[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BMP-2 is approved for fracture non-union and spine fusion. We aimed to further dissect its downstream signaling events in chondrocytes with the ultimate goal to develop novel therapeutics that can mimic BMP-2 effect but have less complications.
BMP-2 effect on COX-2 expression was examined using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Genetic approach was used to identify the signaling pathway mediating the BMP-2 effect. Similarly, the pathway transducing the PGE2 effect on ATF4 was investigated. Immunoprecipitation was performed to assess the complex formation after PGE2 binding.
BMP-2 increased COX-2 expression in primary mouse costosternal chondrocytes (PMCSC). The results from the C9 Tet-off system demonstrated that endogenous BMP-2 also upregulated COX-2 expression. Genetic approaches using PMCSC from ALK2(fx/fx), ALK3(fx/fx), ALK6 (-/-), and Smad1(fx/fx) mice established that BMP-2 regulated COX-2 through activation of ALK3-Smad1 signaling. PGE-2 EIA showed that BMP-2 increased PGE2 production in PMCSC. ATF4 is a transcription factor that regulates bone formation. While PGE2 did not have significant effect on ATF4 expression, it induced ATF4 phosphorylation. In addition to stimulating COX-2 expression, BMP-2 also induced phosphorylation of ATF4. Using COX-2 deficient chondrocytes, we demonstrated that the BMP-2 effect on ATF4 was COX-2-dependent. Tibial fracture samples from COX-2(-/-) mice showed reduced phospho-ATF4 immunoreactivity compared to WT ones. PGE2 mediated ATF4 phosphorylation involved signaling primarily through the EP2 and EP4 receptors and PGE2 induced an EP4-ERK1/2-RSK2 complex formation.
BMP-2 regulates COX-2 expression through ALK3-Smad1 signaling, and PGE2 induces ATF4 phosphorylation via EP4-ERK1/2-RSK2 axis.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 01/2014; · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To investigate whether β-catenin signaling in chondrocytes regulates osteoclastogenesis, thereby contributing to postnatal bone growth and bone remodeling. Methods
Mice with conditional knockout (cKO) or conditional activation (cAct) of chondrocyte-specific β-catenin were generated. Changes in bone mass, osteoclast numbers, and osteoblast activity were examined. The mechanisms by which β-catenin signaling in chondrocytes regulates osteoclast formation were determined. ResultsThe β-catenin cKO mice developed localized bone loss, whereas cAct mice developed a high bone mass phenotype. Histologic findings suggested that these phenotypes were caused primarily by impaired osteoclast formation, rather than impaired bone formation. Further molecular signaling analyses revealed that β-catenin signaling controlled this process by regulating the expression of the RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG) genes in chondrocytes. Activation of β-catenin signaling in chondrocytes suppressed Rankl gene transcription through a glucocorticoid receptor–dependent mechanism. The severe bone loss phenotype observed in β-catenin cKO mice was largely restored by treatment with human recombinant OPG or transgenic overexpression of Opg in chondrocytes. Conclusionβ-catenin signaling in chondrocytes plays a key role in postnatal bone growth and bone remodeling through its regulation of osteoclast formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB), a multi-functional peptide, was recently demonstrated to be anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory in human articular cartilage. LfcinB blocks interleukin-1 (IL-1)-mediated proteoglycan depletion, matrix-degrading enzyme expression, and pro-inflammatory mediator induction. LfcinB selectively activates ERK1/2, p38 (but not JNK), and Akt signaling. However, the relationship between these pathways and LfcinB target genes has never been explored. In this study, we uncovered the remarkable ability of LfcinB in the induction of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-11. LfcinB binds to cell surface heparan sulfate to initiate ERK1/2 signaling and activate AP-1 complexes composed of c-Fos and JunD, which transactivate the IL-11 gene. The induced IL-11 functions as an anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective cytokine in articular chondrocytes. Our data show that IL-11 directly attenuates IL-1-mediated catabolic and inflammatory processes ex vivo and in vitro. Moreover, IL-11 activates Stat3 signaling pathway to critically upregulate TIMP-1 expression, as a consecutive secondary cellular response after IL-11 induction by LfcinB-ERK-AP-1 axis in human adult articular chondrocytes. The pathological relevance of IL-11 signaling to osteoarthritis (OA) is evidenced by significant downregulation of its cognate receptor expression in OA chondrocytes. Together our results suggest a two-step mechanism, whereby LfcinB induces TIMP-1 through an IL-11-dependent pathway involving transcription factor AP-1 and Stat3.