S Albrecht

Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (45)98.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) monitoring systems should be reliable and safe. Monitoring via electromyographical systems on an endotracheal tube (ETT) is widely spread. The MagStim™ system consists of an adhesive electrode to be fixed on an endotracheal tube. The Xomed™ endotracheal tube provides integrated electrodes. Reliability and side effects had never been compared. As both systems have very different morphological properties, we hypothesized that there might be differences in reliability and the incidence of side effects. In a retrospective quality management analysis of 118 patients (MagStim™ electrode, 57 patients; Xomed™ ETT, 61 patients), we compared laryngeal side effects according to the Chilla score and detection rate of the RLN. Both systems had comparable detection rates of the RLN above 95%. Both electrode systems seemed to have similar reliability. Difficulties to detect the nerve were observed in seven patients (four with MagStim, three with Xomed). In the group with the Xomed™ ETT, significantly less mild laryngeal side effects were observed. Both MagStim™ and Xomed™ ETT were reliable in detecting the RLN. The Xomed™ ETT, however, might cause milder laryngeal side effects compared with the MagStim™ electrode.
    Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 06/2011; 396(8):1173-9. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since its commercial introduction in 1996, target-controlled infusion (TCI) has become an established technique for administration of intravenous anaesthetics. Modern TCI systems, however, are characterized by an increasing number of additional options and features, such as the choice between different pharmacokinetic models and modes of application, which may confuse the less experienced user. This review describes the differences between pharmacokinetic models, modes of application and the effect of covariates as well as the consequences for dosing. The aim is to explicate for the user of modern TCI systems the underlying scientific concepts and the relevance for clinical practice.
    Der Anaesthesist 07/2009; 58(7):708-15. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since its commercial introduction in 1996, target-controlled infusion (TCI) has become an established technique for administration of intravenous anaesthetics. Modern TCI systems, however, are characterized by an increasing number of additional options and features, such as the choice between different pharmacokinetic models and modes of application, which may confuse the less experienced user. This review describes the differences between pharmacokinetic models, modes of application and the effect of covariates as well as the consequences for dosing. The aim is to explicate for the user of modern TCI systems the underlying scientific concepts and the relevance for clinical practice.
    Anaesthesist. 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last 10 years the technique of target-controlled infusion (TCI) has substantially influenced the development and practice of intravenous anaesthesia. It opened the possibility of many new and exciting applications of perioperative anaesthetic care. More recent and current developments, such as open TCI (target-controlled infusion) and the availability of generic anaesthetic agents combined with modern infusion pumps, means that TCI can become a standard procedure in anaesthesia and is no longer just a research tool for specialists and enthusiasts. This review explains the fundamentals and applications of intravenous drug delivery by TCI and gives practice guidelines to successfully implement the technique into clinical practice. The aim is to provide a comprehensive reference based on clinically proven evidence.
    Der Anaesthesist 04/2008; 57(3):223-30. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ,,Target controlled infusion“ (TCI) hat in den letzten 10 Jahren Entwicklung und Praxis der i.v.-Anästhesie nachhaltig beeinflusst, sodass wesentliche Fortschritte der Medikamentenapplikation in der perioperativen Medizin erreicht werden konnten. Neuere und aktuelle Entwicklungen wie ,,open TCI“ und die Verfügbarkeit von generischen Anästhetika zusammen mit modernen Infusionsspritzenpumpen ermöglichen, dass TCI ein fester Bestandteil im Methodenspektrum der Anästhesie werden kann und nicht mehr nur Spezialisten sowie Enthusiasten vorbehalten bleibt. Die vorliegende Übersicht beschreibt die Grundlagen der Zufuhr von i.v.-Anästhetika mit TCI und gibt Handlungsempfehlungen für eine erfolgreiche Implementierung in die klinische Praxis.
