[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nuclear factor κB (NF-κΒ) subunits RelA, RelB, cRel, p50, and p52 are each critical for B cell development and function. To systematically characterize their responses to canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathway activity, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis in lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs). We found a complex NF-κB-binding landscape, which did not readily reflect the two NF-κB pathway paradigms. Instead, 10 subunit-binding patterns were observed at promoters and 11 at enhancers. Nearly one-third of NF-κB-binding sites lacked κB motifs and were instead enriched for alternative motifs. The oncogenic forkhead box protein FOXM1 co-occupied nearly half of NF-κB-binding sites and was identified in protein complexes with NF-κB on DNA. FOXM1 knockdown decreased NF-κB target gene expression and ultimately induced apoptosis, highlighting FOXM1 as a synthetic lethal target in B cell malignancy. These studies provide a resource for understanding mechanisms that underlie NF-κB nuclear activity and highlight opportunities for selective NF-κB blockade.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRAFs constitute a family of proteins that have been implicated in signal transduction by immunomodulatory cellular receptors and viral proteins. TRAF2 and TRAF6 have an E3-ubiquitin ligase activity, which is dependent on the integrity of their RING finger domain and it has been associated with their ability to activate the NF-κB and AP1 signaling pathways. A yeast two-hybrid screen with TRAF2 as bait, identified the regulatory subunit PP4R1 of protein phosphatase PP4 as a TRAF2-interacting protein. The interaction of TRAF2 with PP4R1 depended on the integrity of the RING finger domain of TRAF2. PP4R1 could interact also with the TRAF2-related factor TRAF6 in a RING domain-dependent manner. Exogenous expression of PP4R1 inhibited NF-κB activation by TRAF2, TRAF6, TNF and the Epstein-Barr virus oncoprotein LMP1. In addition, expression of PP4R1 downregulated IL8 induction by LMP1, whereas downregulation of PP4R1 by RNA interference enhanced the induction of IL8 by LMP1 and TNF. PP4R1 could mediate the dephosphorylation of TRAF2 Ser11, which has been previously implicated in TRAF2-mediated activation of NF-κB. Finally, PP4R1 could inhibit TRAF6 polyubiquitination, indicating an interference with the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of TRAF6. Taken together, our data identify a novel mechanism of NF-κB pathway inhibition which is mediated by PP4R1-dependent targeting of specific TRAF molecules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The replication and persistence of extra chromosomal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episome in latently infected cells are primarily dependent on the binding of EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) to the cognate EBV oriP element. In continuation of the previous study, herein we characterized EBNA1 small molecule inhibitors (H20, H31) and their underlying inhibitory mechanisms. In silico docking analyses predicted that H20 fits into a pocket in the EBNA1 DNA binding domain (DBD). However, H20 did not significantly affect EBNA1 binding to its cognate sequence. A limited structure-relationship study of H20 identified a hydrophobic compound H31, as an EBNA1 inhibitor. An in vitro EBNA1 EMSA and in vivo EGFP-EBNA1 confocal microscopy analysis showed that H31 inhibited EBNA1-dependent oriP sequence-specific DNA binding activity, but not sequence-nonspecific chromosomal association. Consistent with this, H31 repressed the EBNA1-dependent transcription, replication, and persistence of an EBV oriP plasmid. Furthermore, H31 induced progressive loss of EBV episome. In addition, H31 selectively retarded the growth of EBV-infected LCL or Burkitt's lymphoma cells. These data indicate that H31 inhibition of EBNA1-dependent DNA binding decreases transcription from and persistence of EBV episome in EBV-infected cells. These new compounds might be useful probes for dissecting EBNA1 functions in vitro and in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) repression of CDKN2A p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A) is essential for immortal human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) growth. EBNA3C ChIP-sequencing identified >13,000 EBNA3C sites in LCL DNA. Most EBNA3C sites were associated with active transcription; 64% were strong H3K4me1- and H3K27ac-marked enhancers and 16% were active promoters marked by H3K4me3 and H3K9ac. Using ENCODE LCL transcription factor ChIP-sequencing data, EBNA3C sites coincided (±250 bp) with RUNX3 (64%), BATF (55%), ATF2 (51%), IRF4 (41%), MEF2A (35%), PAX5 (34%), SPI1 (29%), BCL11a (28%), SP1 (26%), TCF12 (23%), NF-κB (23%), POU2F2 (23%), and RBPJ (16%). EBNA3C sites separated into five distinct clusters: (i) Sin3A, (ii) EBNA2/RBPJ, (iii) SPI1, and (iv) strong or (v) weak BATF/IRF4. EBNA3C signals were positively affected by RUNX3, BATF/IRF4 (AICE) and SPI1/IRF4 (EICE) cooccupancy. Gene set enrichment analyses correlated EBNA3C/Sin3A promoter sites with transcription down-regulation (P < 1.6 × 10(-4)). EBNA3C signals were strongest at BATF/IRF4 and SPI1/IRF4 composite sites. EBNA3C bound strongly to the p14(ARF) promoter through SPI1/IRF4/BATF/RUNX3, establishing RBPJ-, Sin3A-, and REST-mediated repression. EBNA3C immune precipitated with Sin3A and conditional EBNA3C inactivation significantly decreased Sin3A binding at the p14(ARF) promoter (P < 0.05). These data support a model in which EBNA3C binds strongly to BATF/IRF4/SPI1/RUNX3 sites to enhance transcription and recruits RBPJ/Sin3A- and REST/NRSF-repressive complexes to repress p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A) expression.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is essential for EBV episome maintenance, replication, and transcription. These effects are mediated by EBNA1 binding to cognate oriP DNA, which comprise 20 imperfect copies of a 30-bp dyad symmetry enhancer and an origin for DNA replication. To identify cell proteins essential for these EBNA1 functions, EBNA1 associated cell proteins were immune precipitated and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Nucleolin (NCL) was identified to be EBNA1 associated. EBNA1's N-terminal 100 aa and NCL's RNA-binding domains were critical for EBNA1/NCL interaction. Lentivirus shRNA-mediated NCL depletion substantially reduced EBNA1 recruitment to oriP DNA, EBNA1-dependent transcription of an EBV oriP luciferase reporter, and EBV genome maintenance in lymphoblastoid cell lines. NCL RNA-binding domain K429 was critical for ATP and EBNA1 binding. NCL overexpression increased EBNA1 binding to oriP and transcription, whereas NCL K429A was deficient. Moreover, NCL silencing impaired lymphoblastoid cell line growth. These experiments reveal a surprisingly critical role for NCL K429 in EBNA1 episome maintenance and transcription, which may be a target for therapeutic intervention.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that IL-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK1) is essential for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-induced p65/RelA serine 536 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation, but not for IKKα or β activation (1). Since the kinase activity of IRAK1 is not required for LMP1-induced NF-κB activation, IRAK1 is proposed to function as a scaffold protein to recruit a p65/RelA serine 536 kinase(s) to enhance NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity. We now report that Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) interacts with IRAK1 and is critical for LMP1-induced p65/RelA serine 536 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. CaMKII bound the death domain of IRAK1 and directly phosphorylated p65/RelA at serine 536 in vitro. Down-regulation of CaMKII activity or expression significantly reduced LMP1-induced p65/RelA serine 536 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, LMP1-induced CaMKII activation and p65/RelA serine 536 phosphorylation were significantly reduced in IRAK1 knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Thus, IRAK1 may recruit and activate CaMKII which phosphorylates p65/RelA serine 536 to enhance the transactivation potential of NF-κB in LMP1-induced NF-κB activation pathway.
Molecular and cellular biology 11/2013; · 6.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigens EBNALP (LP) and EBNA2 (E2) are coexpressed in EBV-infected B lymphocytes and are critical for lymphoblastoid cell line outgrowth. LP removes NCOR and RBPJ repressive complexes from promoters, enhancers, and matrix-associated deacetylase bodies, whereas E2 activates transcription from distal enhancers. LP ChIP-seq analyses identified 19,224 LP sites of which ∼50% were ±2 kb of a transcriptional start site. LP sites were enriched for B-cell transcription factors (TFs), YY1, SP1, PAX5, BATF, IRF4, ETS1, RAD21, PU.1, CTCF, RBPJ, ZNF143, SMC3, NFκB, TBLR, and EBF. E2 sites were also highly enriched for LP-associated cell TFs and were more highly occupied by RBPJ and EBF. LP sites were highly marked by H3K4me3, H3K27ac, H2Az, H3K9ac, RNAPII, and P300, indicative of activated transcription. LP sites were 29% colocalized with E2 (LP/E2). LP/E2 sites were more similar to LP than to E2 sites in associated cell TFs, RNAPII, P300, and histone H3K4me3, H3K9ac, H3K27ac, and H2Az occupancy, and were more highly transcribed than LP or E2 sites. Gene affected by CTCF and LP cooccupancy were more highly expressed than genes affected by CTCF alone. LP was at myc enhancers and promoters and of MYC regulated ccnd2, 23 med complex components, and MYC regulated cell survival genes, igf2r and bcl2. These data implicate LP and associated TFs and DNA looping factors CTCF, RAD21, SMC3, and YY1/INO80 chromatin-remodeling complexes in repressor depletion and gene activation necessary for lymphoblastoid cell line growth and survival.