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal osteoclast formation and osteolysis are a hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM) bone disease, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we show that the AKT pathway was dramatically up-regulated in primary bone marrow monocytes (BMM) from MM patients, which resulted in sustained high expression of receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) in osteoclast precursors. The increased RANK expression and osteoclast formation in the MM BMMs were inhibited by AKT inhibition. Conditioned media from MM cell cultures activated AKT and increased RANK expression and osteoclast formation in BMM cultures. In vivo studies revealed that AKT inhibition dramatically blocked the formation of tumor tissue in the bone marrow cavity and essentially abolished the MM-induced osteoclast formation and osteolysis in SCID mice. The level of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) protein, which was up-regulated by AKT and activated RANK expression in osteoclast precursors, was dramatically increased in BMM cultures from MM patients. These results demonstrate a new role of AKT in the MM promotion of osteoclast formation and bone osteolysis through, at least in part, the ATF4-dependent up-regulation of RANK expression in osteoclast precursors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertriglyceridemia is the most common lipid disorder in obesity and type 2 diabetes. It results from increased production and/or decreased clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. To better understand the pathophysiology of hypertriglyceridemia, we studied hepatic regulation of triglyceride metabolism by the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a member of the basic leucine zipper-containing protein subfamily. We determined the effect of ATF4 on hepatic lipid metabolism in Atf4(-/-) mice fed regular chow or provided with free access to fructose drinking water. ATF4 depletion preferentially attenuated hepatic lipogenesis without affecting hepatic triglyceride production and fatty acid oxidation. This effect prevented excessive fat accumulation in the liver of Atf4(-/-) mice, when compared to wild-type littermates. To gain insight into the underlying mechanism, we showed that ATF4 depletion resulted in a significant reduction in hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), a nuclear receptor that acts to promote lipogenesis in the liver. This effect was accompanied by a significant reduction in hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), three key functions in the lipogenic pathway, in Atf4(-/-) mice. Of particular significance, we found that Atf4(-/-) mice, as opposed to wild-type littermates, were protected against the development of steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia in response to high fructose feeding. These data demonstrate that ATF4 plays a critical role in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism in response to nutritional cues.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocytes are critical effector cells of the innate immune system that protect the host by migrating to inflammatory sites, differentiating to macrophages and dendritic cells, eliciting immune responses, and killing pathogenic microbes. MCP-1, also known as CCL2, plays an important role in monocyte activation and migration. The chemotactic function of MCP-1 is mediated by binding to the CCR2 receptor, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Desensitization of GPCR chemokine receptors is an important regulator of the intensity and duration of chemokine stimulation. GPCR kinases (GRKs) induce GPCR phosphorylation, and this leads to GPCR desensitization. Regulation of subcellular localization of GRKs is considered an important early regulatory mechanism of GRK function and subsequent GPCR desensitization. Chemokines and LPS are both present during Gram-negative bacterial infection, and LPS often synergistically exaggerates leukocyte migration in response to chemokines. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of LPS-TLR4 signaling on the regulation of monocyte chemotaxis. We demonstrate that LPS augments MCP-1-induced monocyte migration. We also show that LPS, through p38 MAPK signaling, induces phosphorylation of GRK2 at serine 670, which, in turn, suppresses GRK2 translocation to the membrane, thereby preventing GRK2-initiated internalization and desensitization of CCR2 in response to MCP-1. This results in enhanced monocyte migration. These findings reveal a novel function for TLR4 signaling in promoting innate immune cell migration.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a critical transcription factor for bone remodeling; however, its role in bone angiogenesis has not been established. Here we show that ablation of the Atf4 gene expression in mice severely impaired skeletal vasculature and reduced microvascular density of the bone associated with dramatically decreased expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in osteoblasts located on bone surfaces. Results from in vivo studies revealed that hypoxia/reoxygenation induction of HIF-1α and VEGF expression leading to bone angiogenesis, a key adaptive response to hypoxic conditions, was severely compromised in mice lacking the Atf4 gene. Loss of ATF4 completely prevented endothelial sprouting from embryonic metatarsals, which was restored by addition of recombinant human VEGF protein. In vitro studies revealed that ATF4 promotion of HIF-1α and VEGF expression in osteoblasts was highly dependent upon the presence of hypoxia. ATF4 interacted with HIF-1α in hypoxic osteoblasts and loss of ATF4 increased HIF-1α ubiquitination and reduced its protein stability without affecting HIF-1α mRNA stability and protein translation. Loss of ATF4 increased the binding of HIF-1α to prolyl hydroxylases, the enzymes that hydroxylate HIF-1α protein and promote its proteasomal degradation via the pVHL pathway. Furthermore, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), both well-known activators of osteoclasts, increased release of VEGF from the bone matrix and promoted angiogenesis through the protein kinase C- and ATF4-dependent activation of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Thus, ATF4 is a new key regulator of the HIF/VEGF axis in osteoblasts in response to hypoxia and of VEGF release from bone matrix, two critical steps for bone angiogenesis.