M Matsuda

Belfast Healthy Cities, Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom

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Publications (146)214.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of human gastrointestinal diseases, other Campylobacter species are also involved in human and animal infections. In this study, we developed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) assay for the detection and differentiation of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus, and C. upsaliensis. Previously designed common primers, which can amplify the cdtB gene of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus, were used for detecting 7 Campylobacter species and differentiating by restriction digestion. The PCR-RFLP assay was validated with 277 strains including 35 C. jejuni, 19 C. coli, 20 C. fetus, 24 C. hyointestinalis, 13 C. lari, 2 C. helveticus, 22 C. upsaliensis, 3 other Campylobacter and 17 other species associated with human diseases. Sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-RFLP assay were 100% except for C. hyointestinalis (88% sensitivity). Furthermore the PCR-RFLP assay successfully detected and differentiated C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus in clinical and animal samples. The results indicate that the PCR-RFLP assay is useful for the detection and differentiation of 7 Campylobacter species important for human and animal diseases.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 02/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • British journal of biomedical science 01/2014; 71(2):82-3. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two examples of Campylobacter upsaliensis RM3195 and JV21 strains are shown to carry putative type III restriction (res)-modification (mod) enzyme gene clusters, following genome sequence analyses. It is suggested that the cluster is composed of at least three structural genes, res, internal methylase gene and mod, in the strains, based on the nucleotide sequence information. A ribosome binding site, a putative promoter consisting of a consensus sequence at the -10-like structure and a semiconserved T-rich region and a putative intrinsic p-independent transcriptional terminator were identified for the gene cluster in the two strains. Using two primer pairs, f-/r-res and f-/r-mod, 34 of 41 C. upsaliensis isolates generated two expected amplicons of the res and mod gene segments, and using another primer pair, the same number of isolates also generated an amplicon of the res and mod gene segments cluster, including the third internal methylase gene. Thus, C. upsaliensis isolates frequently carried putative type III R-M gene clusters, encoding the three enzymes. Interestingly, two possible overlaps were identified within the three tandem structural genes. In addition, the type III R-M gene cluster loci appear to be very similar among the C. upsaliensis isolates and very different from other thermophilic campylobacters.
    British journal of biomedical science 01/2014; 71(2):66-72. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Southern hybridisation shows that urease-negative (UN) Campylobacter lari JCM2530(T) carries two putative major outer membrane protein (MOMP) genes. Sequences of approximately 2.1 kbp, encoding non-coding (NC) regions, with possible open reading frames (ORFs) for MOMP (porA1 or porA2) of approximately 1.2 kbp, NC regions and partial and putative Cla_0435 or Cla_1109 ORFs were identified in all five UN C. lari isolates examined, following polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning and sequencing. Each putative MOMP structural gene carried start and stop codons and ribosome binding sites of 1236-1278 bp in length. The putative sigma70 transcriptional promoter and the hypothetical rho-independent transcription terminator structures were also seen. Using Northern hybridisation, there was in vivo monocistronic MOMP gene transcription. In addition, in a Japanese urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) CF89-12 strain, the porA1 gene locus, including an extra gene (approximately 2000 bp in length) was identified. The extra gene may occur within the porA1 gene locus in the eight UPTC isolates of the 23 C. lari isolates examined. Thus, a genetic heterogeneity occurred within the porA1 gene locus from some of the C. lari organisms including the UPTC CF89-12.
    British journal of biomedical science 01/2014; 71(1):19-28. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant full-length urease gene cluster and seven 100% deletion recombinant variants of urease subunits genes, (ureG, ureH, ureA, ureB, ureC, ureE and ureF) were constructed in vitro from the Campylobacter sputorum biovar paraureolyticus LMG17591 strain and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 cells. A urease-positive reaction (1.885 micromol/min/mg protein) in the log-phase cultured E. coli cells transformed with pGEM-T vector carrying the recombinant full-length urease genes cluster was detected. Among the seven 100% deletion recombinant variants, each of the ureG-, ureH(D)-, ureA-, ureB-, ureC-, ureE- and ureF-deletion variants showed no change in assay of the urease reaction, and similarly as in the E. coli cell lysate with pGEM-T vector only. Recombinant full-length urease gene cluster and 100% deletion recombinants of the ureE gene in the transformed and log-phase cultured E. coli cells from the C. sputorum showed positively accelerated urease activities when cultured in the medium containing NiCl2 (750 micromol/L), but no activity was accelerated in the C. sputorum cultured in NiCl2. In addition, thiourea (20 mmol/L) completely inhibited urease activities from all C. sputorum examined. The putative recombinant urease subunits A and C were immunologically identified by Western blot analysis with polyclonal anti-urease alpha (A) and beta (B), raised against Helicobacter pylori.
