Peter M H Heegaard

University of Copenhagen, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (86)247.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a collagenous lectin that kills a wide range of pathogenic microbes through complement activation. The MBL1 and MBL2 genes encode MBL-A and MBL-C, respectively. MBL deficiency in humans is associated with higher susceptibility to viral as well as bacterial infections. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have been identified in the collagen-like domain of the human MBL gene, of which several are strongly associated with decreased concentrations of MBL in serum. In this study, we have identified a number of SNPs in the porcine MBL-A gene. Sequence comparisons identified a total of 14 SNPs, eight of which were found in exons and six in introns. Four of the eight exon-located SNPs were non-synonymous. Sequence data from several Duroc and Landrace pigs identified four different haplotypes. One haplotype was found in Duroc pigs only, and three haplotypes were found in the Landrace pigs. One of the identified haplotypes was associated with low concentration of MBL-A in serum. The concentration of MBL-A in serum was further assessed in a large number of Duroc and Landrace boars to address its correlation with disease frequency. The MBL-A concentration in Duroc boars showed one single population, whereas Landrace boars showed four distinct populations for MBL-A concentration. The Landrace boars were finally assessed for disease incidence, and the association with the concentration of MBL-A in serum was investigated. No association between MBL and disease incidence was found in this study.
    Immunogenetics 05/2011; 63(5):309-17. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pasteurella multocida is a major cause of porcine pneumonia, but the pathogenesis of the disease is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to further understand the host response to infection by use of a mouse model of P. multocida pneumonia. Twenty female mice were divided into four groups (n=5). Three groups were infected with one of three isolates of P. multocida isolated from clinical cases of chronic porcine pneumonia with necrotizing, suppurative and non-suppurative lesions, respectively. The fourth group served as uninfected controls. Mice were killed 24 h postinfection and samples were collected for bacteriology, histopathology and in-situ hybridization for detection of P. multocida. Measurements of expression of genes encoding matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) in lung tissue and quantification of serum haptoglobin concentration were performed. P. multocida was found in the lung and spleen. Lung lesions were characterized by deposition of fibrin in alveoli and bronchioles, perivascular oedema, suppuration and necrosis. The cellular infiltration was mainly of neutrophils. Splenic neutrophilic infiltration was also evident. Minor differences in the severity and nature of lesions were seen according to the isolate of P. multocida used for infection. Intranasal infection of mice can therefore be used to evaluate the host response and lesions caused by P. multocida obtained from porcine pneumonic infections. The inflammatory response in this model is associated with increased tissue expression of genes encoding MMP9, TIMP1 and serum haptoglobin concentration.
    Journal of comparative pathology 03/2011; 145(2-3):251-60. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Modern adjuvants should induce strong and balanced immune responses, and it is often desirable to induce specific types of immunity. As an example, efficient Th1-immunity-inducing adjuvants are highly in demand. Such adjuvants promote good cell-mediated immunity against subunit vaccines that have low immunogenicity themselves. The development of such adjuvants may take advantage of the increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms and factors controlling these responses. However, knowledge of such molecular details of immune mechanisms is relatively scarce for species other than humans and laboratory rodents, and in addition, there are special considerations pertaining to the use of adjuvants in veterinary animals, such as production and companion animals. With a focus on veterinary animals, this review highlights a number of approaches being pursued, including cytokines, CpG oligonucleotides, microparticles and liposomes.