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) is essential for the organism's virulence, but the effectors required for intestinal colonization and induction of diarrhea by this pathogen have not been identified. Here, we identify a type III secretion system (T3SS2)-secreted effector, VopZ, that is essential for V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity. VopZ plays distinct, genetically separable roles in enabling intestinal colonization and diarrheagenesis. Truncation of VopZ prevents V. parahaemolyticus colonization, whereas deletion of VopZ amino acids 38-62 abrogates V. parahaemolyticus-induced diarrhea and intestinal pathology but does not impair colonization. VopZ inhibits activation of the kinase TAK1 and thereby prevents the activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, which lie downstream. In contrast, the VopZ internal deletion mutant cannot counter the activation of pathways regulated by TAK1. Collectively, our findings suggest that VopZ's inhibition of TAK1 is critical for V. parahaemolyticus to induce diarrhea and intestinal pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) 2 features an Arg-Gly repeat (RG) domain at amino acid positions 335-360, which is a known target for protein arginine methyltransferaser 5 (PRMT5). In this study, we performed protein affinity pull-down assays to demonstrate that endogenous PRMT5 derived from lymphoblastoid cells specifically associated with the protein bait GST-E2 RG. Transfection of a plasmid expressing PRMT5 induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in EBNA2-dependent transcription of both the LMP1 promoter in AKATA cells, which contain the EBV genome endogenously, and a Cp-Luc reporter plasmid in BJAB cells, which are EBV negative. Furthermore, we showed that there was a 2-fold enrichment of EBNA2 occupancy in target promoters in the presence of exogenous PRMT5. Taken together, we show that PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of EBNA2 RG domain to coordinate with EBNA2-mediated transcription. This modulation suggests that PRMT5 may play a role in latent EBV infection.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2012; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Germinal centers (GCs) are specialized microenvironments in secondary lymphoid organs where high-affinity antibody-producing B cells are selected based on B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signal strength. BCR signaling required for normal GC selection is uncertain. We have found that protein kinase N1 (PKN1, also known as PRK1) negatively regulates Akt kinase downstream of the BCR and that this regulation is necessary for normal GC development. PKN1 interacted with and inhibited Akt1 kinase and transforming activities. Pkn1(-/-) B cells were hyperresponsive and had increased phosphorylated Akt1 levels upon BCR stimulation. In the absence of immunization or infection, Pkn1(-/-) mice spontaneously formed GCs and developed an autoimmune-like disease with age, which was characterized by autoantibody production and glomerulonephritis. More B cells, with fewer somatic BCR gene V region hypermutations were selected in Pkn1(-/-) GCs. These results indicate that PKN1 down-regulation of BCR-activated Akt activity is critical for normal GC B-cell survival and selection.