    British journal of biomedical science 01/2014; 71(2):58-65. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe here the development of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Taylorella equigenitalis, the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a nonpathogenic bacterium. MLST was performed on a set of 163 strains collected in several countries over 35 years (1977-2012). The MLST data were analyzed using START2, MEGA 5.05 and eBURST, and can be accessed at http://pubmlst.org/taylorella/. Our results revealed a clonal population with 39 sequence types (ST) and no common ST between the two Taylorella species. The eBURST analysis grouped the 27 T. equigenitalis STs into four clonal complexes (CC1-4) and five unlinked STs. The 12 T. asinigenitalis STs were grouped into three clonal complexes (CC5-7) and five unlinked STs, among which CC1 (68.1% of the 113 T. equigenitalis) and CC5 (58.0% of the 50 T. asinigenitalis) were dominants. The CC1, still in circulation in France, contains isolates from the first CEM outbreaks that simultaneously emerged in several countries in the late 1970s. The emergence in different countries (e.g. France, Japan, and United Arab Emirates) of STs without any genetic relationship to CC1 suggests the existence of a natural worldwide reservoir that remains to be identified. T. asinigenitalis appears to behave same way since the American, Swedish and French isolates have unrelated STs. This first Taylorella sp. MLST is a powerful tool for further epidemiological investigations and population biology studies of the Taylorella genus.
    Veterinary Microbiology 09/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A study was undertaken to examine the population structure of viridans group streptococci (VGS) isolated the upper respiratory tract of adult and paediatric patients within the community. VGS are common commensal bacterial inhabitants of the upper respiratory tract and valuable sentinel reporters of underlying antibiotic resistance (AR). Laboratory examination of the colonising VGS species may provide a valuable ecological description of the species isolated from the upper respiratory tract and their antibiotic susceptibility, including an estimation of the AR reservoir in this population. Freshly obtained nasal and oropharyngeal swabs from 84 patients were examined by selective conventional culture on Mitis-Salivarius agar and yielded 363 isolates of VGS. Sequence analyses of the rpnB and 16-23S rRNA ITS genes identified these isolates to belong to 10 species of VGS and included S. anginosus, S. australis, S. constellatus, S. infantis, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. parasanguinis, S. salivarius, S. sanguinis and S. vestibularis. The most frequent VGS organisms isolated was S. salivarius (282/363; 78.0%), followed by S. sanguinis (23/363; 6.3%), S. parasanguinis (21/363; 5.8%), S. mitis (18/363; 5.0%), S. anginosus (5/363; 1.4%), S. vestibularis (5/363; 1.4%), S. australis (3/363; 0.8%), S. oralis (3/363; 0.8%), S. infantis (1/363; 0.3%) and S. constellatus (1/363; 0.3%). All patients examined carried at least one VGS organism, where there were 17 combination patterns of carriage of the 10 species of VGS species isolated, where 54.2%, 37.3%, 7.2% and 1.2% of patients harboured one, two, three and four different VGS species, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by standard disk diffusion assay testing against four classes of antibiotics, including the b-lactams [cefotaxime, cefuroxime], the tetracyclines [doxycycline], the fluoroquinolones [levofloxacin] and the macrolides [erythromycin]. Overall, there was no resistance to levofloxacin and cefuroxime, with limited resistance to cefotaxime (3.3%) and doxycycline (9.8%). Antibiotic resistance was highest in erythromycin, where 40.9% of isolates were resistant. S. vestibularis was the most antibiotic resistance of all VGS species examined (S. vestibularis v S. salivarius p=0.011), followed by S. anginosis. S. salivarius was the most antibiotic susceptible VGS species examined. Overall, given their infrequency in causing infection, relatively few studies to date have attempted to examine their ecology in their preferred body niche, namely the upper respiratory tract. However, knowing their prevalence is becoming increasingly important in relation to their ability to exclude significant respiratory pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. In conclusion, these data indicate that VGS colonisation of the upper respiratory tract in individuals within the community is dominated mainly with relatively antibiotic susceptible S. salivarius.
    The Ulster medical journal 09/2013; 82(3):164-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Although the absence of intervening sequences (IVSs) within the 23S rRNA genes in Campylobacter lari isolates has been described, there are apparently no reports regarding correlations between the nucleotide sequences of 23S rRNA genes and erythromycin (Ery) susceptibility in C. lari isolates. Here, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 35 C. lari isolates [n = 19 for urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC); n = 16 urease-negative (UN) C. lari] obtained from Asia, Europe, and North America. We found that the 18 isolates were resistant to the Ery (defined as ≧8 μg/mL), and three isolates, UPTC A1, UPTC 92251, and UPTC 504, showed increased resistance (16 μg/mL). No correlations between the IVSs in the helix 45 region within the 23S rRNA gene sequences and Ery resistance were identified in the C. lari isolates examined. In addition, no point mutations occurred at any expected or putative position within the V domain in the isolates. In conclusion, antibiotic resistance against the macrolide erythromycin is mediated through an alternative pathway to that described above.
    Folia Microbiologica 04/2013; · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recombinant molecule of the full-length urease gene operon was constructed in vitro from the Japanese urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) CF89-12 isolate and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Several large deletion recombinant variants of urease subunit genes were also constructed and expressed in E. coli cells. A positive urease reaction with the log-phase cultured E. coli JM109 cells in the NiCl2-containing medium transformed with pGEM-T vector carrying the recombinant molecule of the full-length operon was detected with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside. Among the several deletion recombinant variants, each ureA-, ureB-, ureE-, ureF-, ureG- and ureH-large deficient, only ureE-large deletion variant (63% deficient) showed a positive urease reaction (approximately 15-fold). In addition, a ureE-complete deletion recombinant variant (100% deficient) constructed also showed a positive reaction of urease (approximately 18-fold). Recombinant urease subunits A and B were immunologically identified by Western blot analysis with anti-urease alpha (A) and beta (B) raised against Helicobacter pylori.
    British journal of biomedical science 01/2013; 70(1):15-21. · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • British journal of biomedical science 01/2013; 70(2):81-3. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene clusters, sodB and sodC, and their adjacent genetic loci from a urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) CF89-12 strain were analyzed molecularly, and compared with those of thermophilic campylobacters. The UPTC CF89-12 strain carried sodB [structural gene 654 base pairs (bp)] and sodC (540 bp) genes, as did the Campylobacter lari RM2100 reference strain. However, the other three thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and C. upsaliensis reference strains carried only a single sodB gene, and no sodC. Although sodB and sodC in the UPTC strain shared relatively high nucleotide sequence similarities (92.9 % and 91.7 %, respectively) with the corresponding genes in the C. lari RM2100 strain, the sodB gene in the UPTC CF89-12 and C. lari RM2100 strains shared relatively low nucleotide sequence similarities with those in C. jejuni NCTC11168 (80.8 % and 81.7 %), C. coli RM2228 (82.0 % and 83.1 %) and C. upsaliensis RM3195 (75.9 % and 77.0 %), respectively. All PCR amplifications of sodB and sodC gene segments with 28 C. lari isolates, including 14 UPTC isolates, gave positive results. C. lari organisms were shown to carry both the sodB and sodC genes with extremely high frequency. More high-SOD activity was seen with the C. lari isolates (n = 9), including UPTC, than was seen with the other three thermophilic Campylobacter and Helicobacter pylori organisms.
    Annals of Microbiology 01/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The methionine sulphoxide reductase A (msrA) gene and its adjacent genetic loci from urease-negative (UN) Campylobacter lari RM2100 and urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC)CF89-12 strains appear to be composed of a msrA structure gene (507 base pairs [bp]) and another five-gene cluster (approximately 6300 bp) in the same strand and direction. A primer pair (F1/R4-msrA) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was designed to generate a product of approximately 900 bp of the msrA gene, including its adjacent genetic loci for the thermophilic Campylobacter organisms and generate an amplicon with 16 C. lari isolates (n = 4 for UN C. lari; n = 12 for UPTC). Following direct nucleotide sequencing, sequence analysis and nucleotide sequence alignment analysis, the putative full-length msrA gene from the 16 C. lari isolates showed high nucleotide sequence similarities (91.8-100%) to each other and relatively low similarity (69.3-71.8%) to three reference C. jejuni and C. coli strains. In addition, the msrA gene was transcribed in both the UPTC CF89-12 and NCTC12893 cells using reverse transcription PCR. An immunoreactively positive signal was identified in the UPTC CF89-12 and NCTC12893 cells with anti-UPTC MsrA synthetic peptide antibodies.
    British journal of biomedical science 01/2013; 70(4):135-43. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), of approximately 10,000 base pairs (bp) in length, were shown to occur in the Japanese Taylorella equigenitalis strain, EQ59. The locus was composed of the putative CRISPRs-associated with 5 (cas5), RAMP csd1, csd2, recB, cas1, a leader region, 13 CRISPR consensus sequence repeats (each 32 bp; 5'-TCAGCCACGTTCGCGTGGCTGTGTGTTTAAAG-3'). These were in turn separated by 12 non repetitive unique spacer regions of similar length. In addition, a leader region, a transposase/IS protein, a leader region, and cas3 were also seen. All seven putative open reading frames carry their ribosome binding sites. Promoter consensus sequences at the -35 and -10 regions and putative intrinsic ρ-independent transcription terminator regions also occurred. A possible long overlap of 170 bp in length occurred between the recB and cas1 loci. Positive reverse transcription PCR signals of cas5, RAMP csd1, csd2-recB/cas1, and cas3 were generated. A putative secondary structure of the CRISPR consensus repeats was constructed. Following this, CRISPR results of the T. equigenitalis EQ59 isolate were subsequently compared with those from the Taylorella asinigenitalis MCE3 isolate.
    Folia Microbiologica 12/2012; · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An arsenic (ars) four-gene operon, containing genes encoding a putative membrane permease (ArsP), a transcriptional repressor (ArsR), an arsenate reductase (ArsC) and an arsenical-resistance membrane transporter (Acr3) was first identified in urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) isolate, CF89-12. UPTC CF89-12 and some other Campylobacter lari isolates contained their ars four-genes, similarly, differing from that in the reference C. lari RM2100 strain. Two putative promoters and a putative terminator were identified for the operon in UPTC CF89-12. In vivo transcription of the operon was confirmed in the UPTC cells. PCR experiments using two primer pairs designed in silico to amplify two arsR and arsC-acr3 segments, respectively, generated two amplicons, approximately 200 and 350 base pairs, with all 31 of 31 and 19 of 31 C. lari isolates (n = 17 for UPTC; n = 14 for UN C. lari), respectively. An inverted repeat forming a dyad structure, a potential binding site for a transcriptional repressor, was identified in the promoter region. Within the deduced 61 amino acids sequence of the putative arsR open reading frame from the UPTC CF89-12, a metal binding box and a DNA-binding helix-turn-helix motif were identified. The UPTC CF89-12 and some other UPTC isolates isolated from natural environment were resistant to arsenate.
    Folia Microbiologica 11/2012; · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Following PCR amplification and sequencing, nucleotide sequence alignment analyses demonstrated the presence of two kinds of 16S-23S rDNA internal spacer regions (ISRs), namely, long length ISRs of 837-844 base pair (bp) [n = six for urease-negative (UN) Campylobacter lari isolates, UN C. lari JCM2530(T), RM2100, 176, 293, 299 and 448] and short length ISRs of 679-725 bp [n = six for UN C. lari: n = 14 for urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) isolates]. The analyses also indicated that the short length ISRs mainly lacked the 156 bp sequence from the nucleotide positions 122-277 bp in long length ISRs for UN C. lari JCM2530(T). The 156 bp sequences shared 94.9-96.8 % sequence similarity among six isolates. Surprisingly, atypical tRNA(Ala) gene segment (5' end 35 bp), which was extremely truncated, occurred within the 156 bp sequences in the long length ISRs, as an unexpected tRNA(Ala) pseudogene. An order of the intercistronic tRNA genes within the short nucleotide spacer of 5'-16S rDNA-tRNA(Ala)-tRNA(Ile)-23S rDNA-3' occurred in all the C. lari isolates examined.
    MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 06/2012; 28(6):2403-10. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skin tanning, either by exposure to natural sunlight or through use of UV sunbeds, has become a popular practice in the US, where it is estimated that approximately 1 million times per day someone in the US uses UV radiation for skin tanning, equating to 30 million Americans (circa 10% of the US population) who use a tanning bed. As well as exposing the host to periods of UV radiation, such practices also expose commensal skin bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, to such UV radiation. Previous work has indicated that environmental stresses on bacteria may lead to an upregulation of stress responses, in an attempt for the organism to combat the applied stress and remain viable. UV light may act as an environmental stress on bacteria, and so it was the aim of this study to examine the effect of UVc light on the antibiotic susceptibility of commensal skin bacteria, to determine if UV radiation would increase the antibiotic resistance of such skin flora and thus lead to a potential skin flora with increased antibiotic resistance. Previously, it has been shown that UVc light has a greater mutational effect on bacteria compared to lower-energy UV forms, including UVa and UVb light. Therefore, we decided to employ UVc light in our study to amplify the potential for mutational events occurring in skin staphylococci organisms (n=8) including methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (n=2), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n=4), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (Staphylococcus haemolyticus) (n=2) were exposed to varying degrees of sublethal radiation via UVc light, and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) susceptibility was determined by broth dilution assay against three classes of commonly used antibiotics, namely β-lactams (penicillin), macrolides (erythromycin), and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin). There was no significant difference between antibiotic susceptibility before UVc exposure and until maximum sublethal stress, prior to cell death due to fatal UVc exposure with the cells. These results indicate that UV environmental stress/exposure does not upregulate antibiotic resistance, and therefore these data indicate that UVc radiation does not lead to a more antibiotic-resistant population in the staphylococci organisms post-exposure.