    Der Anaesthesist 02/2008; 57(3):223-230. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical benefits of measuring processed EEG during anaesthesia in adults, such as improved recovery and reduced risk of awareness, may also be valid in children. This study evaluated a rational selection of EEG variables as measures of arousal during surgical anaesthesia in children. Sixty children undergoing surgical anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil were enrolled. The performance of 33 single EEG variables and bispectral index (BIS) was assessed by simultaneous analysis of prediction probability (Pk) of Children's Hospital of Wisconsin Sedation Scores and their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Variables performing best in Pk and SNR analysis were selected as potential measures of arousal. Their performance was investigated in five age groups, 0-1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-8, and 8-13 yr. Single EEG variables such as relative power from frequency bands 13-20 and 20-26 Hz, SEF95, and approximate entropy performed best with Pk>0.59 and SNR>5.50. The Pk and SNR of BIS were 0.71 and 15.76, respectively. Their performance was significantly better in children aged 1-13 yr than in 0-1 yr. BIS may provide a measure of arousal during propofol anaesthesia in children, but its accuracy is less in infants younger than 12 months. Single EEG variables such as high-frequency components of EEG, SEF95, and approximate entropy may be of limited value to detect arousal in the individual paediatric patient.
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 12/2007; 99(6):845-54. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Priming can significantly shorten the onset of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NNBA) measured at the adductor pollicis muscle (APM). In spite of the known risks, priming is very popular especially in cases where NNBAs with a long onset time are used. However, there are no data regarding the onset of action for a priming technique measured at the laryngeal muscles although these muscles are of great importance for conditions of intubation and patient safety. The aim of this study was to compare a bolus application and a priming technique with respect to the laryngeal onset time and peak effect. After approval of the local ethics committee and written informed consent, 36 patients undergoing elective thyroid surgery were enrolled in the study. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with a target controlled infusion of propofol (target concentration 2.7-6.0 microg/ml) and infusion of remifentanil (0.25-0.75 microg/kgbw/min). After loss of consciousness, a tube with a surface electrode was placed into the trachea without the application of any neuromuscular blocking agent. Neuromuscular monitoring consisted of evoked electromyography (EMG) of the laryngeal adductor muscles via the surface electrode and evoked acceleromyography (TOF Guard) of the right adductor pollicis muscle (APM). After transcutaneous stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and ulnar nerve, either 0.9% NaCl followed by 0.1 mg/kgbw cisatracurium after 3 min (bolus group, n=12), a priming dose of 0.01 mg/kgbw cisatracurium followed by 0.09 mg/kgbw 3 min later (low dose priming group, n=12) or a priming dose of 0.015 mg/kgbw cisatracurium followed by cisatracurium 0.085 mg/kgbw 3 min later (high dose priming group, n=12) were injected. Lag time, onset time and peak effect of NMB were recorded and compared between the groups. Demographic data, lag time and peak effect were comparable between the three groups. Onset time at the laryngeal muscles was significantly shorter in the high dose priming group (80+/-17 s), when compared to the low dose priming group (128+/-23 s) and bolus group (142+/-29 s). Onset time at the APM was also significantly shorter in the high dose priming group (154+/-35 s), when compared with the bolus group (226+/-76 s). The recovery of the neuromuscular function measured at the APM showed no differences between the groups. Our results show that only high dose priming of cisatracurium can significantly shorten the laryngeal onset time. However, clinical routine use is not recommended due to possible side-effects.
    Der Anaesthesist 11/2007; 56(10):992-1000. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although a considerable amount of promising experimental research has been performed on cardiopulmonary resuscitation, clinical data indicate an ongoing limited outcome in human beings. One reason for this discrepancy could be that experimental studies use healthy animals whereas most human beings undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation suffer from acute or chronic myocardial dysfunction. To overcome this problem, we sought to develop a new model of myocardial infarction, that is easy to perform in all kind of laboratories and compromises on the myocardial function significantly. Following approval by the local authorities, 14 domestic pigs were instrumented for measurement of arterial, central venous, left atrial and left ventricular pressures. Myocardial infarction was induced in eight pigs by clipping the circumflex artery close to its origin from the left coronary artery (infarction group; n = 8). Six animals (no infarction group, n = 6) served as no-infarct controls. Following a 4-min period of cardiac arrest, internal cardiac massage was performed in these two groups, and haemodynamics were recorded during the first 30 min of reperfusion. All animals were resuscitated successfully. Compared to the no-infarction group, the infarction group showed significantly decreased myocardial contractility, coronary perfusion pressure and cardiac index (30 min after restoration of spontaneous circulation: infarction group: 57 +/- 7 and 89 +/- 19 mL min-1 kg-1 in the no-infarction group; mean +/- SD; P < 0.05) during reperfusion. Two animals from the infarction group (25%), but none of the animals in the no-infarction group, died during the reperfusion period. These data demonstrate that clipping of the circumflex artery leads to a reduced myocardial performance after successful resuscitation, whereas the rate of restoration of spontaneous circulation is not reduced. Therefore, this set-up provides a reproducible model for future studies of post-resuscitation haemodynamics and treatment.