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2012; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is an oncogenic γ-herpesvirus that capably establishes both latent and lytic modes of infection in host cells and causes malignant diseases in humans. Nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2)-mediated transcription of both cellular and viral genes is essential for the establishment and maintenance of the EBV latency program in B lymphocytes. Here, we employed a protein affinity pull-down and LC-MS/MS analysis to identify nucleophosmin (NPM1) as one of the cellular proteins bound to EBNA2. Additionally, the specific domains that are responsible for protein-protein interactions were characterized as EBNA2 residues 300 to 360 and the oligomerization domain (OD) of NPM1. As in c-MYC, dramatic NPM1 expression was induced in EBV positively infected B cells after three days of viral infection, and both EBNA2 and EBNALP were implicated in the transactivation of the NPM1 promoter. Depletion of NPM1 with the lentivirus-expressed short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) effectively abrogated EBNA2-dependent transcription and transformation outgrowth of lymphoblastoid cells. Notably, the ATP-bound state of NPM1 was required to induce assembly of a protein complex containing EBNA2, RBP-Jκ, and NPM1 by stabilizing the interaction of EBNA2 with RBP-Jκ. In a NPM1-knockdown cell line, we demonstrated that an EBNA2-mediated transcription defect was fully restored by the ectopic expression of NPM1. Our findings highlight the essential role of NPM1 in chaperoning EBNA2 onto the latency-associated membrane protein 1 (LMP1) promoters, which is coordinated with the subsequent activation of transcriptional cascades through RBP-Jκ during EBV infection. These data advance our understanding of EBV pathology and further imply that NPM1 can be exploited as a therapeutic target for EBV-associated diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genotypic differences greatly influence susceptibility and resistance to disease. Understanding genotype-phenotype relationships requires that phenotypes be viewed as manifestations of network properties, rather than simply as the result of individual genomic variations. Genome sequencing efforts have identified numerous germline mutations, and large numbers of somatic genomic alterations, associated with a predisposition to cancer. However, it remains difficult to distinguish background, or 'passenger', cancer mutations from causal, or 'driver', mutations in these data sets. Human viruses intrinsically depend on their host cell during the course of infection and can elicit pathological phenotypes similar to those arising from mutations. Here we test the hypothesis that genomic variations and tumour viruses may cause cancer through related mechanisms, by systematically examining host interactome and transcriptome network perturbations caused by DNA tumour virus proteins. The resulting integrated viral perturbation data reflects rewiring of the host cell networks, and highlights pathways, such as Notch signalling and apoptosis, that go awry in cancer. We show that systematic analyses of host targets of viral proteins can identify cancer genes with a success rate on a par with their identification through functional genomics and large-scale cataloguing of tumour mutations. Together, these complementary approaches increase the specificity of cancer gene identification. Combining systems-level studies of pathogen-encoded gene products with genomic approaches will facilitate the prioritization of cancer-causing driver genes to advance the understanding of the genetic basis of human cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with human B cell lymphomas and certain carcinomas. EBV episome persistence, replication, and gene expression are dependent on EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)'s DNA binding domain (DBD)/dimerization domain (DD)-mediated sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Homodimerization of EBNA1 is essential for EBNA1 DNA binding and transactivation. In this study, we characterized a novel small molecule EBNA1 inhibitor EiK1, screened from the previous high throughput screening (HTS). The EiK1 compound specifically inhibited the EBNA1-dependent, OriP-enhanced transcription, but not EBNA1-independent transcription. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Biacore assay revealed that EiK1 associates with EBNA1 amino acid 459-607 DBD/DD. Consistent with the SPR data, in vitro gel shift assays showed that EiK1 suppressed the activity of EBNA1 binding to the cognate familial repeats (FR) sequence, but not control RBP-Jκ binding to the Jκ site. Subsequently, a cross-linker-mediated in vitro multimerization assay and EBNA1 homodimerization-dependent yeast two-hybrid assay showed that EiK1 significantly inhibited EBNA1 dimerization. In an attempt to identify more highly specific peptide inhibitors, small peptides encompassing the EBNA1 DBD/DD were screened for inhibition of EBNA1 DBD-mediated DNA binding function. The small peptide P85, covering EBNA1 a.a. 560-574, significantly blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity in vitro, prevented dimerization in vitro and in vivo, associated with EBNA1 in vitro, and repressed EBNA1-dependent transcription in vivo. Collectively, this study describes two novel inhibitors of EBNA1 dimerization. This study demonstrates that EBNA1 homodimerization can be effectively targeted by a small molecule or peptide.