    Journal of cosmetic science 03/2012; 63(2):133-7. · 0.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to clarify if Campylobacter lari exerts a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) effect on HeLa cells. Campylobacter cell lysates (CCLys) from C. jejuni 81-176 and urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) CF89-12 and UPTC NCTC12893 isolates were shown to exert a CDT effect on HeLa cells with morphological changes examined by Giemsa staining and microscopy. However, Campylobacter lari JCM2530(T) isolate showed no effect. In addition, Campylobacter cell culture supernatant wash gave low or absent toxic effects with both C. jejuni and C. lari organisms. When western blot analysis was carried out to clarify if there was a CDTB effect in the CCLys and soluble fractions from Campylobacter isolates, which had a CDT effect on HeLa cells or did not have any effect, anti-recombinant CjCDTB antibodies identified an immunoreactively positive signal at around approximately 25 kDa on all the C. lari isolates examined, as well as the C. jejuni 81116 strain. Thus, all the Campylobacter isolates including those without any CDT effect were shown to express CDTB at the translational level. (© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).
    Journal of Basic Microbiology 02/2012; 52(5):559-65. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) locus [7,500 base pairs (bp) in length] occurred in the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) Japanese isolate, CF89-12. The 7,500 bp gene loci consisted of the 5'-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase gene, putative (P) CRISPR associated (p-Cas), putative open reading frames, Cas1 and Cas2, leader sequence region (146 bp), 12 CRISPRs consensus sequence repeats (each 36 bp) separated by a non-repetitive unique spacer region of similar length (26-31 bp) and the phosphatidyl glycerophosphatase A gene. When the CRISPRs loci in the UPTC CF89-12 and five C. jejuni isolates were compared with one another, these six isolates contained p-Cas, Cas1 and Cas2 within the loci. Four to 12 CRISPRs consensus sequence repeats separated by a non-repetitive unique spacer region occurred in six isolates and the nucleotide sequences of those repeats gave approximately 92-100% similarity with each other. However, no sequence similarity occurred in the unique spacer regions among these isolates. The putative σ(70) transcriptional promoter and the hypothetical ρ-independent terminator structures for the CRISPRs and Cas were detected. No in vivo transcription of p-Cas, Cas1 and Cas2 was confirmed in the UPTC cells.
    MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 02/2012; 28(2):713-20. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Currently, empirical treatment with quinolones is being used due to the emergence of beta-lactam and macrolide resistance in S. pneumonaie. Although the prevalence of quinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae remains low, increasing numbers of resistant isolates are being seen. Genetic mechanisms leading to fluoroquinolone resistance in pneumococci are complex. This study aims to use molecular methods to characterise all isolates through sequence analysis of their QRDR regions. Thirty-two S. pneumoniae isolates were obtained from nasal swabs from adult and paediatric patients attending local general practices in Northern Ireland. Phenotypic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution against ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and norfloxacin. Simultaneously, the QRDR regions of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE were analysed by sequence typing for all pneumococci obtained. Only one isolate (3.1%) showed reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Two amino acid positions were discordant in the S. pneumoniae R6 strain and eight (25%) and 23 (71.9%) isolates contained the mutations Ile460Val in gyrA and Lys137Asn in parC (deposited in GenBank, accession numbers GQ999587-GQ999589), respectively. No mutations were found in either the gyrB or parE loci. In conclusion, the study demonstrated increased fluoroquinolone resistance which could not be accounted for simply through QRDR mutations, and, reciprocally, that mutations in the QRDR region do not necessarily result in overt phenotypic resistance.
    British journal of biomedical science 01/2012; 69(3):123-5. · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • British journal of biomedical science 01/2012; 69(4):178-80. · 0.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

707 Citations
214.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2013
    • Belfast Healthy Cities
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 1997–2013
    • Azabu University
      • • Laboratory of Molecular Biology (Veterinary Medicine)
      • • School of Life and Environmental Sciences
      • • Laboratory of Microbiology
      Sagamihara, Kanagawa-ken, Japan
  • 2009
    • University of Ulster
      • School of Biomedical Sciences
      Belfast, NIR, United Kingdom