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 05/2013; · 6.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone-morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) is a well-known anabolic and anti-catabolic growth factor on intervertebral disc (IVD) matrix and cell homeostasis. Similarly, Lactoferricin B (LfcinB) has recently been shown to have pro-anabolic, anti-catabolic, anti-oxidative and/or anti-inflammatory effects in bovine disc cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the potential benefits of using combined peptide therapy with LfcinB and BMP7 for intervertebral disc matrix repair and to understand cellular and signaling mechanisms controlled by these factors. We studied the effects of BMP7 and LfcinB as individual treatments and combined therapy on bovine nucleus pulposus (NP) cells by assessing proteoglycan (PG) accumulation and synthesis, and the gene expression of matrix protein aggrecan and transcription factor SOX-9. We also analyzed the role of Noggin, a BMP antagonist, in IVD tissue and examined its effect after stimulation with LfcinB. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which LfcinB synergizes with BMP7, we investigated the ERK-SP1 axis as a downstream intracellular signaling regulator involved in BMP7 and LfcinB-mediated activities. Treatment of bovine NP cells cultured in alginate with LfcinB plus BMP7 synergistically stimulates PG synthesis and accumulation in part by upregulation of aggrecan gene expression. The synergism results from LfcinB-mediated activation of Sp1 and SMAD signaling pathways by (i) phosphorylation of SMAD 1/5/8; (ii) downregulation of SMAD inhibitory factors [i.e., noggin and SMAD6 (inhibitory SMAD)]; and (iii) upregulation of SMAD4 (universal co-SMAD). These data indicate that LfcinB-suppression of Noggin may eliminate the negative feedback of BMP7, thereby maximizing biological activity of BMP7 and ultimately shifting homeostasis to a pro-anabolic state in disc cells. We propose that combination growth factor therapy using BMP7 and LfcinB may be beneficial for treatment of disc degeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemorrhagic shock (HS) promotes the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ injury by activating and priming the innate immune system for an exaggerated inflammatory response through, as of yet, unclear mechanisms. IL-1β also plays an important role in the development of post-HS systemic inflammatory response syndrome and active IL-1β production is tightly controlled by the inflammasome. Pyrin, a protein of 781 aa with pyrin domain at the N-terminal, negatively regulates inflammasome activation through interaction with nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein (NLRP). Expression of pyrin can be induced by LPS and cytokines, and IL-10 is a known potent inducer of pyrin expression in macrophages. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that HS downregulates IL-10 and therefore decreases pyrin expression to promote inflammasome activation and subsequent IL-1β processing and secretion in the lungs. Our results show that LPS, while activating Nlrp3 inflammasome in the lungs, also induced pyrin expression, which in turn suppressed inflammasome activation. More importantly, LPS-mediated upregulation of IL-10 enhanced pyrin expression, which serves, particularly in later phases, as a potent negative-feedback mechanism regulating inflammasome activation. However, HS-mediated suppression of IL-10 expression in alveolar macrophages attenuated the upregulation of pyrin in alveolar macrophages and lung endothelial cells and thereby significantly enhanced inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion in the lungs. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which HS suppresses negative-feedback regulation of Nlrp3 inflammasome to enhance IL-1β secretion in response to subsequent LPS challenge and so primes for inflammation.
The Journal of Immunology 04/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into multiple cell types including osteoblasts. How this differentiation process is controlled, however, is not completely understood. Here we show that activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) plays a critical role in promoting bone marrow MSC differentiation towards the osteoblast lineage. Ablation of the Atf4 gene blocked the formation of osteoprogenitors and inhibited osteoblast differentiation without affecting the expansion and formation of MSCs in bone marrow cultures. Loss of ATF4 dramatically reduced the level of β-catenin protein in MSCs in vitro and in osteoblasts/osteoprogenitors located on trabecular and calvarial surfaces. Loss of ATF4 did not decrease the expression of major canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling components such as Wnt3a, Wnt7b, Wnt10b, Lrp5, and Lrp6 in MSCs. Furthermore, shRNA knockdown of ATF4 expression decreased the level of β-catenin protein in MC-4 preosteoblasts. In contrast, overexpression of ATF4 increased β-catenin protein levels in MC-4 cells. Finally, ATF4 and β-catenin formed a protein-protein complex in COS-7 cells coexpressing both factors or in MC-4 preosteoblastic cells. This study establishes a new role of ATF4 in controlling the β-catenin protein levels and MSC differentiation towards the osteoblast lineage.