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2012; 424(2):251-6. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although canonical NFκB is frequently critical for cell proliferation, survival, or differentiation, NFκB hyperactivation can cause malignant, inflammatory, or autoimmune disorders. Despite intensive study, mammalian NFκB pathway loss-of-function RNAi analyses have been limited to specific protein classes. We therefore undertook a human genome-wide siRNA screen for novel NFκB activation pathway components. Using an Epstein Barr virus latent membrane protein (LMP1) mutant, the transcriptional effects of which are canonical NFκB-dependent, we identified 155 proteins significantly and substantially important for NFκB activation in HEK293 cells. These proteins included many kinases, phosphatases, ubiquitin ligases, and deubiquinating enzymes not previously known to be important for NFκB activation. Relevance to other canonical NFκB pathways was extended by finding that 118 of the 155 LMP1 NF-κB activation pathway components were similarly important for IL-1β-, and 79 for TNFα-mediated NFκB activation in the same cells. MAP3K8, PIM3, and six other enzymes were uniquely relevant to LMP1-mediated NFκB activation. Most novel pathway components functioned upstream of IκB kinase complex (IKK) activation. Robust siRNA knockdown effects were confirmed for all mRNAs or proteins tested. Although multiple ZC3H-family proteins negatively regulate NFκB, ZC3H13 and ZC3H18 were activation pathway components. ZC3H13 was critical for LMP1, TNFα, and IL-1β NFκB-dependent transcription, but not for IKK activation, whereas ZC3H18 was critical for IKK activation. Down-modulators of LMP1 mediated NFκB activation were also identified. These experiments identify multiple targets to inhibit or stimulate LMP1-, IL-1β-, or TNFα-mediated canonical NFκB activation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2012; 109(7):2467-72. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) regulation of transcription through the cell transcription factor RBPJ is essential for resting B-lymphocyte (RBL) conversion to immortal lymphoblast cell lines (LCLs). ChIP-seq of EBNA2 and RBPJ sites in LCL DNA found EBNA2 at 5,151 and RBPJ at 10,529 sites. EBNA2 sites were enriched for RBPJ (78%), early B-cell factor (EBF, 39%), RUNX (43%), ETS (39%), NFκB (22%), and PU.1 (22%) motifs. These motif associations were confirmed by LCL RBPJ ChIP-seq finding 72% RBPJ occupancy and Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements LCL ChIP-seq finding EBF, NFκB RELA, and PU.1 at 54%, 31%, and 17% of EBNA2 sites. EBNA2 and RBPJ were predominantly at intergene and intron sites and only 14% at promoter sites. K-means clustering of EBNA2 site transcription factors identified RELA-ETS, EBF-RUNX, EBF, ETS, RBPJ, and repressive RUNX clusters, which ranked from highest to lowest in H3K4me1 signals and nucleosome depletion, indicative of active chromatin. Surprisingly, although quantitatively less, the same genome sites in RBLs exhibited similar high-level H3K4me1 signals and nucleosome depletion. The EBV genome also had an LMP1 promoter EBF site, which proved critical for EBNA2 activation. LCL HiC data mapped intergenic EBNA2 sites to EBNA2 up-regulated genes. FISH and chromatin conformation capture linked EBNA2/RBPJ enhancers 428 kb 5' of MYC to MYC. These data indicate that EBNA2 evolved to target RBL H3K4me1 modified, nucleosome-depleted, nonpromoter sites to drive B-lymphocyte proliferation in primary human infection. The primed RBL program likely supports antigen-induced proliferation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2011; 108(36):14902-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Notch1 regulates gene expression by associating with the DNA-binding factor RBPJ and is oncogenic in murine and human T-cell progenitors. Using ChIP-Seq, we find that in human and murine T-lymphoblastic leukemia (TLL) genomes Notch1 binds preferentially to promoters, to RBPJ binding sites, and near imputed ZNF143, ETS, and RUNX sites. ChIP-Seq confirmed that ZNF143 binds to ∼40% of Notch1 sites. Notch1/ZNF143 sites are characterized by high Notch1 and ZNF143 signals, frequent cobinding of RBPJ (generally through sites embedded within ZNF143 motifs), strong promoter bias, and relatively low mean levels of activating chromatin marks. RBPJ and ZNF143 binding to DNA is mutually exclusive in vitro, suggesting RBPJ/Notch1 and ZNF143 complexes exchange on these sites in cells. K-means clustering