    European Journal of Anaesthesiology 08/2007; 24(7):580-8. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Milrinone used for acute cardiac insufficiency could be of interest during cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of its positive inotropic effects. In this study, the combination of milrinone-vasopressin was compared with epinephrine and vasopressin, as well as with the combination of epinephrine-vasopressin, in reference to hemodynamics. Thirty-two pigs underwent ligation of the circumflex coronary artery and induction of ventricular fibrillation lasting for 4 min. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed after randomization to one of four groups: epinephrine (30-microg/kg bolus), vasopressin (0.4-U/kg bolus), epinephrine-vasopressin (15-microg/kg epinephrine bolus, 0.2-U/kg vasopressin bolus), or milrinone-vasopressin (0.4-U/kg vasopressin bolus, 50-microg/kg milrinone bolus over 5 min and a continuous infusion of 0.4 microg.kg.min). The hemodynamic variables were measured before cardiopulmonary resuscitation as well as 4, 8, 15, and 30 min after return of spontaneous circulation. All animals were resuscitated successfully. The animals of the milrinone-vasopressin group displayed significantly (P<0.05) higher cardiac index values (30 min after return of spontaneous circulation: epinephrine, 65.8+/-13.2; vasopressin, 70.7+/-18.3; epinephrine-vasopressin, 69.1+/-36.2; milrinone-vasopressin, 120.7+/-34.8 ml.min.kg) without a decrease in mean arterial pressure or coronary perfusion pressure. The combination of vasopressin-milrinone as compared with epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation leads to an improved cardiac index without relevant decrease of mean arterial pressure or coronary perfusion pressure.
    Anesthesiology 02/2007; 106(1):100-6. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    M Messner, S Albrecht, W Lang, R Sittl, M Dinkel
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid and reliable neurological evaluation soon after carotid artery surgery is feasible with modern methods of general anesthesia, but postoperative pain therapy remains a challenge. Use of opioids can mask neurological deficits. We investigated whether superficial cervical plexus block reduced postoperative opioid consumption after carotid endarterectomy. Prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial. 46 patients undergoing unilateral carotid endarterectomy under general anesthesia were randomized to either superficial cervical block with ropivacaine (n=23) or placebo (n=23). A patient controlled analgesia device (PCA) delivering morphine was provided for all patients. Subjective pain levels (visual analog scale, VAS) were recorded. The primary outcome was total morphine consumption on discharge from the recovery room. Secondary outcomes included arterial pCO2 (as an indicator of central nervous effects of morphine) and patient satisfaction. No adverse effects of the superficial cervical plexus block were reported. Four patients in the placebo group were excluded because of other drug use post-operatively. Per protocol analysis compared 23 patients in ropivacaine group and 19 patients in the placebo group. The ropivacaine group had a significant reduction in morphine consumption (3.8+/-2.0 versus 12.9+/-4.0, p<0.001), lower maximal pain scores (2.6+/-2.0 versus 5.8+/-1.6, p<0.001), and paCO2 levels (39.0+/-2.6 versus 41.9+/-3.4, p=0.008) at discharge from the recovery room. Patient satisfaction (1=very good to 6=insufficient) was substantially higher in the ropivacaine group (1.7+/-0.7 versus 3.1+/-1.2, p<00.01). The significant and clinically relevant lower morphine consumption and pain score, as well as the substantially higher patient satisfaction demonstrate that superficial cervical plexus block provides effective pain relief for patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy.