    Archives of Virology 02/2011; 156(2):183-202. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synergism of infection with conventional cardiovascular risk factors in atherosclerosis is much debated. We hypothesized that coronary arterial injury correlates with infection recurrence and pathogen burden and is further aggravated by hypercholesterolemia. Forty-two Göttingen minipigs were assigned to repeated intratracheal inoculation of PBS, Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn), or both Cpn and influenza virus at 8, 11, and 14 wk of age. Animals were fed either standard or 2% cholesterol diet (chol-diet). At 19 wk of age coronary vasomotor responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine were assessed in vivo and blood and tissue samples were collected. Nonparametric tests were used to compare the groups. In cholesterol-fed animals, total cholesterol/HDL was significantly increased in infected animals compared with noninfected animals [3.13 (2.17-3.38) vs. 2.03 (1.53-2.41), respectively; P = 0.01]. C-reactive protein (CRP) rose in infected animals [10.60 (4.96-18.00) vs. 2.47 (1.44-3.01) μg/ml in noninfected; P < 0.01] without significant difference between the mono- and coinfected groups. Among coinfected animals, both CRP and haptoglobin were lower in those fed chol-diet than in those fed standard diet (P < 0.05). The vasoconstricting response to ACh was most prominent in coinfected animals {769.3 (594-1,129) cm; P = 0.03 vs. noninfected [342 (309-455) cm] and P = 0.07 vs. monoinfected [415 (252.5-971.8) cm]}. Among monoinfected animals, similar to CRP, a trend for less vasoconstriction was observed in those fed chol-diet (P = 0.08). Coinfection of piglets appears to be associated with more pronounced coronary muscarinic vasomotor dysfunction. In monoinfected animals, use of chol-diet seems to dampen both coronary dysfunction and systemic inflammation induced by infection.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 02/2011; 300(5):H1595-601. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to describe the acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy heifers during acute, oligofructose-induced ruminal acidosis. The study included 2 trials involving oral oligofructose overload (17g/kg BW) to nonpregnant Danish Holstein heifers. Trial 1 included 12 heifers all receiving oligofructose, and the experiment consisted of a 3 day control period prior to overload and 9 days surveillance afterwards. Eight heifers were fed grass hay and 4 were fed barley silage. Trial 2 included 10 heifers receiving oligofructose, 4 were euthanized 24h after overload and 6 were euthanized 72h after overload. Six heifers received tap water as control treatment and were euthanized 72 or 96h later. Sampling of blood was performed at 6–48 hour intervals. Samples were analyzed for serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, and fibrinogen, and total white blood cell counts (WBC) were performed.Heifers receiving oligofructose developed a profound ruminal and systemic acidosis (in Trial 1 and 2 lowest ruminal pH was 4.3±0.2 and 3.8±0.02, respectively, and minimum SBE was −9.3±4.1 and −8.9±2.8, respectively). In Trial 1, SAA concentrations were higher than baseline concentrations on all time points from 6 to 216hours after overload, and heifers fed hay had higher SAA levels (max. 290±151mg/L) than heifers fed silage (max. 225±137mg/L). In Trial 2, SAA concentrations in heifers receiving oligofructose were higher than control heifers at all time points from 12 to 72h after overload (max. 325±149mg/L). In Trial 1, haptoglobin concentrations for hay-fed heifers were higher than baseline concentrations at all time points from 36 to 168h after overload (max. 3449±1702mg/L). Heifers fed silage had lower haptoglobin concentrations than heifers fed hay at 60, 72 and 120h (max. 1802±950mg/L). In Trial 2, haptoglobin concentrations in heifers receiving oligofructose were higher than control heifers at all time points from 18 to 72h after overload (max. 4226±924mg/L). In Trial 1, fibrinogen concentrations did not differ from baseline concentrations at any time points. In Trial 2, fibrinogen concentrations in heifers receiving oligofructose were higher than control heifers at all time points from 36 to 72h after overload (max. 12.2±3.3g/L). In Trial 1, WBC did not differ from baseline concentrations at any time points. In Trial 2, WBC in heifers receiving oligofructose were higher than control heifers at 18 and 24h after overload (max. 13.7±4.3 billions/L). Feeding had no effect on plasma fibrinogen concentrations or WBC in Trial 1.Acute ruminal and systemic acidosis caused by oligofructose overload resulted in distinct acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy heifers. The increased levels of serum acute phase proteins and leukocytes might be a result of ruminitis caused by the ruminal acidosis, of systemic effects of pro-inflammatory molecules translocating across the damaged ruminal epithelium, or a result of the systemic acidosis and accumulation of organic acids. In humans, inflammation has been linked to metabolic diseases. In cattle, studies into the possible links between acid-base changes, inflammation/innate immunity and metabolic disease are warranted as this might improve our understanding of the production disease complexes occurring in particular in the transition period.
