and the remaining 2.3% were equivocal. The seropositivity increased with age, with the lowest percentage found in the <1 year old infants (9.1%) and the highest in the cohort of pregnant women (69.2%). More females than males were seropositive (60.4 versus 54.9%). There were some differences between the locations. Mumps should be a notifiable disease in Lao PDR to get more accurate case numbers and cost estimates for public health and vaccination of children and high-risk groups should be considered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 02/2014; 20(10). DOI:10.1111/1469-0691.12586 · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant-based antivirals.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e88062. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0088062 · 3.53 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    ABSTRACT: GR transcripts display a remarkable heterogeneity in their 5’ untranslated regions (5’UTRs). These variable 5’UTRs are encoded by a series of alternative 1st exons, and together with their associated promoters they maintain tissue-specific GR expression levels. In this study we over-expressed GR transcripts containing individual 1st exons, and assessed their effect on RNA stability, 3’-splicing, translation initiation and protein isoform production. We showed that these alternative 5’UTRs influence the predicted mRNA structure and free energy, and were associated with differential levels of functional spliced mRNA. However, the 5’UTR had little influence on the relative levels of the two principal 3’ splice transcripts, GR-α and -β. The overall mRNA length, the free energy of the transcript and the translational efficiency directly influenced total GR levels. However, individual N-terminal protein isoform levels appeared to depend upon elements within the 5’UTR. Membrane-GR specific labelling suggested that the mGR originates from transcripts containing exon 1D and possibly 1H, although the specific trafficking sequences or structures within these transcripts remains unidentified. The role of the alternative first exons and their associated 5’UTRs has now been expanded to translational control, influencing total GR levels, individual constituent isoform levels, as well as trafficking to the cell surface.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 01/2014; · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neutralizing antibodies against different swine influenza A viruses and pandemic H1N1 were analyzed in pigs before and after the pandemic. While in 2009 neutralization of the pandemic virus could be explained by cross-reaction with swine influenza viruses this was not the case in at least 2 farms in 2012.
    Veterinary Microbiology 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.12.009 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite its wide spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa, hepatitis B virus genotype E (HBV/E) has a surprisingly low genetic diversity, indicating an only recent emergence of this genotype in the general African population. Here, we performed extensive phylogeographic analyses, including Bayesian MCMC modeling. Our results indicate a mutation rate of 1.9×10(-4) substitutions per site and year (s/s/y) and confirm a recent emergence of HBV/E, most likely within the last 130 years, and only after the transatlantic slave-trade had come to an end. Our analyses suggest that HBV/E originated from the area of Nigeria, before rapidly spreading throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Interestingly, viral strains found in Haiti seem to be the result of multiple introductions only in the second half of the 20th century, corroborating an absence of a significant number of HBV/E strains in West Africa several centuries ago. Our results confirm that the hyperendemicity of HBV(E) in today's Africa is a recent phenomenon and likely the result of dramatic changes in the routes of viral transmission in a relatively recent past.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e81690. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081690 · 3.53 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    ABSTRACT: In West and Central Africa, virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of recently identified genotypes XIV, XVII and XVIII are enzootic in poultry, representing a considerable threat to the sector. The increasing number of reports of virulent strains in wild birds at least in other parts of the world raised the question of a potential role of wild birds in the spread of virulent NDV also in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated 1723 asymptomatic birds sampled at live bird markets and important sites for wild bird conservation in Nigeria and 19 sick or dead wild birds in Côte d'Ivoire for NDV class I and II. Typical avirulent wild-type genotype I strains were found in wild waterfowl in wetlands in Northeastern Nigeria. They were unrelated to vaccine strains, and the involvement of inter- or intra-continental migratory birds in their circulation in the region is suggested. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that genotype VI strains found in pigeons, including some putative new subgenotype VIh and VIi strains, were introduced on multiple separate occasions in Nigeria. A single virulent genotype XVIII strain was found in a dead wild bird in Côte d'Ivoire, probably as a result of a spill back from sick poultry. In conclusion, screening of wild birds and pigeons for NDV revealed the presence a variety of virulent and avirulent strains in West Africa but did not yet provide strong evidence that wild birds play an important role in the spread of virulent strains in the region.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10/2013; DOI:10.1128/AEM.02716-13 · 3.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
977.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • LIH Luxembourg Institute of Health
      Letzeburg, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
    • National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Bulgaria
      Ulpia Serdica, Sofia-Capital, Bulgaria
  • 2005–2014
    • Universität Trier
      • Institute of Psychobiology
      Trier, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
    • Catholic University of Louvain
      Лувен-ла-Нев, Walloon, Belgium
  • 2013
    • University of Lorraine
      Nancy, Lorraine, France
    • Chiang Mai University
      • Department of Pathology
      Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
  • 2012
    • Republican Research and Practical Center for Epidemiology & Microbiology
      Myenyesk, Minsk, Belarus
  • 2009–2012
    • Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology
      • Environment and Agro-Biotechnologies Department (EVA)
      Belvaux, District de Luxembourg, Luxembourg
    • Hospices Civils de Lyon
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
    • Gezond Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2004–2012
    • University of Ibadan
      • • Department of Chemical Pathology & Immunology
      • • Department of Veterinary Medicine
      • • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
      Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria
  • 2010
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
  • 1994–2010
    • Laboratoire National de Santé
      Letzeburg, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
  • 2008
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2007
    • University of Luxembourg
      Letzeburg, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
    • Institut Pasteur de Tunis
      Tunis-Ville, Tūnis, Tunisia
  • 2006
    • University of Lagos
      Eko, Lagos, Nigeria
  • 1999
    • Université Libre de Bruxelles
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
  • 1998
    • University of Leuven
      Louvain, Flemish, Belgium
  • 1990–1998
    • University of Tuebingen
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Institute of Inorganic Chemistry
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1997
    • University of Lausanne
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Lausanne, VD, Switzerland