of Notch1 binding sites and associated motifs identified conserved Notch1-RUNX, Notch1-ETS, Notch1-RBPJ, Notch1-ZNF143, and Notch1-ZNF143-ETS clusters with different genomic distributions and levels of chromatin marks. Although Notch1 binds mainly to gene promoters, ∼75% of direct target genes lack promoter binding and are presumably regulated by enhancers, which were identified near MYC, DTX1, IGF1R, IL7R, and the GIMAP cluster. Human and murine TLL genomes also have many sites that bind only RBPJ. Murine RBPJ-only sites are highly enriched for imputed REST (a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor) sites, whereas human RPBJ-only sites lack REST motifs and are more highly enriched for imputed CREB sites. Thus, there is a conserved network of cis-regulatory factors that interacts with Notch1 to regulate gene expression in TLL cells, as well as unique classes of divergent RBPJ-only sites that also likely regulate transcription.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2011; 108(36):14908-13. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) transforms rodent fibroblasts and is expressed in most EBV-associated malignancies. LMP1 (transformation effector site 2 [TES2]/C-terminal activation region 2 [CTAR2]) activates NF-κB, p38, Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) pathways. We have investigated LMP1 TES2 genome-wide RNA effects at 4 time points after LMP1 TES2 expression in HEK-293 cells. By using a false discovery rate (FDR) of <0.001 after correction for multiple hypotheses, LMP1 TES2 caused >2-fold changes in 1,916 mRNAs; 1,479 RNAs were upregulated and 437 were downregulated. In contrast to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulation, which transiently upregulates many target genes, LMP1 TES2 maintained most RNA effects through the time course, despite robust and sustained induction of negative feedback regulators, such as IκBα and A20. LMP1 TES2-regulated RNAs encode many NF-κB signaling proteins and secondary interacting proteins. Consequently, many LMP1 TES2-regulated RNAs encode proteins that form an extensive interactome. Gene set enrichment analyses found LMP1 TES2-upregulated genes to be significantly enriched for pathways in cancer, B- and T-cell receptor signaling, and Toll-like receptor signaling. Surprisingly, LMP1 TES2 and IκBα superrepressor coexpression decreased LMP1 TES2 RNA effects to only 5 RNAs, with FDRs of <0.001-fold and >2-fold changes. Thus, canonical NF-κB activation is critical for almost all LMP1 TES2 RNA effects in HEK-293 cells and a more significant therapeutic target than previously appreciated.
Journal of Virology 07/2011; 85(13):6764-73. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency III (LTIII) infection, BHRF1 encodes three microRNAs (miRNAs). Herein we report that Drosha cleavage of LTIII BHRF1 RNA and cis-acting splicing effects inhibit splicing and inhibit BHRF1 RNA and protein expression. Evidence shown here supports the view that Drosha cleavage to generate mature miRNAs and cis-acting sequences that prevent mRNA maturation are independent processes that prevent LTIII BHRF1 expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines.
Journal of Virology 06/2011; 85(17):8929-39. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ubiquitous Epstein Barr virus (EBV) exploits human B-cell development to establish a persistent infection in ∼90% of the world population. Constitutive activation of NF-κB by the viral oncogene latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) has an important role in persistence, but is a risk factor for EBV-associated lymphomas. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous LMP1 escapes degradation upon accumulation within intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes and secretion via exosomes. LMP1 associates and traffics with the intracellular tetraspanin CD63 into vesicles that lack MHC II and sustain low cholesterol levels, even in 'cholesterol-trapping' conditions. The lipid-raft anchoring sequence FWLY, nor ubiquitylation of the N-terminus, controls LMP1 sorting into exosomes. Rather, C-terminal modifications that retain LMP1 in Golgi compartments preclude assembly within CD63-enriched domains and/or exosomal discharge leading to NF-κB overstimulation. Interference through shRNAs further proved the antagonizing role of CD63 in LMP1-mediated signalling. Thus, LMP1 exploits CD63-enriched microdomains to restrain downstream NF-κB activation by promoting trafficking in the endosomal-exosomal pathway. CD63 is thus a critical mediator of LMP1 function in- and outside-infected (tumour) cells.
The EMBO Journal 06/2011; 30(11):2115-29. · 9.82 Impact Factor