    Livestock Science 01/2011; 135(1):62-69. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI) with Staphylococcus aureus is a feared post-operative complication. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical signs and potential biomarkers of infection in a porcine AVPGI model. The biomarkers evaluated were: C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, white blood cells (WBC), major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) density, lymphocyte CD4:CD8 ratio and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in vitro responsiveness. Sixteen pigs were included in the study, and randomly assigned into four groups (n = 4): "SHAM" pigs had their infra-renal aorta exposed by laparotomy; "CLEAN" pigs had an aortic graft inserted; "LOW" and "HIGH" pigs had an aortic graft inserted and, subsequently, S. aureus were inoculated on the graft material (5 × 10(4) colony-forming units [CFU] and 1 × 10(6) CFU, respectively). Biomarkers were evaluated prior to surgery and on day 2, 5, 7, and 14 post-operatively in blood samples. Of all biomarkers evaluated, CRP was superior for diagnosing S. aureus AVPGI in pigs, with a sensitivity of 0.86 and a specificity of 0.75.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11/2010; 29(11):1453-6. · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In two separate trials pigs were experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis at 5-6 weeks of age followed by antibiotic treatment and resolution of the primary infection and then re-inoculated at 12-13 weeks of age. A treatment-control group of pigs received the primary infection and antibiotic treatment only, and served as control for the antibiotic treatment of the primary infection. A challenge-control group of pigs received the second inoculation dose only at 12-13 weeks of age to control infectivity of the challenge-dose and susceptibility of pigs to L. intracellularis at this age. Pigs were monitored for shedding of L. intracellularis in faeces by PCR, and for the development of antibodies and responses of acute phase proteins in serum. The presence of L. intracellularis antigen in the intestinal mucosa was examined in post mortem samples by immunohistochemistry. In both trials primary infected pigs were protected from infection after challenge inoculation as evidenced by absence of faecal shedding of L. intracellularis, lack of changes in acute phase protein concentrations after challenge and with low levels of bacterial antigen in the intestinal mucosa of re-inoculated pigs comparable to that of the treatment-control pigs. In contrast, challenge-control pigs shed L. intracellularis in faeces, had L. intracellularis antigen extensively present within all layers of the intestinal mucosa and developed a significant acute phase protein response in serum after the experimental infection. The acute phase protein response to L. intracellularis infection was detected as an increased rise in the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin from day-6 post infection, and increased serum concentrations of haptoglobin were generally seen 2-3 weeks after inoculation both at 5-6 and 12-13 weeks of age. In conclusion substantial protection against L. intracellularis infection was found in the re-inoculated pigs in contrast to the development of infection in age-matched control pigs. The acute phase protein responses reflected both the observed protection against L. intracellularis infection upon secondary challenge and that increased resistance to the infection develops with age.
    Veterinary Microbiology 11/2010; 149(3-4):406-14. · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Nanna S Sorensen, Kerstin Skovgaard, Peter M H Heegaard
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    ABSTRACT: Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are conserved molecules of microorganisms inducing innate immune cells to secrete distinct patterns of cytokines. In veterinary species, due to a lack of specific antibodies, cytokines are often monitored as expressed mRNA only. This study investigated the induction of IFN-α, IL-12 p40, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 by PAMP-molecules [CpG oligonucleotide D19 (CpG), peptidoglycan (PGN), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Pam(3)Cys and poly-U] in porcine blood mononuclear cells (BMC) within a 24 h period. As expected, cytokine responses were PAMP-specific, CpG inducing IFN-α and IL-12 p40, and PGN, LPS and Pam(3)Cys inducing varying amounts of IL-12 p40, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10. Surprisingly, the ssRNA-mimic poly-U induced IL-6 and IL-1β only. Using CpG, PGN and LPS, the kinetics of cytokine production measured as mRNA (reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR) and protein (ELISA), respectively, correlated well, mRNA responses preceding protein responses. With the exception of IL-1β and IL-6, mRNA-responses were transient, whereas protein responses, except for TNF-α, followed saturation kinetics. Remarkably, LPS-induced TNF-α mRNA was not followed by a protein response. These results provide guidelines concerning the timing and use of protein and mRNA determinations for the characterization of porcine cytokine responses to PAMPs, although given the low number of animals used here results are preliminary and need confirmation in a larger study.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 10/2010; 139(2-4):296-302. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nine pigs were inoculated intravenously once or twice with 10(8) Staphylococcus aureus per kilogram body weight and sacrificed 12, 24 and 48 h after inoculation. Three sham-infected pigs served as controls. Blood samples were taken for bacteriology, haematology and clinical chemistry. A necropsy was carried out and tissue samples were collected for bacteriology and histology. The onset of clinical disease was seen at 7-8 h after inoculation. The blood bacterial counts remained low throughout the study. All infected pigs developed sepsis characterized by fever, neutrophilia, increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6, and decreased levels of serum iron. The CRP and IL-6 levels peaked at 36 h, whereas IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha showed no obvious changes. Thromboelastography showed increasing hypercoagulability from 12 h and onwards, whereas the platelet numbers declined slightly throughout the experiment. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin were elevated at 24 and 36 h. In conclusion, sepsis and severe sepsis were induced as evidenced by dysfunction of the blood clotting system and the liver.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 08/2010; 309(2):208-16. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The declaration of the human influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1/09) raised important questions, including origin and host range [1], [2]. Two of the three pandemics in the last century resulted in the spread of virus to pigs (H1N1, 1918; H3N2, 1968) with subsequent independent establishment and evolution within swine worldwide [3]. A key public and veterinary health consideration in the context of the evolving pandemic is whether the H1N1/09 virus could become established in pig populations [4]. We performed an infection and transmission study in pigs with A/California/07/09. In combination, clinical, pathological, modified influenza A matrix gene real time RT-PCR and viral genomic analyses have shown that infection results in the induction of clinical signs, viral pathogenesis restricted to the respiratory tract, infection dynamics consistent with endemic strains of influenza A in pigs, virus transmissibility between pigs and virus-host adaptation events. Our results demonstrate that extant H1N1/09 is fully capable of becoming established in global pig populations. We also show the roles of viral receptor specificity in both transmission and tissue tropism. Remarkably, following direct inoculation of pigs with virus quasispecies differing by amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin receptor-binding site, only virus with aspartic acid at position 225 (225D) was detected in nasal secretions of contact infected pigs. In contrast, in lower respiratory tract samples from directly inoculated pigs, with clearly demonstrable pulmonary pathology, there was apparent selection of a virus variant with glycine (225G). These findings provide potential clues to the existence and biological significance of viral receptor-binding variants with 225D and 225G during the 1918 pandemic [5].
    PLoS ONE 02/2010; 5(2):e9068. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Peter M H Heegaard, Ulrik Boas, Nanna Skall Sorensen
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    ABSTRACT: Dendrimers are well-defined (monodisperse) synthetic globular polymers with a range of interesting chemical and biological properties. Chemical properties include the presence of multiple accessible surface functional groups that can be used for coupling biologically relevant molecules and methods that allow for precise heterofunctionalization of surface groups. Biologically, dendrimers are highly biocompatible and have predictable biodistribution and cell membrane interacting characteristics determined by their size and surface charge. Dendrimers have optimal characteristics to fill the need for efficient immunostimulating compounds (adjuvants) that can increase the efficiency of vaccines, as dendrimers can provide molecularly defined multivalent scaffolds to produce highly defined conjugates with small molecule immunostimulators and/or antigens. The review gives an overview on the use of dendrimers as molecularly defined carriers/presenters of small antigens, including constructs that have built-in immunostimulatory (adjuvant) properties, and as stand-alone adjuvants that can be mixed with antigens to provide efficient vaccine formulations. These approaches allow the preparation of molecularly defined vaccines with highly predictable and specific properties and enable knowledge-based vaccine design substituting the traditional empirically based approaches for vaccine development and production.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 11/2009; · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients believed to beneficially affect host health by selectively stimulating the growth of the beneficial bacteria residing in the gut. Such beneficial bacteria have been reported to protect against pathogenic infections. However, contradicting results on prevention of Salmonella infections with prebiotics have been published. The aim of the present study was to examine whether S. Typhimurium SL1344 infection in mice could be prevented by administration of dietary carbohydrates with different structures and digestibility profiles. BALB/c mice were fed a diet containing 10% of either of the following carbohydrates: inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, xylo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligosaccharide, apple pectin, polydextrose or beta-glucan for three weeks prior to oral Salmonella challenge (107 CFU) and compared to mice fed a cornstarch-based control diet. The mice fed with diets containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) or xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) had significantly higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) numbers of S. Typhimurium SL1344 in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes when compared to the mice fed with the cornstarch-based control diet. Significantly increased amounts (P < 0.01) of Salmonella were detected in ileal and fecal contents of mice fed with diets supplemented with apple pectin, however these mice did not show significantly higher numbers of S. Typhimyrium in liver, spleen and lymph nodes than animals from the control group (P < 0.20).The acute-phase protein haptoglobin was a good marker for translocation of S. Typhimurium in mice. In accordance with the increased counts of Salmonella in the organs, serum concentrations of haptoglobin were significantly increased in the mice fed with FOS or XOS (P < 0.001). Caecum weight was increased in the mice fed with FOS (P < 0.01), XOS (P < 0.01), or polydextrose (P < 0.001), and caecal pH was reduced in the mice fed with polydextrose (P < 0.001). In vitro fermentation in monocultures revealed that S. Typhimurium SL1344 is capable of fermenting FOS, beta-glucan and GOS with a corresponding decline in pH. Supplementing a cornstarch-based rodent diet with 10% FOS or XOS was found to increase the translocation of S. Typhimurium SL1344 to internal organs in mice, while 10% apple pectin was found to increase the numbers of S. Typhimurium in intestinal content and feces.
    BMC Microbiology 11/2009; 9:245. · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The local transcriptional response was studied in different locations of lungs from pigs experimentally infected with the respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5B, using porcine cDNA microarrays. This infection gives rise to well-demarcated infection loci in the lung, characterized by necrotic and haemorrhagic lesions. Lung tissue was sampled from necrotic areas, from visually unaffected areas and from areas bordering on necrotic areas. Expression pattern of these areas from infected pigs was compared to healthy lung tissue from un-infected pigs. Transcription of selected genes important in the innate defence response were further analysed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR. A clear correlation was observed between the number of differentially expressed genes as well as the magnitude of their induction and the sampling location in the infected lung, with the highest number of differentially expressed genes, and the most highly induced genes found in necrotic areas. Interestingly, a group of differentially regulated genes was represented in all three areas, comprising genes encoding cytokines, acute phase proteins, and factors related to regulation of apoptosis and the complement system. Interferon-γ was downregulated in both necrotic and bordering areas. Evidence of neutrophil recruitment was seen by the up-regulation of chemotactic factors for neutrophils. In conclusion, we found subsets of genes expressed at different levels in the three selected areas of the infected lung as compared to the control group. Thus it is demonstrated that an infection with clearly defined infected loci leads to a rapid disseminated intra-organ response in neighbouring seemingly unaffected tissue areas of the infected organ. Within the lung, we found a clear division of induced genes as, in unaffected areas a large part of differently expressed genes were involved in systemic reactions to infections, while differently expressed genes in necrotic areas were mainly concerned with homeostasis regulation.
    Innate Immunity 11/2009; 17(1):41-53. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge on gene expression in the liver during respiratory infections is limited although it is well-established that this organ is an important site of synthesis of several systemic innate immune components as response to infections. In the present study, the early transcriptional hepatic response of genes associated with innate immune responses was studied in pigs 14-18 h after intranasal inoculation with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, using innate immune focused microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The microarray analysis of liver tissue established that 51 genes were differentially expressed. A large group of these genes encoded proteins involved in the acute phase response, including serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and tumor necrosis factor-α the expression of which were all found to be up-regulated and glutathione S-transferase, transthyretin, transferrin and albumin which were down-regulated. Additional genes associated with innate immune responses were investigated using qPCR; genes encoding interleukin-(IL-)1, IL-6, IL-8, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, lactotransferrin, and PigMAP were up-regulated and interferon 1α, α₁-acid glycoprotein, mannan-binding lectin A, surfactant protein D, and surfactant protein A1 were down-regulated in the liver of infected animals. Down-regulation of α₁-acid glycoprotein during infection has not been described previously in any species. These results confirm that the liver plays an important role in initiating and orchestrating the innate immune response to A. pleuropneumoniae infection.
    Innate Immunity 09/2009; 16(6):343-53. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    Veterinary Research 05/2009; 40(3). · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present longitudinal study was to assess the evolution of two acute phase proteins (APPs), pig-major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin (HPT), in serum from pigs that developed postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in comparison to healthy and wasted non-PMWS affected pigs. In addition, evidence of infection with other pathogens and its relation with variations in APPs concentrations was also assessed. Fourteen independent batches of 100-154 pigs were monitored from birth to PMWS outbreak occurrence in 11 PMWS affected farms. Pigs displaying PMWS-like signs and age-matched healthy controls were euthanized during the clinical outbreak. PMWS was diagnosed according to internationally accepted criteria and pigs were classified as: (i) PMWS cases, (ii) wasted non-PMWS cases and (iii) healthy pigs. At the moment of PMWS occurrence, pig-MAP and HPT concentration in PMWS affected pigs were higher than in healthy ones (p<0.0001). No differences in APPs serum concentrations between subclinically PCV2-infected pigs and healthy non-PCV2-infected pigs (based on quantitative PCR on serum results) were detected. Results showed a significant correlation between PCV2 loads and both pig-MAP (R=0.487-0.602, p<0.0001) and HPT (R=0.326-0.550, p<0.05-0.0001) concentrations in serum of PMWS affected pigs, indicating that the acute phase response in PMWS affected pigs occurred concomitantly to PCV2 viremia. No other pathogen, apart from PCV2, was consistently related with variations in APPs concentrations. A ROC analysis, made to determine the capacity of discrimination of both APPs between PMWS affected and non-affected pigs, showed higher sensitivity and specificity values using pig-MAP compared to HPT. These results suggest that pig-MAP might be a better indicator of PMWS status than HPT. Moreover, the fact that APR occurred some weeks before the start of clinical signs suggests that APPs could provide valuable prognostic information for PMWS development.
    Veterinary Microbiology 04/2009; 138(1-2):53-61. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The serum concentration of acute phase proteins (APPs) increases dramatically in response to inflammation and tissue injury. APPs are clinically useful in a range of domesticated mammals; however, knowledge is limited in nondomesticated mammals. The detective ability of two assays for each of three potential APPs--serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin (Hp)--was evaluated in eight species. For SAA, a turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA) demonstrated significant detective abilities in the Asian elephant (Elaphas maximus), impala (Aepyceros melampus), musk ox (Ovibos moschatus), and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), as did an SAA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the impala. For CRP, both TIA and ELISA had significant detective abilities in the chimpanzee. For Hp, a colorimetric assay demonstrated significant detective abilities in impala, musk ox, sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekeii), and chimpanzee, as did the Hp ELISA in the impala, musk ox, and sitatunga. In conclusion, these results suggest that assays for detection of relevant APPs in several nondomesticated animals are available.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 04/2009; 40(1):199-203. · 0.32 Impact Factor
  • Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 03/2009; 128(1):329-329. · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 03/2009; 128(1):239-239. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important acute phase protein, being used as a sensitive indicator of inflammation and infection and is also associated with the risk of cardiovascular problems. The present paper describes a robust and sensitive ELISA for CRP, based on the affinity of CRP for phosphocholine. In this design synthetic globular polymers (dendrimers) are used as scaffolds for the multivalent display of phosphocholine molecules. CRP present in a sample binds to the phosphocholine moiety presented at high density in the coating layer and is detectable by specific antibodies. The ELISA was applied to determination of pig and human CRP using commercially available antibodies against human CRP. The assay was shown to be more sensitive than previously published immunoassays employing albumin-coupled cytidine diphosphocholine. The coating was stable for at least 30 days at room temperature and the assay showed high intra- and interassay reproducibility. Results were compared with an immunoturbidimetric method and with a commercial ELISA kit and there was very good agreement with the immunoturbidimetric method, however not with the commercial assay, probably due to a calibration discrepancy. The assay is applicable to other species by providing an adequate detection antibody having the desired species specificity.
    Journal of immunological methods 03/2009; 343(2):112-8. · 2.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
247.91 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Department of Veterinary Disease Biology
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2007–2013
    • Technical University of Denmark
      • Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Aarhus University
      • Department of Genetics and Biotechnology
      Aars, Region North Jutland, Denmark
  • 2011
    • National Veterinary Laboratory
      Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, United States
  • 2006
    • Danish Veterinary and Food Administration
      Glostrup, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2005
    • University of Zaragoza
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology
      Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain