[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid assemblies are associated with a wide range of human disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Here we identify protein kinase C (PKC) γ, a serine/threonine kinase mutated in the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14), as a novel amyloidogenic protein with no previously characterized amyloid-prone domains. We found that overexpression of PKCγ in cultured cells, as well as in vitro incubation of PKCγ without heat or chemical denaturants, cause amyloid-like fibril formation of this protein. We also observed that SCA14-associated mutations in PKCγ accelerate the amyloid-like fibril formation both in cultured cells and in vitro. We show that the C1A and kinase domains of PKCγ are involved in its soluble dimer and aggregate formation, and that SCA14-associated mutations in the C1 domain cause its misfolding and aggregation. Furthermore, long-term time-lapse imaging indicates that aggregates of mutant PKCγ are highly toxic to neuronal cells. Based on these findings, we propose that PKCγ could form amyloid-like fibrils in physiological and/or pathophysiological conditions such as SCA14. More generally, our results provide novel insights into the mechanism of amyloid-like fibril formation by multi-domain proteins.
Human Molecular Genetics 09/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes play central roles in signal transduction on the cell surface and could serve as promising therapeutic targets of intractable diseases like cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Although natural PKC ligands like phorbol esters, ingenol esters, and teleocidins have the potential to become therapeutic leads, most of them are potent tumor promoters in mouse skin. By contrast, bryostatin-1 (bryo-1) isolated from marine bryozoan is a potent PKC activator with little tumor-promoting activity. Numerous investigations have suggested bryo-1 to be a promising therapeutic candidate for the above intractable diseases. However, there is a supply problem of bryo-1 both from natural sources and by organic synthesis. Recent approaches on the synthesis of bryo-1 have focused on its simplification, without decreasing the ability to activate PKC isozymes, to develop new medicinal leads. Another approach is to use the skeleton of natural PKC ligands to develop bryo-1 surrogates. We have recently identified 10-methyl-aplog-1 (26), a simplified analog of tumor-promoting aplysiatoxin (ATX), as a possible therapeutic lead for cancer. This review summarizes recent investigations on the simplification of natural PKC ligands, bryo-1 and ATX, to develop potential medicinal leads.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lyngbyatoxin A from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) is known as the causative agent of "swimmer's itch" with its highly inflammatory effect. A new toxic compound was isolated along with lyngbyatoxin A from an ethyl acetate extract of M. producens collected from Hawaii. Analyses of HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopies revealed the isolated compound had the same planar structure with that of lyngbyatoxin A. The results of optical rotation and CD spectra indicated that the compound was a new lyngbyatoxin A derivative, 12-epi-lyngbyatoxin A (1). While 12-epi-lyngbyatoxin A showed comparable toxicities with lyngbyatoxin A in cytotoxicity and crustacean lethality tests, it showed more than 100 times lower affinity for protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) using the PKCδ-C1B peptide when compared to lyngbyatoxin A.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The toxin-producing cyanobacterium, Moorea producens, is a known causative organism of food poisoning and seaweed dermatitis (also known as "swimmer's itch"). Two new toxic compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated from an ethyl acetate extract of M. producens collected from Hawaii. Analyses of HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopies, as well as optical rotations and CD spectra indicated two new lyngbyatoxin derivatives, 2-oxo-3(R)-hydroxy-lyngbyatoxin A (1) and 2-oxo-3(R)-hydroxy-13-N-desmethyl-lyngbyatoxin A (2). The cytotoxicity and lethal activities of 1 and 2 were approximately 10- to 150-times less potent than lyngbyatoxin A. Additionally, the binding activities of 1 and 2 possessed 10,000-times lower affinity for the protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ)-C1B peptide when compared to lyngbyatoxin A. These findings suggest that these new lyngbyatoxin derivatives may mediate their acute toxicities through a non-PKC activation pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aggregation of 42-residue amyloid β-protein (Aβ42) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Numerous flavonoids exhibit inhibitory activity against Aβ42 aggregation, but their mechanism remains unclear in molecular level. Here we propose the site-specific inhibitory mechanism of (+)-taxifolin, a catechol-type flavonoid, whose 3',4'-dihydroxyl groups of the B-ring plays a critical role. Addition of sodium periodate, an oxidant, strengthened suppression of Aβ42 aggregation by (+)-taxifolin, whereas no inhibition was observed under anaerobic conditions, suggesting the inhibition to be associated with the oxidation to form o-quinone. Since the formation of Aβ42-taxifolin adduct was suggested by mass spectrometry, Aβ42 mutants substituted at Arg5, Lys16, and/or Lys28 with norleucine (nL) were prepared to identify the residues involved in the conjugate formation. (+)-Taxifolin did not suppress the aggregation of Aβ42 mutants at Lys16 and/or Lys28 except for the mutant at Arg5. In addition, the aggregation of Aβ42 was inhibited by other catechol-type flavonoids, while that of K16nL-Aβ42 was not. In contrast, some non-catechol-type flavonoids suppressed the aggregation of K16nL-Aβ42 as well as Aβ42. Furthermore, interaction of (+)-taxifolin with β-sheet in Aβ42 was not observed using solid-state NMR unlike curcumin of non-catechol-type. These results demonstrate that catechol-type flavonoids could specifically suppress Aβ42 aggregation by targeting Lys-residues. Although the anti-AD activity of flavonoids has been ascribed to their anti-oxidative activity, the mechanism that the o-quinone reacts with Lys-residues of Aβ42 might be more intrinsic. The Lys-residues could be targets for Alzheimer's therapy.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Debromoaplysiatoxin (DAT) is a tumor promoter isolated from sea hare and exhibits anti-proliferative activity against several cancer cell lines. To clarify key residues that are responsible for its tumor-promoting activity, we focused on the chiral methoxy group in the side chain, whose role had not yet been discussed or examined before. Demethoxy-DAT (8) was derived from DAT and we evaluated its tumor-promoting activity, anti-proliferative activity, and ability to bind to protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes. Compound 8 showed somewhat weaker tumor-promoting activity than that of DAT both in vitro and in vivo, but showed higher anti-proliferative activity against several cancer cell lines. Although the affinity to novel PKC isozymes of 8 was comparable to that of DAT, the affinity to conventional PKC isozymes decreased slightly. These results suggest that the methoxy group of DAT is one of the key residues critical for tumor-promoting activity but not for anti-proliferative activity. Since the methoxy group has little influence on the molecular hydrophobicity, this is the first report showing that structural factors other than hydrophobicity in the side chain of DAT affected its biological activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of acteoside (1a), which was isolated from Orobanche minor, and its derivatives on the aggregation of a 42-mer amyloid β protein (Aβ42) in our search for anti-amyloidogenic compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. Acteoside (1a) strongly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ42 in a dose-dependent manner. The structure-activity relationship for acteoside (1a) and related compounds suggests the catechol moiety of phenylethanoid glycosides to be essential for this inhibitory activity.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 06/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 42-mer amyloid β-protein (Aβ42) oligomers cause neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously identified the toxic conformer of Aβ42 with a turn at positions 22-23 ("toxic" turn) to form oligomers and to induce toxicity in rat primary neurons, along with the non-toxic conformer with a turn at positions 25-26. G25P-Aβ42 and E22V-Aβ42 are non-toxic mutants that disfavor the "toxic" turn. Here we hypothesize that these non-toxic mutants of Aβ42 could suppress the neurotoxicity of Aβ42, and examined their effects on the neurotoxicity, aggregation, and levels of the toxic conformer, which was evaluated by dot blotting using a monoclonal antibody (11A1) against the toxic conformer. G25P-Aβ42 and E22V-Aβ42 suppressed the neurotoxicity and aggregation of Aβ42 as well as the formation of the toxic conformer. The neurotoxicity induced by Aβ42 was also reduced significantly by the treatment of 11A1, but not of Aβ-sequence specific antibodies (6E10 and 4G8). Since recent studies indicate that Aβ oligomers contain parallel β-sheet, the present results suggest that the non-toxic mutants of Aβ42 without the "toxic" turn could prevent the propagation process of the toxic conformer of Aβ42 resulting in suppression of the formation of the toxic oligomers. This may be a promising strategy for AD therapeutics.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silymarin, the seed extract of Silybium marianum, has preventive effects against Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis in vivo. We isolated (+)-taxifolin (4) from silymarin as an inhibitor of aggregation of the 42-residue amyloid β-protein. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed the 3',4'-dihydroxyl groups to be critical to the anti-aggregative ability, whereas the 7-hydroxyl group and the stereochemistry at positions 2 and 3 were not important.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 05/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligomeric forms of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) are thought to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease (AD), but the mechanism involved is still unclear. Here, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from familial and sporadic AD patients and differentiated them into neural cells. Aβ oligomers accumulated in iPSC-derived neurons and astrocytes in cells from patients with a familial amyloid precursor protein (APP)-E693 mutation and sporadic AD, leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress. The accumulated Aβ oligomers were not proteolytically resistant, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) treatment alleviated the stress responses in the AD neural cells. Differential manifestation of ER stress and DHA responsiveness may help explain variable clinical results obtained with the use of DHA treatment and suggests that DHA may in fact be effective for a subset of patients. It also illustrates how patient-specific iPSCs can be useful for analyzing AD pathogenesis and evaluating drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently developed a simplified analog of aplysiatoxin (aplog-1) as an activator of protein kinase C (PKC) with anti-proliferative activity like bryostain 1. To identify sites in aplog-1 that could be readily modified to optimize therapeutic performance and to develop a molecular probe for examining the analog's mode of action, substituent effects on the phenol ring were systematically examined. Whereas hydrophilic acetamido derivatives were less active than aplog-1 in inhibiting cancer cell growth and binding to PKCδ, introduction of hydrophobic bromine and iodine atoms enhanced both biological activities. The anti-proliferative activity was found to correlate closely with molecular hydrophobicity, and maximal activity was observed at a logP value of 4.0-4.5. On the other hand, an induction test with Epstein-Barr virus early antigen demonstrated that these derivatives have less tumor-promoting activity in vitro than aplog-1 regardless of the hydrophobicity of their substituents. These results would facilitate rapid preparation of molecular probes to examine the mechanism of the unique biological activities of aplog-1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligomeric forms of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) are thought to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanism involved is still unclear. Here, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from familial and sporadic AD patients and differentiated them into neural cells. Aβ oligomers accumulated in iPSC-derived neurons and astrocytes in cells from patients with a familial amyloid precursor protein (APP)-E693Δ mutation and sporadic AD, leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress. The accumulated Aβ oligomers were not proteolytically resistant, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) treatment alleviated the stress responses in the AD neural cells. Differential manifestation of ER stress and DHA responsiveness may help explain variable clinical results obtained with the use of DHA treatment and suggests that DHA may in fact be effective for a subset of patients. It also illustrates how patient-specific iPSCs can be useful for analyzing AD pathogenesis and evaluating drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulated evidence shows that some phytochemicals provide beneficial effects for human health. Recently, a number of mechanistic studies have revealed that direct interactions between phytochemicals and functional proteins play significant roles in exhibiting their bioactivities. However, their binding selectivities to biological molecules are considered to be lower due to their small and simple structures. In this study, we found that zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene, binds to numerous proteins with little selectivity. Similar to heat-denatured proteins, zerumbone-modified proteins were recognized by heat shock protein 90, a constitutive molecular chaperone, leading to heat shock factor 1-dependent heat shock protein induction in hepa1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells. Furthermore, oral administration of this phytochemical up-regulated heat shock protein expressions in the livers of Sprague-Dawley rats. Interestingly, pretreatment with zerumbone conferred a thermoresistant phenotype to hepa1c1c7 cells as well as to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. It is also important to note that several phytochemicals with higher hydrophobicity or electrophilicity, including phenethyl isothiocyanate and curcumin, markedly induced heat shock proteins, whereas most of the tested nutrients did not. These results suggest that non-specific protein modifications by xenobiotic phytochemicals cause mild proteostress, thereby inducing heat shock response and leading to potentiation of protein quality control systems. We considered these bioactivities to be xenohormesis, an adaptation mechanism against xenobiotic chemical stresses. Heat shock response by phytochemicals may be a fundamental mechanism underlying their various bioactivities.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58641. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is an inducible inflammatory protein whose expression is partially regulated at the post-transcriptional level. We investigated whether glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) binds to the AU-rich element (ARE) of COX-2 mRNA for its degradation. Knockdown of GAPDH in hepa1c1c7 cells significantly enhanced COX-2 expressions. Recombinant GAPDH bound to the COX-2 ARE within the first 60 nucleotides of the 3′-UTR via the NAD+ binding domain. Interestingly, a C151S GAPDH mutant retained binding activity. Confocal microscopy observation revealed that LPS exposure reduced the localization of GAPDH in nuclei. Our results indicate that GAPDH negatively regulates COX-2 by binding to its ARE.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 12/2012; 528(2):141–147. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zerumbone, a sesquiterpene present in Zingiber zerumbet Smith, has been implicated as a promising chemopreventive agent. Interestingly, a number of studies have revealed that its potent bioactivities are dependent on the electrophilic moiety of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group, while our recent findings showed its chemical potential for binding to cellular proteins through a Michael reaction. In the present study, modifications of proteins by zerumbone led to their insolubilization in vitro. In living cell models, zerumbone induced ubiquitination and aggregation of cellular proteins, which demonstrated its substantial proteo-toxicity. On the other hand, it was also revealed that zerumbone possesses potential for activating intracellular proteolysis mechanisms of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. Furthermore, it up-regulated expressions of pro-autophagic genes including p62, which is known as a cargo receptor of aggrephagy, the selective autophagic process for protein aggregates. Pretreatment of Hepa1c1c7 cells with zerumbone conferred a phenotype resistant to cytotoxicity and protein modifications by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, an endogenous lipid peroxidation product, in a p62-dependent manner. Together, these results suggest that protein modifications by zerumbone cause mild proteo-stress, thereby activating intracellular proteolysis machineries to maintain protein homeostasis. We consider these effects on proteolysis mechanisms to be hormesis, which provides beneficial functions through mild biological stresses.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2012; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by abnormal deposition (fibrillation) of a 42-residue amyloid β-protein (Aβ42) in the brain. During the process of fibrillation, the Aβ42 takes the form of protofibrils with strong neurotoxicity, and is thus believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AD. To elucidate the supramolecular structure of the Aβ42 protofibrils, the intermolecular proximity of the Ala-21 residues in the Aβ42 protofibrils was analyzed by (13)C-(13)C rotational resonance experiments in the solid state. Unlike the Aβ42 fibrils, an intermolecular (13)C-(13)C correlation was not found in the Aβ42 protofibrils. This result suggests that the β-strands of the Aβ42 protofibrils are not in an in-register parallel orientation. Aβ42 monomers would assemble to form protofibrils with the β-strand conformation, then transform into fibrils by forming intermolecular parallel β-sheets.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2012; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 42-mer amyloid β-protein (Aβ42) aggregates to form soluble oligomers that cause memory loss and synaptotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxidative stress is closely related to the pathogenesis of AD. We previously identified the toxic conformer of Aβ42 with a turn at positions 22 and 23 ("toxic turn") by solid-state NMR and demonstrated that a monoclonal antibody (11A1) against the toxic turn in Aβ42 mainly detected the oligomer in the brains of AD patients. Our recent study suggested that oxidative stress is a key factor of the oligomerization and cognitive impairment induced by Aβ overproduction in vivo. However, the involvement of the toxic conformer in Aβ42-induced oxidative damage remains unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we examined the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neurotoxicity in rat primary neurons using E22P-Aβ42, a mutant that induces a turn at positions 22 and 23, and E22V-Aβ42, a turn-preventing mutant. E22P-Aβ42, but not E22V-Aβ42, induced greater ROS production than Wt-Aβ42 in addition to potent neurotoxicity. Interestingly, the formation of the toxic conformer in both E22P-Aβ42 and Wt-Aβ42 probed by the 11A1 antibody preceded Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity. Trolox (a radical scavenger) and Congo red (an aggregation inhibitor) significantly prevented the neurotoxicity and intracellular ROS induced by E22P-Aβ42 and Wt-Aβ42, respectively. These results suggest that Aβ42-mediated toxicity is caused by the turn that favors toxic oligomers, which increase generation of ROS.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience 09/2012; 3(9):674-81. · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid-β protein (Aβ) accumulates in the neurons of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients at an early stage of the disease. Recently, we found that Aβ with a toxic turn at positions 22 and 23 accumulates in neurons in AD brain. Here, we studied the accumulation of Aβ, toxic turn Aβ and high-molecular-weight Aβ oligomers in presenilin 1 (PS1) gene-transfected SH-SY5Y cells as well as in the brains of 3xTg-AD mice and AD patients. Immunostaining revealed that accumulation of toxic turn Aβ was promoted in G384A- and I143T-mutant PS1-transfected cells and further enhanced by co-transfection of cells with the Aβ-precursor protein (AβPP) gene. In contrast, accumulation of high-molecular-weight Aβoligomers was promoted in mutant PS1 cells but attenuated by co-transfection of cells with the AβPP gene. Toxic turn Aβ was detected in the neurons of 3xTg-AD mice aged 2 months, when the mice were cognitively unimpaired. In contrast, high-molecular-weight Aβ oligomers were detected in the neurons of 7-month-old mice, when memory dysfunction is apparent. Furthermore, immunostaining and western blotting for Rab4, Rab6 and GRP78 revealed increased levels of these proteins in mutant PS1 cells and their accumulation in the neurons of 3xTg-AD mice. Remarkably, GRP78 immunoreactivity was increased at 2 months of age. Double-label immunostaining of AD brain revealed an apparent association between toxic turn Aβ and GRP78, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker. Intraneuronal accumulation of toxic turn Aβ may be associated with ER stress in the brains of AD model mice and AD patients at an early stage.
Current Alzheimer research 08/2012; · 4.97 Impact Factor