International journal of biological sciences 01/2013; 9(3):256-266. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) derived from human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells on the tumor growth and osteoblast inhibition. Results revealed that knocking down PTHrP expression in the breast cancer cells strikingly inhibited the formation of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. PTHrP knockdown dramatically decreased the levels of cyclins D1 and A1 proteins and arrested the cell cycle progression at the G1 stage. PTHrP knockdown led to the cleavage of Caspase 8 and induced apoptosis of the tumor cells. Interestingly, knocking down PTHrP increased the levels of Beclin1 and LC3-II and promoted the formation of autophagosomes. Knocking down PTHrP expression significantly reduced the abilities of the breast cancer cells to inhibit osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we found that PTHrP activated its own expression through an autocrine mechanism in MDA-MB-231 cells. Collectively, these studies suggest that targeting PTHrP expression in the tumor cells could be a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancers, especially those with skeletal metastases.
International journal of biological sciences 01/2013; 9(8):830-41. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone mass is controlled through a delicate balance between osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. We show here that RNA editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is critical for proper control of bone mass. Postnatal conditional knockout of Adar1 (the gene encoding ADAR1) resulted in a severe osteopenic phenotype. Ablation of the Adar1 gene significantly suppressed osteoblast differentiation without affecting osteoclast differentiation in bone. In vitro deletion of the Adar1 gene decreased expression of osteoblast-specific osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein genes, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization, suggesting a direct intrinsic role of ADAR1 in osteoblasts. ADAR1 regulates osteoblast differentiation by, at least in part, modulation of osterix expression, which is essential for bone formation. Further, ablation of the Adar1 gene decreased the proliferation and survival of bone marrow stromal cells and inhibited the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards osteoblast lineage. Finally, shRNA knockdown of the Adar1 gene in MC-4 pre-osteoblasts reduced cyclin D1 and cyclin A1 expression and cell growth. Our results identify ADAR1 as a new key regulator of bone mass and suggest that ADAR1 functions in this process mainly through modulation of the intrinsic properties of osteoblasts (i.e., proliferation, survival and differentiation).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The specific role of endogenous Bmp2 gene in chondrocytes and in osteoblasts in fracture healing was investigated by generation and analysis of chondrocyte- and osteoblast-specific Bmp2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. The unilateral open transverse tibial fractures were created in these Bmp2 cKO mice. Bone fracture callus samples were collected and analyzed by X-ray, micro-CT, histology analyses, biomechanical testing and gene expression assays. The results demonstrated that the lack of Bmp2 expression in chondrocytes leads to a prolonged cartilage callus formation and a delayed osteogenesis initiation and progression into mineralization phase with lower biomechanical properties. In contrast, when Bmp2 gene was deleted in osteoblasts, the mice showed no significant difference in the fracture healing process compared to control mice. These findings suggest that endogenous BMP2 expression in chondrocytes may play an essential role in cartilage callus maturation at an early stage of fracture healing. Our studies may provide important information for clinical application of BMP2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MyD88 is an adapter protein that links toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) with downstream signaling molecules. The MyD88 has been found to be an essential mediator in the development of osteoarthritis in articular cartilage. However, the role of the MyD88 pathway has yet to be elucidated in the intervertebral disk (IVD). Using in vitro techniques, we analyzed the effect of MyD88 pathway-specific inhibition on the potent inflammatory and catabolic mediator LPS and IL-1 in bovine and human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells by assessing matrix-degrading enzyme expression, including matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS family). We also analyzed inhibition of MyD88 in the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TLR-2. Finally, we used an ex vivo organ culture model to assess the effects of MyD88 inhibitor (MyD88i) on catabolic factor-induced disk degeneration in mice lumbar disks. In bovine NP cells, MyD88i potently antagonizes LPS- or IL-1-mediated induction of cartilage-degrading enzyme production, including MMP-1, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5. MyD88i also attenuates the LPS- or IL-1-mediated induction of iNOS and TLR-2 gene expression. Our ex vivo findings reveal inhibition of MyD88 via counteraction of IL-1-mediated proteoglycan depletion. The findings from