    European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 01/2007; 33(1):50-4. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common inborn error of the urea cycle. Several specific factors require care during anesthesia in patients with this condition to avoid metabolic decompensation with acute hyperammonemia and encephalopathy. We report monozygous twins with severe neonatal-onset OTCD undergoing general anesthesia twice each, with midazolam, s-ketamine, fentanyl and isoflurane in combination with surgical field infiltration with ropivacaine. Alternative pathway medication and high-caloric diet with 10% glucose solutions were continuously administered during the perioperative course. Both children were extubated within 10 min of the final suture, and their neurological state remained unchanged. Perioperatively, blood ammonia levels remained within the normal range.
    Pediatric Anesthesia 04/2006; 16(3):333-7. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common inborn urea cycle disorder. Patients with OTCD are at risk of acute metabolic decompensation with hyperammonemia and subsequent encephalopathy, coma and death. Symptoms may be triggered by infections, drugs and stress, evoked by trauma, pain, fear, surgery and anaesthesia or by episodes of protein catabolism, i.e. fasting-induced, post partum or during gastrointestinal bleeding. Several specific considerations must be made for anaesthetic and intensive care management in patients with this disease in order to avoid metabolic decompensation. We report the intensive care management of the first manifestation of late-onset OTCD in a 16-year-old girl and a course of inconspicuous general anaesthesia with midazolam, s-ketamine, fentanyl and isoflurane in a 22-year-old girl with known OTCD.
    Der Anaesthesist 01/2006; 54(12):1201-8. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical studies suggest low-dose ketamine may have preemptive effects on postoperative pain in adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether intraoperative low-dose S-ketamine reduces postoperative pain and morphine consumption in children undergoing major urological surgery. Thirty children scheduled for major urological surgery were included in this prospective study. Anesthesia was performed as total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with alfentanil and propofol. Fifteen patients additionally received an intravenous bolus of S-ketamine (0.2 mg.kg-1) followed by a continuous infusion of 5 microg.kg-1.min-1, which was stopped immediately after skin closure (Ketamine Group). Another 15 patients received an infusion of saline (Control group). After transfer to the PACU, pain intensity was evaluated using a numeric rating scale (NRS). First patient controlled analgesia (PCA) request, cumulative morphine consumption and pain intensities within the first 72 h were compared. Morphine consumption was not significantly different during the first 72 h (Control: 0.4 mg.kg-1, 0.24-0.51 mg.kg-1, Ketamine: 0.32 mg.kg-1, 0.19-0.61 mg.kg-1; median, 25-75% percentile; n.s.). However, differences were found in pain intensity during the first postoperative hour (Control: 4.0, 3.2-4.6, Ketamine: 2.5, 1.3-3.5; median, 25-75% percentile; P<0.05) and in the time to first PCA use (Control: 37, 28-46 min, Ketamine: 62, 38-68 min; median, 25-75% percentile; P<0.05). Intraoperative low-dose S-ketamine had no effect on morphine consumption during the first 72 h after surgery. The differences in pain intensity and time to first PCA use probably reflect additional sedation and antinociceptive effects of S-ketamine rather than a true 'prevention' of pain.
    Pediatric Anesthesia 06/2005; 15(6):484-90. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Priming is a known technique to accelerate onset of neuromuscular blockade (NMB). Its effect on NMB of the larynx has not been studied yet. We compared a priming technique with a bolus application of rocuronium on the onset of NMB at the laryngeal adductor and the adductor pollicis muscles (AP). In 30 female patients, after induction of anesthesia a tube with a surface electrode was placed into the trachea prior to the administration of any neuromuscular blocking agent to monitor electromyography (EMG) of the laryngeal adductor muscles. Neuromuscular monitoring consisted of EMG of the laryngeal adductor muscles and the left AP. Patients were randomized into two groups. After transcutaneous stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and ulnar nerve, a bolus of rocuronium 0.6 mg x kg(-1) (Bolus group) or a priming dose of rocuronium 0.06 mg x kg(-1) followed by rocuronium 0.54 mg x kg(-1) three minutes later (Priming group) were injected. Lag time, onset 90%, onset time and peak effect of NMB were recorded and compared; a P < 0.05 was considered significant. The onset 90% and onset time measured at the laryngeal adductor muscles (onset: 44.7 +/- 7.4 vs 74.0 +/- 23.8 sec) and at the AP (onset: 105.4 +/- 29.9 vs 139.2 +/- 51.5 sec) were significantly shorter in the Priming group than in the Bolus group. Within groups, the onset times were significantly shorter at the laryngeal muscles in comparison to AP. Our results indicate that a priming technique with rocuronium significantly accelerates the onset of NMB at the laryngeal adductor muscles. Our results further support the use of rocuronium as an alternative to succinylcholine for rapid sequence induction.
    Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 02/2005; 52(1):50-4. · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • J Schmidt, W Hering, S Albrecht
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate efficacy and tolerability of propofol, remifentanil and cisatracurium or mivacurium in routine anesthetic practice. A total of 6,161 patients scheduled for abdominal or orthopedic surgery were included in this open multicenter phase IV study. Perioperative hemodynamics as well as induction, recovery and discharge times, anesthetics, frequency of PONV and side-effects were studied. Quality of induction and maintenance of anesthesia were evaluated by anesthesiologists to be good or very good in 88%. 86% of the patients assessed anesthesia as good or very good. Adverse events were reported for 28 patients (0.45%), with hypotension and bradycardia being most frequent. Recovery was evaluated by anesthesiologists to be good or very good in 88%, surgeons and nursing staff assessed the TIVA as good or very good in 90%. Most frequent postoperative complaints were pain (16.7%), nausea (6.1%), shivering (3.1%) and vomiting (0.7%). The study showed that total intravenous anesthesia using propofol, remifentanil and cisatracurium or mivacurium is safe, tolerable and effective and has a high degree of acceptance.
    Der Anaesthesist 02/2005; 54(1):17-28. · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Anaesthesiology - EUR J ANAESTH. 01/2005; 22.
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    ABSTRACT: Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to induce analgesia mainly via inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX). Although the inhibition of COX in the periphery is commonly accepted as the primary mechanism, experimental and clinical data suggest a potential role for spinal COX-inhibition to produce antinociception and reduce hypersensitivity. We used an experimental model of electrically evoked pain and hyperalgesia in human skin to determine the time course of central analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of intravenous parecoxib and paracetamol (acetaminophen). Fourteen subjects were enrolled in this randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled cross-over study. In three sessions, separated by 2-week wash-out periods, the subjects received intravenous infusions of 40 mg parecoxib, 1000 mg paracetamol, or placebo. The magnitude of pain and areas of pinprick-hyperalgesia and touch evoked allodynia were repeatedly assessed before, and for 150 min after the infusion. While pain ratings were not affected, parecoxib as well as paracetamol significantly reduced the areas of secondary hyperalgesia to pinprick and touch. In conclusion, our results provide clear experimental evidence for the existence of central antihyperalgesia induced by intravenous infusion of two COX inhibitors, parecoxib and paracetamol. Since the electrical current directly stimulated the axons, peripheral effects of the COX inhibitors on nociceptive nerve endings cannot account for the reduction of hyperalgesia. Thus, besides its well-known effects on inflamed peripheral tissues, inhibition of central COX provides an important mechanism of NSAID-mediated antihyperalgesia in humans.
