[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T helper 17 (Th17) cells produce IL-17 but can also make tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-21, and IL-22. These cytokines collectively contribute to the functional outcome of the Th response. IL-22 plays a critical role in some Th17-associated diseases, such as psoriasis, but its relationship to IL-17 remains controversial. Here, we used a systematic multiparametric analysis of Th-17-associated cytokines, which revealed the unexpected finding that the regulation pattern of IL-22 was most closely related to interferon-gamma, the prototypical Th1 cytokine, and not to IL-17. To explain this observation, we systematically tested the role of Th1- and Th17-inducing cytokines. We could show that IL-12 and IL-23 induced high levels of IL-22 but no IL-17. Conversely, transforming growth factor-beta inhibited IL-22 production but promoted IL-17. Thus, IL-17 and IL-22 are differentially regulated during cytokine-induced Th cell differentiation. This has important implications for the understanding and pharmacologic manipulation of Th17-associated pathologies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid predendritic cells (pDCs) play a key role in antiviral immunity through their capacity to produce large amounts of type I interferons in response to Toll-like receptor triggering, and to differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs). However, their antigen processing and presentation pathways remain poorly characterized. In this study, we analyzed major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) synthesis and transport in primary human pDCs. We show that stimulation of pDCs with influenza virus leads to a sustained neosynthesis of MHC II molecules, which rapidly accumulate in antigen loading compartments organized around the microtubule organization center. MHC II endocytosis as well as antigen internalization remain active during the entire process of pDC differentiation into DCs, suggesting a capacity to constantly renew surface peptide-MHC II complexes. Formation of the intracellular pool of MHC II in activated pDCs is nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent and associated with acquisition of a dendritic phenotype, but independent of the IRF7-type I interferon-dependent pathway, suggesting that innate and adaptive functions of pDCs are differentially regulated. Our data demonstrate that the regulation of MHC II expression and transport is drastically different in pDCs compared with conventional DCs, indicating distinct and potentially complementary immunoregulatory functions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid predendritic cells (pDCs) are the main producers of type I interferon (IFN) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) has been shown to be activated by TLR triggering in multiple cell types; however, its role in pDC function is not known. We show that PI3K is activated by TLR stimulation in primary human pDCs and demonstrate, using specific inhibitors, that PI3K is required for type I IFN production by pDCs, both at the transcriptional and protein levels. Importantly, PI3K was not involved in other proinflammatory responses of pDCs, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 production and DC differentiation. pDCs preferentially expressed the PI3K delta subunit, which was specifically involved in the control of type I IFN production. Although uptake and endosomal trafficking of TLR ligands were not affected in the presence of PI3K inhibitors, there was a dramatic defect in the nuclear translocation of IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 7, whereas nuclear factor kappaB activation was preserved. Thus, PI3K selectively controls type I IFN production by regulating IRF-7 nuclear translocation in human pDCs and could serve as a novel target to inhibit pathogenic type I IFN in autoimmune diseases.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2008; 205(2):315-22. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that strongly activates dendritic cells (DC) and can initiate allergic inflammation. The factors inducing the production of human TSLP are not known. In this study, we show that proinflammatory (TNF-alpha or IL-1alpha) and Th2 (IL-4 or IL-13) cytokines synergized to induce the production of TSLP in human skin explants. TSLP production in situ was restricted to epidermal keratinocytes of the suprabasal layer. TSLP production could not be inhibited by factors regulating Th2 inflammation, such as IL-10, TGF-beta, or IFN-gamma. Cytokine-treated skin culture supernatants induced the maturation of blood CD11c(+) DC in a TSLP-dependent manner. Our data provide the first evidence of TSLP induction and subsequent DC activation in human skin. Blocking TSLP-inducing cytokines could represent a novel strategy for the treatment of allergic diseases.
The Journal of Immunology 04/2007; 178(6):3373-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-4 (IL-4), a major T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine, primes dendritic cells (DCs) for IL-12 production, suggesting a negative feedback loop to prevent dysregulated Th2 inflammation, such as allergy. We previously showed that human thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), highly expressed by keratinocytes of atopic dermatitis, activates CD11c(+) DCs to induce the differentiation of naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells into proallergic effectors. Here we show that TSLP primes DCs to produce large amounts of IL-12 after CD40 ligand stimulation, similar to IL-4 priming of DCs. In contrast to IL-4 priming, DCs activated with TSLP and CD40 ligand induce the differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into effectors producing both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, a unique profile that is reminiscent of the late phase of allergy. Thus, TSLP is a major regulatory cytokine for IL-12 production by DCs, and TSLP-activated DCs could promote the persistence of Th2 inflammation even in the presence of IL-12-inducing signals.