this study demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of inhibition of MyD88 pathway inhibition on IVD homeostasis, suggesting a potential therapeutic benefit of a MyD88i in degenerative disk disease in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone remodeling is a complex process that must be precisely controlled to maintain a healthy life. We show here that filamin-binding LIM protein 1 (FBLP-1, also known as migfilin), a kindlin- and filamin-binding focal adhesion protein, is essential for proper control of bone remodeling. Genetic inactivation of FBLIM1 (the gene encoding FBLP-1) in mice resulted in a severe osteopenic phenotype. Primary FBLP-1 null bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) exhibited significantly reduced extracellular matrix adhesion and migration compared with wild type BMSCs. Loss of FBLP-1 significantly impaired the growth and survival of BMSCs in vitro and decreased the number of osteoblast (OB) progenitors in bone marrow and OB differentiation in vivo. Furthermore, the loss of FBLP-1 caused a dramatic increase of osteoclast (OCL) differentiation in vivo. The level of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), a key regulator of OCL differentiation, was markedly increased in FBLP-1 null BMSCs. The capacity of FBLP-1 null bone marrow monocytes (BMMs) to differentiate into multinucleated OCLs in response to exogenously supplied RANKL, however, was not different from that of WT BMMs. Finally, we show that a loss of FBLP-1 promotes activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation substantially suppressed the increase of RANKL induced by the loss of FBLP-1. Our results identify FBLP-1 as a key regulator of bone homeostasis and suggest that FBLP-1 functions in this process through modulating both the intrinsic properties of OB/BMSCs (i.e., BMSC-extracellular matrix adhesion and migration, cell growth, survival, and differentiation) and the communication between OB/BMSCs and BMMs (i.e., RANKL expression) that controls osteoclastogenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2012; 287(25):21450-60. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Existing literature demonstrates that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) exerts opposing, contradictory biological effects on cartilage homeostasis in different species. In human articular cartilage, FGF-2 plays a catabolic and anti-anabolic role in cartilage homeostasis, driving homeostasis toward degeneration and osteoarthritis (OA). In murine joints, however, FGF-2 has been identified as an anabolic mediator as ablation of the FGF-2 gene demonstrated increased susceptibility to OA. There have been no previous studies specifically addressing species-specific differences in FGF-2-mediated biological effects. In this study, we provide a mechanistic understanding by which FGF-2 exerts contradictory biological effects in human versus murine tissues. Using human articular cartilage (ex vivo) and a medial meniscal destabilization (DMM) animal model (in vivo), species-specific expression patterns of FGFR receptors (FGFRs) are elucidated between human and murine articular cartilage. In the murine OA model followed by intra-articular injection of FGF-2, we further correlate FGFR profiles to changes in behavioral pain perception, proteoglycan content in articular cartilage, and production of inflammatory (CD11b) and angiogenic (VEGF) mediators in synovium lining cells. Our results suggest that the fundamental differences in cellular responses between human and murine tissues may be secondary to distinctive expression patterns of FGFRs that eventually determine biological outcomes in the presence of FGF-2. The complex interplay of FGFRs and the downstream signaling cascades induced by FGF-2 in human cartilage should add caution to the use of this particular growth factor for biological therapy in the future.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 03/2012; 113(7):2532-42. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The release of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from bone marrow (BM) is under tight homeostatic control. Under stress conditions, HPCs migrate from BM and egress into circulation to participate in immune response, wound repair, or tissue regeneration. Hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation (HS/R), resulting from severe trauma and major surgery, promotes HPC mobilization from BM, which, in turn, affects post-HS immune responses. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of HS/R regulation of HPC mobilization from BM. Using a mouse HS/R model, we demonstrate that the endogenous alarmin molecule high-mobility group box 1 mediates HS/R-induced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor secretion from macrophages (Mϕ in a RAGE [receptor for advanced glycation end products] signaling-dependent manner. Secreted granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, in turn, induces HPC egress from BM. We also show that activation of β-adrenergic receptors on Mϕ by catecholamine mediates the HS/R-induced release of high-mobility group box 1. These data indicate that HS/R, a global ischemia-reperfusion stimulus, regulates HPC mobilization through a series of interacting pathways that include neuroendocrine and innate immune systems, in which Mϕ play a central role.