Kyung Hyun Yoo

Sookmyung Women's University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (18)58.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: AimAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a highly prevalent inherited disorder and results in the progressive development of cysts in both kidneys. In recent studies, several cytokines and growth factors secreted by the cyst-lining epithelia were identified to be up-regulated and promote cyst growth. According to our previous study, chemokines with a similar amino acid sequence as human IL-8 are highly expressed in a rodent model with renal cysts. Therefore, in this study, we focused on whether IL-8 signaling is associated with renal cyst formation, and tested the possibility of IL-8 as a new therapeutic target for ADPKD.Methods Expression of IL-8 and its receptor were screened either by ELISA or western blot. Inhibited IL-8 signaling by antagonist for IL-8 receptor or gene silencing was tested in molecular levels, mainly through Western blot. And cell proliferation was measured by XTT assays. Finally, a three-dimensional culture was performed to understand how IL-8 affected cyst formation, in vitro.ResultsIL-8 secretion and expression of its receptor highly increased in 2 different human ADPKD cell lines (WT9-7 and WT9-12), compared to normal human renal cortical epithelial cell line. Cell proliferation which is mediated by IL-8 signal was inhibited either by an antagonist or siRNA targeting for IL-8 receptor. Finally, a three-dimensional culture showed an alleviation of cystogenesis in vitro, after blocking the IL-8 receptor signals.Conclusion These results suggest that IL-8 and its signaling molecules could be new biomarkers and a therapeutic target of ADPKD.
    Nephrology 04/2014; · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cilia in ciliated cells consist of protruding structures that sense mechanical and chemical signals from the extracellular environment. Cilia are assembled with variety molecules via a process known as intraflagellar transport (IFT)5. What controls the length of cilia in ciliated cells is critical to understand ciliary disease such as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, which involves abnormally short cilia. But this control mechanism is not well understood. Previously, multiple tubular cysts have been observed in the kidneys of max interacting protein 1 (Mxi1)-deficient mice aged 6 months or more. Here, we clarified the relationship between Mxi1 inactivation and cilia disassembly. Cilia phenotypes were observed in kidneys of Mxi1-deficient mice using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to elucidate the effect of Mxi1 on renal cilia phenotype and cilia disassembly was observed in Mxi1-deficient kidney. In addition, IFT genes were validated in vitro and in vivo using qPCR, and Ift20 was selected as a candidate gene in this study. The length of cilium decreased and p-ERK level induced by a cilia defect increased in kidneys of Mxi1-deficient mice. Ciliogenesis of Mxi1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) decreased, and this abnormality was restored by Mxi1 transfection in Mxi1-deficient MEFs. We confirmed that ciliogenesis and Ift20 expression were regulated by Mxi1 in vitro. We also determined that Mxi1 regulates Ift20 promoter activity via Ets-1 binding to the Ift20 promoter. These results indicate that inactivating Mxi1 induces ciliary defects in polycystic kidney.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inheritable and progressive kidney disease featured by the formation of fluid-filled cysts. In a previous study, transgenic mice overexpressing human PKD2 gene were produced as an ADPKD animal model. To select genes controlled by PKD2, 2DE was performed using kidney tissues of 12 and 18-month-old transgenic mice. The protein localization was detected by immunohistochemistry, and three-dimensional culture was utilized to observe in vitro cystogenesis. As a result, N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) was chosen as a candidate regulator gene of cystogenesis. NDRG1 is an intracellular protein involved in cellular proliferation and differentiation. This gene was expressed much higher in the kidney of hPKD2 TG mice. Also, the high level of NDRG1 protein was detected in the cyst lining epithelial cells. The hypothesis that PKD2 gene regulates NDRG1 expression was supported, and NDRG1 knockdown resulted in attenuation of cyst growth in vitro. Furthermore, NDRG1 knockdown suppressed cellular growth in mIMCD-3 cells. We found that early growth response 1 (Egr1), a transcription factor that binds to the NDRG1 promoter, was mediated in the NDRG1 expression regulation by PKD2. In this study, we found the novel gene that was involved in cystogenesis, which will provide the new insight in ADPKD.
    Proteomics 12/2012; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyst formation is a major characteristic of ADPKD and is caused by the abnormal proliferation of epithelial cells. Renal cyst formation disrupts renal function and induces diverse complications. The mechanism of cyst formation is unclear. mIMCD-3 cells were established to develop simple epithelial cell cysts in 3-D culture. We confirmed previously that Mxi1 plays a role in cyst formation in Mxi1-deficient mice. Cysts in Mxi1 transfectanted cells were showed by collagen or mebiol gels in 3-D cell culture system. Causative genes of ADPKD were measured by q RT-PCR. Herein, Mxi1 transfectants rarely formed a simple epithelial cyst and induced cell death. Overexpression of Mxi1 resulted in a decrease in the PKD1, PKD2 and c-myc mRNA relating to the pathway of cyst formation. These data indicate that Mxi1 influences cyst formation of mIMCD-3 cells in 3-D culture and that Mxi1 may control the mechanism of renal cyst formation. [BMB reports 2012; 45(3): 189-193].
    BMB reports 03/2012; 45(3):189-93. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disease. ADPKD is characterized by cyst development that leads to abnormal kidney structure. Renal tubules are a fundamental unit of architecture, so controls of tubular growth and formation are important for proper kidney function. The molecular mechanisms of tubulogenesis are being actively studied as the basis of diagnosis and treatment of ADPKD. Mxi1 is a member of the MAD family of proteins that functions in terminal differentiation, inhibition of cell cycle progression and tumor suppression, while the Myc protein, which is antagonized by Mxi1, causes renal cystogenesis. Based on these molecular relationships, the present study implicated Mxi1 with ADPKD be demonstrating that curtailed Mxi1 gene expression caused cyst formation in Mxi1-deficient mice. To ascertain whether Mxi1 affects renal epithelial cell tubulogenesis, three-dimensional cultures (3D culture) of mIMCD-3 cells and stably Mxi1 over-expressed mIMCD-3 cells were established. The results indicated that over-expression of the Mxi1 gene plays a role in the regulation of tubulogenesis by regulating some genes participating in renal epithelial branching tubulogenesis such as matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), integrins, fibronectin, and E-cadherin. The results support the suggestion that over-expression of Mxi1 can suppress renal epithelial tubulogenesis. In particular, MMP9 is greatly affected by the expression level of Mxi1. It can be concluded that mIMCD-3 cells that stably over-express Mxi1 fail to form renal epithelial tubules because of abnormally reduced expression of MMP9.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2012; 419(3):459-65. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mxi1, a member of the Myc-Max-Mad network, is an antagonist of the c-Myc oncogene and is associated with excessive cell proliferation. Abnormal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis are observed in organs of Mxi1-/- mice. However, the Mxi1-reltaed mechanism of proliferation is unclear. The present study utilized microarray analysis using Mxi1 mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to identify genes associated with cell proliferation. Among these genes, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) was selected as a candidate gene for real-time PCR to ascertain whether IGFBP-3 expression is regulated by Mxi1. Expression of IGFBP-3 was decreased in Mxi1-/- MEFs and Mxi1-/- mice, and the gene was regulated by Mxi1 in Mxi1 MEFs. Furthermore, proliferation pathways related to IGFBP-3 were regulated in Mxi1-/- mice compared to Mxi1+/+ mice. To determine the effect of Mxi1 inactivation on the induction of cell proliferation, a proliferation assay is performed in both Mxi1 MEFs and Mxi1 mice. Cell viability was regulated by Mxi1 in Mxi1 MEFs and number of PCNA-positive cells was increased in Mxi1-/- mice compared to Mxi1+/+ mice. Moreover, the IGFBP-3 level was decreased in proliferation defect regions in Mxi1-/- mice. The results support the suggestion that inactivation of Mxi1 has a positive effect on cell proliferation by down-regulating IGFBP-3.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2011; 415(1):36-41. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study of ES cell-mediated neuronal differentiation allows elucidating the mechanism of neuronal development in spite of the complexity and the difficult accessibility. During the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into neuronal cell, the expression profiles in the level of protein were extensively investigated by proteomic analysis. These cells were analyzed for charges in proteome during the differentiation of ES cells by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF MS. Seven unique proteins were identified, some of which were differentially expressed at each stage. A complex system of neuronal differentiation can be activated in cultured embryonic stem cells and our two dimensional electrophoresis data should be useful for investigating some of the mechanism that regulates neuronal differentiation.
    Molecules and Cells 03/2010; 29(3):239-44. · 14.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is one of the most common human monogenic diseases in which extensive epithelial-lined cysts develop in kidney and other organs. Affected kidneys are not only characterized by the formation of cysts, but also by changes associated with the extracellular matrix and interstitial inflammation, which can progress to fibrosis and loss of renal function. Mxi1 protein, which is a c-myc antagonist, may be essential in controlling cellular growth and differentiation. Previously, multiple tubular cysts were observed in kidney of Mxi1-deficient mice aged 6 months and more. Presently, 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS was employed to identify the differentially expressed proteins in the kidney. Several proteins were identified, among them, apolipoproteinA1 which is a major component of the high-density lipoprotein complex and has anti-inflammation effects, was significantly decreased in the Mxi1-deficient mouse. We confirm the development of inflammation and renal fibrosis and the expression of extracellular matrix molecules including transforming growth factor were also increased in cystic kidney. These results indicate that expression of proteins related with inflammation and renal fibrosis changes by Mxi1 inactivation in polycystic kidney.
    Proteomics 08/2009; 9(15):3824-32. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenic mechanisms of human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have been well known to include the mutational inactivation of PKD2. Although haploinsufficiency and loss of heterozygosity at the Pkd2 locus can cause cyst formation in mice, polycystin-2 is frequently expressed in the renal cyst of human ADPKD, raising the possibility that deregulated activation of PKD2 may be associated with the cystogenesis of human ADPKD. To determine whether increased PKD2 expression is physiologically pathogenic, we generated PKD2-overexpressing transgenic mice. These mice developed typical renal cysts and an increase of proliferation and apoptosis, which are reflective of the human ADPKD phenotype. These manifestations were first observed at six months, and progressed with age. In addition, we found that ERK activation was induced by PKD2 overexpression via B-Raf signaling, providing a possible molecular mechanism of cystogenesis. In PKD2 transgenic mice, B-Raf/MEK/ERK sequential signaling was up-regulated. Additionally, the transgenic human polycystin-2 partially rescues the lethality of Pkd2 knock-out mice and therefore demonstrates that the transgene generated a functional product. Functional strengthening or deregulated activation of PKD2 may be a direct cause of ADPKD. The present study provides evidence for an in vivo role of overexpressed PKD2 in cyst formation. This transgenic mouse model should provide new insights into the pathogenic mechanism of human ADPKD.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2009; 284(11):7214-22. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An embryonic stem cell is a powerful tool for investigation of early development in vitro. The study of embryonic stem cell mediated neuronal differentiation allows for improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in embryonic neuronal development. We investigated expression profile changes using time course cDNA microarray to identify clues for the signaling network of neuronal differentiation. For the short time course microarray data, pattern analysis based on the quadratic regression method is an effective approach for identification and classification of a variety of expressed genes that have biological relevance. We studied the expression patterns, at each of 5 stages, after neuronal induction at the mRNA level of embryonic stem cells using the quadratic regression method for pattern analysis. As a result, a total of 316 genes (3.1%) including 166 (1.7%) informative genes in 8 possible expression patterns were identified by pattern analysis. Among the selected genes associated with neurological system, all three genes showing linearly increasing pattern over time, and one gene showing decreasing pattern over time, were verified by RT-PCR. Therefore, an increase in gene expression over time, in a linear pattern, may be associated with embryonic development. The genes: Tcfap2c, Ttr, Wnt3a, Btg2 and Foxk1 detected by pattern analysis, and verified by RT-PCR simultaneously, may be candidate markers associated with the development of the nervous system. Our study shows that pattern analysis, using the quadratic regression method, is very useful for investigation of time course cDNA microarray data. The pattern analysis used in this study has biological significance for the study of embryonic stem cells.
    Molecules and Cells 10/2008; 26(4):338-43. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ADPKD (Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease) is characterized by the progressive expansion of multiple cystic lesions in the kidneys. ADPKD is caused by mutations in Ed-pl. consider PKD1 and PKD2. Recently a relation between c-myc and the pathogenesis of ADPKD was reported. In addition, c-Myc is a downstream effector of PKD1. To identify the gene regulated by PKD2 and c-Myc, we performed gene expression profiling in PKD2 and c-Myc overexpressing cells using a human 8K cDNA microarray. NCAM (neuronal cell adhesion molecule) levels were significantly reduced in PKD2 overexpressing systems in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that NCAM is an important molecule in the cystogenesis induced by PKD2 overexpression.
    BMB reports 09/2008; 41(8):593-6. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine, a commonly used addictive drug, is a powerful addictive stimulant that dramatically affects the CNS. Repeated METH administration leads to a rewarding effect in a state of addiction that includes sensitization, dependence, and other phenomena. It is well known that susceptibility to the development of addiction is influenced by sources of reinforcement, variable neuroadaptive mechanisms, and neurochemical changes that together lead to altered homeostasis of the brain reward system. These behavioral abnormalities reflect neuroadaptive changes in signal transduction function and cellular gene expression produced by repeated drug exposure. To provide a better understanding of addiction and the mechanism of the rewarding effect, it is important to identify related genes. In the present study, we performed gene expression profiling using microarray analysis in a reward effect animal model. We also investigated gene expression in four important regions of the brain, the nucleus accumbens, striatum, hippocampus, and cingulated cortex, and analyzed the data by two clustering methods. Genes related to signaling pathways including G-protein-coupled receptor-related pathways predominated among the identified genes. The genes identified in our study may contribute to the development of a gene modeling network for methamphetamine addiction.
    Molecules and Cells 07/2008; 26(2):121-30. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the presence of NGF, PC12 cells extend neuronal processes, cease cell division, become electrically excitable, and undergo several biochemical changes that are detectable in developing sympathetic neurons. We investigated the expression pattern of the apoptosis-related genes at each stage of neuronal differentiation using a cDNA microarray containing 320 apoptosis-related rat genes. By comparing the expression patterns through time-series analysis, we identified candidate genes that appear to regulate neuronal differentiation. Among the candidate genes, HO2 was selected by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. To identify the roles of selected genes in the stages of neuronal differentiation, transfection of HO2 siRNA in PC12 cells was performed. Down-regulation of HO2 expression causes a reduction in neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells. Our results suggest that the HO2 gene could be related to the regulation of neuronal differentiation levels.
    BMB reports 03/2008; 41(2):146-52. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of diseases with respect to biology and clinical course. Through genome-wide scanning, we can have an improvement of the diagnosis and assay system of AML. Microarray was performed for the identification of acute myeloid leukemia prognosis. We divided patients into two groups (good prognosis group, GPG and poor prognosis group, PPG) based on differences in the individual reactions to treatment. Gene expression profiles were analyzed using microarray. Among genes up-regulated at least two-fold and down-regulated at least 0.5-fold in HL-60, we chose three up-regulated genes (PPP2CA, ME3, and CCDN2) and three down-regulated genes (GLO1, ANXA2, and BMI1) and confirmed the expression of these six genes by RT-PCR. We created a leukemia-specific subclass microarray, based on the gene expression profiles. Clinical samples from the bone marrow of four patients were hybridized on this microarray. Among the genes selected by the microarray technology, NB4, silenced TRIB3 and overexpressed XRN2 were not differentiated in spite of treatment with ATRA. This indicates that XRN2 and TRIB3 play an important role in cell differentiation. These data provided an expression profile for the diagnosis and prognosis of AML patients and identified candidate genes that might allow the prognosis of AML through the relative comparison of the expression level of genes between GPG and PPG.
    Oncology Reports 01/2008; 18(6):1395-402. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Mxi1 proteins are biochemical and biological antagonists of c-myc oncoprotein. It has been reported that the overexpression pattern of c-myc might be similar to a molecular feature of early and late stages of human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We identified the cyst phenotype in Mxi1-deficient mice aged 6-12 months using H&E staining. Some chemokines containing a protein domain similar to human IL-8, which is associated with the inflammatory response, were subsequently selected from the up-regulated genes. We confirmed the expression level of these chemokines and measured protein concentrations of IL-8 using ELISA in the Mxi1-knockdown cells. IL-8 was found to be significantly increased in Mxi1-knockdown cells. We found that p38 MAP kinase activation was involved in the signal transduction of the Mxi1-inactivated secretion of IL-8. Therefore, we could suggest that the inactivation of Mxi1 leads to the inflammatory response and has the potential to induce polycystic renal disease.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2007; 356(1):85-90. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PCD (programmed cell death) is important mechanism for development, homeostasis and disease. To analyze the gene expression pattern in brain cells undergoing PCD in response to serum deprivation, we analyzed the cDNA microarray consisting of 2,300 genes and 7 housekeeping genes of cortical cells derived from mouse embryonic brain. Cortical cells were induced apoptosis by serum deprivation for 8 hours. We identified 69 up-regulated genes and 21 down-regulated genes in apoptotic cells. Based on the cDNA microarray data four genes were selected and analyzed by RT-PCR and northern blotting. To characterize the role of UNC-51-like kinase (ULK2) gene in PCD, we investigated cell death effect by ULK2. And we examined expression of several genes that related with PCD. Especially GAPDH was increased by ULK2. Theses findings indicated that ULK2 is involved in apoptosis through p53 pathway.
    Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology 03/2007; 40(2):277-85. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Jeong Ok Jeon, Kyung Hyun Yoo, Jong Hoon Park
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common human genetic disease that is caused by a mutation of a single gene inherited from either parent. Mutations in the Pkd1 gene result in the formation of multiple fluid-filled cysts in kidneys. In previous studies, the functional regulatory sequences of Pkd1 promoter region were detected by the use of comparative genome analysis. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of the Pkd1 gene, the Pkd1 promoter was isolated. This promoter contains three Sp1-binding sites. Two of the sites which are found in a 300 bp fragment (-127 to +157) were mutated. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was performed to determine which transcription factors are bound to Pkd1. Based on studies using a luciferase assay, the Sp1-A site (the nearest Sp1 to the ATG start codon) is more important for activation of Pkd1. The result of EMSA showed that Sp1 transcription factor binds with Pkd1 promoter regions. Two of the Sp1 sites were found in a proximal promoter region of Pkd1 (-127 to +157). Sp1 sites affect an important role in the activation of the gene. Especially, the Sp1-A site is more important for expression of Pkd1.
    Nephron Experimental Nephrology 02/2007; 107(2):e57-64. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A full-length cDNA was identified using one STS sequence containing an SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) derived from genomic DNAs of breast cancer patients using a variety of bioinformatics tools. The cDNA encodes LY-6K, a novel member protein of the Ly-6/uPAR superfamily. It has been annotated as a target antigen for the HNSCC (head-and neck squamous cell carcinoma). We isolated the LY-6K gene from genomic DNAs obtained from breast cancer patients through large scale, case-control-screening. We performed northern blot hybridization and semi-quantitative RT-PCR on a human multiple-tissue mRNA blot from several breast cancer patients. We investigated the expression level of the LY-6K gene in human breast cancer, and compared this to expression in human normal breast tissue. We found that LY-6K was more highly expressed in the mRNA of breast tumors compared to its expression in normal breast tissue. These results suggest that LY-6K is not only a target antigen for HNSCC but also a significant new molecular marker for diagnosis and gene therapy in patients with breast cancer.
    Oncology Reports 01/2007; 16(6):1211-4. · 2.19 Impact Factor