R G Israel

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States

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Publications (74)149.32 Total impact

  • Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 01/2001; 33(5). · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2001; 33(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with improved insulin sensitivity; however, scant experimental evidence confirms this observation. To determine the effects of regular moderate wine consumption on insulin sensitivity, 20 overweight women (body mass index [BMI], 29.8 +/- 2.2 kg/m2) participated in a 20-week free-living randomized crossover trial. The subjects, serving as their own controls, consumed wine (190 mL red wine, 13% vol/vol ethanol, 5 days per week) for 10 weeks and abstained for 10 weeks or vice versa. The dependent variables (body weight, BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and insulin, blood lipids, dietary intake, and insulin sensitivity by intravenous glucose tolerance test [IVGTT]) were measured at the pretest, at the 10-week crossover, and at the 20-week completion of the study. Data were analyzed at the pretest and at completion of the wine drinking and abstention periods of the study using ANOVA by order of treatment. Fasting glucose remained unchanged (mean +/- SD; P > .05) throughout the experiment (pretest, drinking, and abstention, 91.1 +/- 9.2, 91.6 +/- 9.1, and 88.5 +/- 11.2 mg/dL), as did the measures of insulin sensitivity, fasting insulin (pretest, drinking, and abstention, 8.6 +/- 3.3, 8.6 +/- 4.1, and 9.1 +/- 4.7 microU/mg) and the insulin sensitivity index (3.60 +/- 2.96, 3.25 +/- 2.17, and 3.30 +/- 1.84). Body composition and blood lipids also remained unchanged (P > .05) during treatment. Moderate wine consumption at this dose in overweight women did not improve or impair insulin sensitivity, nor did it change any of the known correlates of insulin sensitivity, including body weight and composition, blood lipids, and blood pressure.
    Metabolism 12/2000; 49(11):1473-8. · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 01/1999; 31. · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/1999; 31.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/1999; 31.
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    ABSTRACT: Hormone replacement therapy has been shown to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in menopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we addressed the following question: What effects would combined oral hormone replacement therapy have on plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles independent of the other known CHD risk factors? We analyzed the plasma lipoproteins of two groups of menopausal women who were randomly selected from a large database of individuals. One group (n = 10) was not taking any hormone replacement therapy (NO HRT), while the second group (n = 8) was taking a daily dose of 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen and 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone orally (PremPro, Wyeth-Ayerst, Philadelphia, PA) for at least 6 months (HRT). The two groups were not different in age, body weight, percent body fat, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, or insulin and glucose levels. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly higher (P < .05) in the HRT group. The total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-cholesterol ratio was significantly lower for HRT versus NO HRT (P < .05). Apolipoprotein (apo) A-1, the apo A-1/B ratio, and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity were significantly higher in HRT (P < .05). Lipoprotein subclass profiles measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed an increase in larger HDL subpopulations (H3 and H4) in HRT (P < .05), which are considered antiatherogenic. No differences were seen in the cholesterol concentration or size of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subpopulations in HRT compared with NO HRT. These results indicate that the combined estrogen and progesterone treatment leads to beneficial effects on plasma lipoproteins. The beneficial effects include (1) increases in HDL-cholesterol and predominance of HDL2, (2) no adverse effects on LDL subpopulation distribution, and (3) increases in apo A-1 levels and LCAT activity, which indicate an improvement in reverse cholesterol transport.
    Metabolism 10/1998; 47(10):1222-6. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare blood markers associated with eccentrically biased exercise and muscle damage, after two bouts of downhill running. Nine active, untrained males performed 2 x 45 min bouts of downhill running (-0.16 radians), at a speed that would elicit 70% of each subjects VO2max, on a level grade; runs were spaced 14d apart (RUN1, RUN2). Blood samples were obtained before, after, and every hour for 12 h after exercise, as well as every 24 h for 5 d, to assess numbers of circulating neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, serum cortisol, creatine kinase (CK); subjective sensations of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were monitored. To control for diurnal variation, two weeks prior to the RUN1, subjects had blood draws performed at the same time as would occur after exercise, but did no exercise (CONTROL). During the 5 d after exercise, DOMS and CK were significantly greater (p < 0.05) after RUN1 compared to RUN2 and CONTROL. During the 12 h after RUN1 and RUN2, neutrophils showed similar responses compared to CONTROL. However, neutrophils were significantly elevated at 96 h after RUN1 and 24 h after RUN2. Monocytes were significantly elevated during 5-11 h after RUN1 and RUN2, compared to CONTROL. Cortisol showed a similar significant diurnal decrease for all three conditions during the 12 h following exercise. The significantly lower levels of CK and DOMS seen after RUN2, compared with the initial run is consistent with the literature. The similar changes in neutrophils and monocytes during the 12 h following RUN1 and RUN2, followed by disparate responses over the subsequent 5 d, requires further investigation.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 08/1998; 19(6):432-7. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported, in a study of 608 patients, that the gastric bypass operation (GB) controls type 2 diabetes mellitus in the morbidly obese patient more effectively than any medical therapy. Further, we showed for the first time that it was possible to reduce the mortality from diabetes; GB reduced the chance of dying from 4.5% per year to 1% per year. This control of diabetes has been ascribed to the weight loss induced by the operation. These studies, in weight-stable women, were designed to determine whether weight loss was really the important factor. Fasting plasma insulin, fasting plasma glucose, minimal model-derived insulin sensitivity and leptin levels were measured in carefully matched cohorts: six women who had undergone GB and had been stable at their lowered weight 24 to 30 months after surgery versus a control group of six women who did not undergo surgery and were similarly weight-stable. The two groups were matched in age, percentage of fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and aerobic capacity. Even though the two groups of patients were closely matched in weight, age, percentage of fat, and even aerobic capacity, and with both groups maintaining stable weights, the surgical group demonstrated significantly lower levels of serum leptin, fasting plasma insulin, and fasting plasma glucose compared to the control group. Similarly, minimal model-derived insulin sensitivity was significantly higher in the surgical group. Finally, self-reported food intake was significantly lower in the surgical group. Weight loss is not the reason why GB controls diabetes mellitus. Instead, bypassing the foregut and reducing food intake produce the profound long-term alterations in glucose metabolism and insulin action. These findings suggest that our current paradigms of type 2 diabetes mellitus deserve review. The critical lesion may lie in abnormal signals from the gut.
    Annals of Surgery 06/1998; 227(5):637-43; discussion 643-4. · 6.33 Impact Factor
  • Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 01/1998; 30. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is elevated in obese humans and appears to be closely related to body fat content. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effect of aerobic exercise training on systemic leptin levels in humans. Eighteen sedentary middle-aged men (n = 9) and women (n = 9) who did not differ in aerobic capacity (29.4 +/- 1.2 vs. 27.5 +/- 1.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) or insulin sensitivity index (3.41 +/- 1.12 vs. 4.88 +/- 0.55) were studied. Fat mass was significantly lower in females vs. males (21.83 +/- 2.25 vs. 26.99 +/- 2.37 kg, P < 0.05). Despite this, fasting serum leptin was significantly higher in the females vs. males (18.27 +/- 2.55 vs. 9.88 +/- 1.26 ng/ml, P < 0.05). Serum leptin concentration decreased 17.5% in females (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of aerobic exercise training (4 day/wk, 30-45 min/day) but was not significantly reduced in males. Fat mass was not altered after training in either group. In contrast, both aerobic capacity (+13% males, +9.1% females) and insulin sensitivity (+35% males, +82% females) were significantly improved subsequent to training. These data suggest that 1) women have higher circulating leptin concentrations despite lower fat mass and 2) exercise training appears to have a greater effect on systemic leptin levels in females than in males.
    The American journal of physiology 04/1997; 272(4 Pt 1):E562-6. · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/1997; 29.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/1997; 29.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/1997; 29.
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin, the product of the ob gene, has been reported to be related to body fat in humans (Considine et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 334: 292, 1996). However, little is known about the physiology of this putative satiety signal in humans. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether leptin is related to body fat content in relatively lean endurance-trained adults. In addition, the effect of acute exercise on circulating leptin concentration was studied. Thirteen male runners, whose mean age, height, weight, %fat, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were 32.2 +/- 2.5 yr, 176.2 +/- 1.6 cm, 71.9 +/- 6.9 kg, 9.7 +/- 0.9%, and 62.9 +/- 2.2 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively, were studied. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast and again immediately after the completion of a 20-mile run at 70% VO2max under controlled environmental conditions. Serum leptin was closely related to fat mass (r = 0.92) in the runners. Acute exercise had no detectable effect on serum leptin levels (PRE = 2.19 +/- 0.32 ng/ml, POST = 2.14 +/- 0.36 ng/ml). These data indicate that, even at a biological extreme of body fat, circulating leptin concentration is closely related to fat content. Furthermore, the data suggest that, in trained individuals with low leptin concentrations, acute exhaustive exercise has no immediate effect on circulating leptin concentration.
    The American journal of physiology 12/1996; 271(5 Pt 1):E938-40. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that appears to regulate both satiety and thermogenesis. In the present report, we have reexamined the relationship between circulating leptin concentration and body fat in humans using a more valid measure of adiposity (hydrodensitometry) and have extended these observations to examine the influence of regional body fat distribution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Fasting serum leptin concentration was 6.9 +/- 0.3 ng.ml-1 in males (N = 333) and 15.2 +/- 1.3 ng.ml-1 in females (N = 63). Interestingly, total fat mass did not differ between groups (males 20.5 +/- 0.5 kg; females 20.4 +/- 1.5 kg), suggesting that females have higher leptin levels per unit fat mass. In a multiple regression model, fat mass was the best predictor of serum leptin concentration in males, accounting for 51% of the variance in leptin concentration. In females, percentage body fat was the best predictor of leptin, accounting for 49% of the variance. In both groups, the relationship between leptin and adiposity remained significant after adjusting for age, maximal treadmill time, waist circumference, and fasting insulin concentration. These observations support previous conclusions that circulating leptin is primarily a function of adiposity and demonstrate for the first time that this relationship is independent of fat distribution or cardiorespiratory fitness. The data also suggest that there is a gender dichotomy in the relationship between leptin and body fat mass in humans.
    Biochemical and Molecular Medicine 11/1996; 59(1):1-6.
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    ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that exercise training with maximal eccentric (lengthening) muscle actions results in greater gains in muscle strength and size than training with concentric (shortening) actions. Changes in muscle strength, muscle fiber size, and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the quadriceps muscle were compared after 36 sessions of isokinetic concentric (n = 8) or eccentric (n = 7) exercise training over 12 wk with use of a one-leg model. Eccentric training increased eccentric strength 3.5 times more (pre/post 46%, P < 0.05) than concentric training increased concentric strength (pre/post 13%). Eccentric training increased concentric strength and concentric training increased eccentric strength by about the same magnitude (5 and 10%, respectively, P > 0.05). Eccentric training increased EMG activity seven times more during eccentric testing (pre/post 86%, P < 0.05) than concentric training increased EMG activity during concentric testing (pre/post 12%). Eccentric training increased the EMG activity measured during concentric tests and concentric training increased the EMG activity measured during eccentric tests by about the same magnitude (8 and 11%, respectively, P > 0.05). Type I muscle fiber percentages did not change significantly, but type IIa fibers increased and type IIb fibers decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in both training groups. Type I fiber areas did not change significantly (P > 0.05), but type II fiber area increased approximately 10 times more (P < 0.05) in the eccentric than in the concentric group. It is concluded that adaptations to training with maximal eccentric contractions are specific to eccentric muscle actions that are associated with greater neural adaptation and muscle hypertrophy than concentric exercise.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 03/1996; 80(3):765-72. · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 01/1996; 28. · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/1996; 28.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether aspirin or acetaminophen would significantly reduce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and blood levels of creatine kinase (CK), a marker of muscle tissue damage, after an unaccustomed bout of, eccentric exercise. Thirty‐six untrained men were randomly assigned to an aspirin (3.0 g/day), acetaminophen (3.0 g/day), or placebo group in a double‐blind fashion. Drug or placebo administration began 48 hours before exercise and continued to 72 hours after exercise. Each subject performed the eccentric phase of a supine bench press at a resistance equivalent to 120% of maximum concentric strength, 1 RM (4 sets, 12 repetitions/set). A subjective sensation score of DOMS (1 = normal, 10 = very sore) and serum CK activity were measured before and at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after exercise, using a repeated measures ANOVA. No significant group differences (p > 0.05) were found in perception of soreness; a significant time effect was observed (p <, 0.05) with peak soreness occurring at 48 hours (7.7 ± 1.4, mean ± SE). Serum CK peaked at 72 hours postexercise (3465 ± 483 IU/L) compared with baseline (81 ± 10 IU/L); there was no significant group effect for CK (p > 0.05). Serum aspirin and acetaminophen concentrations, assessed before exercise and at 48 hours after, were each within the therapeutic range. These results indicate that administration of aspirin and acetaminophen does not reduce the DOMS and CK response to eccentric exercise.
    Sports Medicine Training and Rehabilitation 08/1995; 6(2):81-88.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
149.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–1998
    • Colorado State University
      Fort Collins, Colorado, United States
  • 1985–1997
    • East Carolina University
      • • Human Performance Laboratory
      • • Department of Physical Therapy
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • • Department of Medicine
      North Carolina, United States
  • 1993
    • University of Nebraska at Kearney
      Kearney, Nebraska, United States