    Pain 04/2004; 108(1-2):148-53. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the development of acute tolerance to the EEG effect of midazolam and the new benzodiazepine Ro 48-6791. Nine young (24-28 years) and nine elderly (67-81 years) male volunteers received midazolam and Ro 48-6791 computer-controlled, targeting linearly increasing plasma concentrations for 30 min (targeted slopes: 40 and 20 ng ml-1 min-1 for midazolam, 3 and 1.5 ng ml-1 min-1 for Ro 48-6791, for young and elderly, respectively) and a constant concentration for the following 15 min. After recovery, the same infusion scheme was repeated. Plasma concentrations of midazolam, Ro 48-6791 and its metabolite Ro 48-6792 were determined from arterial blood samples. The hypnotic effect was assessed using the median frequency of the EEG power spectrum. The concentration-effect relationship in each infusion cycle could be described by a sigmoid Emax model. The half-maximum concentration EC50 was higher in the second infusion cycle compared with the first one (midazolam, 47% (2.3-91.6%) and 37% (5.3-69.5%); Ro 48-6791, 22% (-2.8% to 44.6%) and 43% (3.4-82.4%) for young and elderly; mean and 95% confidence interval). The complete time course of the EEG median frequency could be described by an interaction between the parent drug in an effect compartment and a hypothetical competitive drug in an additional tolerance compartment. For Ro 48-6791, the use of its metabolite Ro 48-6792 as competitive compound also gave appropriate results. Midzolam and Ro 48-6791 showed acute tolerance to the EEG effect which might be caused by competitive interaction with the metabolite.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 03/2004; 57(2):153-61. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy and safety of remifentanil and alfentanil for patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were compared. Premedicated patients received a loading dose of remifentanil (1.0 μg.kg−1; n =116) and a continuous infusion of 0.5 μg.kg−1.min−1, or a loading dose of alfentanil (25 μg.kg−1; n =118) and a continuous infusion of 1.0 μg.kg−1.min−1. Propofol was administered (10 mg every 10 s) until loss of consciousness. Patients’ lungs were ventilated with 66% nitrous oxide and 0.5% (end-tidal) isoflurane in oxygen. The study drug infusion rate was reduced by 50% 5 min after intubation. Alfentanil was discontinued 15 min before the end of surgery, whereas remifentanil was continued in the immediate postoperative period at a reduced dose. Responses to intubation (28%) and skin incision (17%) occurred approximately twice as often in the alfentanil group (15% and 8%; p = 0.014 and p = 0.037, respectively). More patients receiving alfentanil had one or more responses to surgery (72% vs. 57%; p = 0.016). The time to spontaneous respiration, adequate respiration, response to verbal command and time to recovery room discharge were similar. However, owing to decreased variability, the time to extubation was shorter with remifentanil than with alfentanil (p =0.048). There was a similar overall incidence of adverse events in both groups, 82% and 75% of patients, respectively. Adverse events associated with remifentanil were rapidly controlled by dose reductions. The incidence of intra-operative hypotension and bradycardia was higher in the remifentanil group (p ≤0.033). An initial remifentanil infusion rate of 0.1 μg.kg−1.min−1 titrated to individual need provided postoperative pain relief in the presence of adequate respiration in 71% of patients. When using remifentanil in the immediate postoperative setting, rapid administration of bolus doses and infusion rate increases resulted in a relatively high incidence of muscle rigidity, respiratory depression and apnoea. Changing the postoperative regimen to avoid rapid changes in remifentanil blood concentration resulted in more effective analgesia and dramatically reduced the incidence of adverse events during this period. In patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, remifentanil appears to offer superior intra-operative haemodynamic stability during stressful surgical events compared with alfentanil without compromising recovery from anaesthesia. Remifentanil can be administered as a postoperative analgesic agent at a starting dose of 0.1 μg.kg−1.min−1; however, it should only be used in the presence of adequate supervision and monitoring of the patient. Administration of bolus doses is not recommended in this setting.
    Anaesthesia 01/2004; 52(4):307 - 317. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • S. Albrecht, G. Breuer, J. Schüttler
    Endoskopie heute 01/2004; 17(3):139-145. · 0.13 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

670 Citations
98.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2009
    • Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
      • Department of Anaesthesiology
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008
    • Golden Jubilee National Hospital
      Clydebank, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2008
    • Universitätsklinikum Erlangen
      • Department of Anaesthesiology
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany