Emilios E Pakos

University Hospital of Ioannina, Yannina, Epirus, Greece

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Publications (46)95.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the expression of E-cadherin, beta-catenin and topoisomerase-II alpha and examine their clinical relevance in liposarcomas. The expression of E-cadherin, beta-catenin and topoisomerase II alpha was examined immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 71 patients who underwent surgical treatment for liposarcomas of the extremities or the retroperitoneum in two major cancer reference centres between 1990 and 2000. Detailed medical notes were available for all patients who were followed for median 82 months (range 5 to 215 months). Obtained expression data were weighted against clinical and pathology parameters of clinical relevance. Patients were mostly male (59%), median age was 56 years for the liposarcomas of the extremities and 60 years for the retroperitoneal liposarcomas. The tumours were of diverse histology, grade and size (median diameters 7 and 17 cm for tumours of the extremities and retroperitoneum respectively). Expression of β-catenin protein was weakly detected in 15 cases (21.1%). Similarly weak expression of topoisomerase II-alpha was detected in 14 (19.7%) cases of which only two had more than 20% of tumor cells stained positive. E-cadherin was not detected in the studied cohort of liposarcomas. We did not detect associations between the expression of the above proteins by liposarcoma cells and clinical outcome. Liposarcomas do not express E-cadherin, which matches the absence of epithelioid differentiation in this sarcoma subtype, and have low topoisomerase II-alpha expression, which justifies to some extend their resistance to anthracycline-based chemotherapy.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 01/2012; 10:28. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the advances and improvement of computer-assisted surgery devices, computer-guided pedicle screws insertion has been applied to the lumbar, thoracic and cervical spine. The purpose of the present study was to perform a systematic review of all available prospective evidence regarding pedicle screw insertion techniques in the thoracic and lumbar human spine. We considered all prospective in vivo clinical studies in the English literature that assessed the results of different pedicle screw placement techniques (free-hand technique, fluoroscopy guided, computed tomography (CT)-based navigation, fluoro-based navigation). MEDLINE, OVID, and Springer databases were used for the literature search covering the period from January 1950 until May 2010. 26 prospective clinical studies were eventually included in the analysis. These studies included in total 1,105 patients in which 6,617 screws were inserted. In the studies using free-hand technique, the percentage of the screws fully contained in the pedicle ranged from 69 to 94%, with the aid of fluoroscopy from 28 to 85%, using CT navigation from 89 to 100% and using fluoroscopy-based navigation from 81 to 92%. The screws positioned with free-hand technique tended to perforate the cortex medially, whereas the screws placed with CT navigation guidance seemed to perforate more often laterally. In conclusion, navigation does indeed exhibit higher accuracy and increased safety in pedicle screw placement than free-hand technique and use of fluoroscopy.
    European Spine Journal 09/2011; 21(2):247-55. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to identify the incidence, outcome and prognostic factors associated with spindle cell sarcomas of bone (SCSB). We studied 196 patients with a primary non-metastatic tumour treated with the intent to cure. The results were compared with those of osteosarcoma patients treated at our hospital during the same period. The overall incidence of SCSB was 7.8% of all patients with a primary bone sarcoma. The five- and ten-year survival rates were 67.0% and 60.0%, respectively, which were better than those of patients with osteosarcoma treated over the same period. All histological subtypes had similar outcomes. On univariate analysis, factors that were significantly associated with decreased survival were age > 40 years, size > 8 cm, the presence of a pathological fracture, amputation, involved margins and a poor response to pre-operative chemotherapy. Multivariate analyses showed that age > 65 years, amputation and involved margins were all statistically significant prognostic factors. Involved margins and poor response to pre-operative chemotherapy were associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. SCSB has a better prognosis than osteosarcoma when matched for age. Most prognostic factors for osteosarcoma also seem to apply to SCSB. Patients with SCSB should be treated in the same way as patients of the same age with osteosarcoma.
    Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - British Volume 09/2011; 93(9):1271-8. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonunions of the femoral shaft represent a treatment challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon and a serious socioeconomic problem for the patient. Inadequate fracture stability, insufficient blood supply, bone loss or presence of infection are the main reasons for the development of a nonunion. Careful classification and exclusion of infection are crucial for the choice of the proper treatment alternative. Nail dynamization, primary intramedullary nailing or nail exchange, plate osteosynthesis and external fixation along with bone grafting, usage of bone substitutes and electrical stimulation can stimulate osseous union. A review of the aetiology, classification and treatment should prove helpful managing this serious complication.
    Injury 07/2011; 43(7):980-8. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intramuscular hemangiomas (IHs) are rare benign neoplasms usually seen in children, adolescents and young adults. Although lower extremities are the commonest localization, the localization at the foot is extremely rare since only a few cases have been reported. We report a case of mixed type IH of the flexor digitorum brevis muscle in a 12-year-old boy who was treated with surgical excision, with wide surgical margins.
    Foot and Ankle Surgery 06/2010; 16(2):e27-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To present a new technique for wrist arthrodesis and review its treatment outcomes in 33 patients with brachial plexus palsy. 26 men and 7 women (mean age, 26 years) with global brachial plexus palsy underwent wrist arthrodesis using an external fixator and a cannulated screw. All surgeries were performed under local anaesthesia by a single senior surgeon. An external fixator was applied to the radius and the metacarpal of the index finger. The articular surfaces of the radius, scaphoid, lunate, and capitate were debrided, and a cannulated screw inserted from the base of the radial styloid to the carpo-metacarpal joint of the ring finger. Cancellous allografts mixed with demineralised bone matrix were added to the decorticated wrist bones. The external fixator was removed at week 8 and the wrist protected with a short-arm splint until solid wrist fusion. All patients achieved wrist fusion after a mean of 14 (range, 12-16) weeks. Two patients had delayed fusion and slight wrist instability, because the shorter screw was embedded in the cancellous bone and not self-tapped to the cortex. Fusion was achieved after replacement with a longer screw. No patient developed a superficial or deep wound infection; 2 developed pin track infections. All patients were satisfied with the outcome and able to perform simple daily activities after one year. Our new technique for wrist arthrodesis is less invasive. Blood loss, the risk of postoperative infection, and adhesions at the extensors are decreased.
    Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong) 04/2010; 18(1):87-91.
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    ABSTRACT: To present the results of a prospective study which aimed to evaluate the efficacy of radiation dose in a combined protocol using postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and indomethacin for the prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and are at high risk for HO development. Seventy-one patients with a mean age of 63 years received either a single dose of 7 Gy or a fractionated dose of 10 Gy in 5 fractions of 2 Gy within the 3 postoperative days. Concurrently all patients received 75 mg of indomethacin for 15 days. Patients were analysed for radiographical evidence of HO development and clinically with the Merle d'Aubigné score at 1 year. At 12 months combined RT and indomethacin achieved excellent prophylaxis of HO. The overall radiographical incidence of HO was 7.04% (95% CI 2.33-15.67), while no patient with clinically significant HO (Brooker III-IV) was seen. There was no statistically significant difference between the two RT protocols. In a subgroup of 12 patients with bilateral THA the incidence of HO in the non-irradiated hips was statistically significantly higher compared with the irradiated hips. All patients had improved joint mobility and function during follow up compared with the preoperative period. No statistically significant differences regarding the Merle d'Aubigné score was documented between the 2 RT groups. No acute or late side effects related to RT were noted. This study demonstrated the efficacy of combined RT and indomethacin in preventing heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty. Fractionated total dose of 10 Gy seems to offer no further benefit compared to a single dose of 7.0 Gy.
    Journal of B.U.ON.: official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology 01/2010; 15(1):74-8. · 0.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liposarcomas are malignant tumors that arise from primitive mesenchymal cells rather than mature adipose tissue. We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients with extremities and superficial trunk liposarcomas in relation to some clinicopathological factors. Sixty-three surgically treated patients with liposarcoma, with mean age 53 years, were included in this study. The 5-and 10-year survival rates were analyzed with respect to local recurrences, distant metastases and death with the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox models estimated univariate and multivariate hazard ratios for each candidate predictor of interest. The 5-year overall survival was 77.8% (95% CI 65.5-87.3) and the 10-year overall survival was 63.5% (95% CI 50.4-75.3). The 5-and 10-year recurrence-free survival were 60% and 57%, respectively. The 5-and 10-year metastasis-free survival were 86% and 84%, respectively. In univariate analysis factors that were significantly associated with outcomes were grade III tumors, amputation procedures, use of chemotherapy and development of local recurrences. No significant association was observed in multivariate analysis. Patients with liposarcoma surviving for 5 years, have also a high probability to be alive at 10 years. The development of metastases is observed within the first 5-years from diagnosis. Metastatic disease after that period is rare. The possibility of local recurrence is not negligible after the 5th year of follow up.
    Journal of B.U.ON.: official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology 01/2010; 15(3):518-23. · 0.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patellar instability after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a serious complication that impairs functional outcome and may lead to revision surgery. Its aetiology can be related to the surgical technique and component positioning, extensor mechanism imbalance, and other causes. After TKA, the presence of anterior knee pain, especially during stressful activities, is indicative of patellar instability. Diagnosis can be made by radiological evaluation of the patella position, alignment, and component fixation. Main treatment options include revision of the TKA components (in case of malposition) and lateral retinacular release with or without a proximal or distal realignment (in case of soft-tissue imbalance).
    Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong) 12/2009; 17(3):351-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of E-cadherin, beta-catenin and topoisomerase II has been associated with clinical outcome of several cancers including sarcomas. We aimed to evaluate the expression of these markers in leiomyosarcomas (LMS). Paraffin blocks of 19 primary, nonmetastatic LMS were analysed immunohistochemically for the expression of the above-mentioned markers with a cutoff level for positivity of 20% of cell staining. Expression of E-cadherin was negative in all LMS. Nuclear expression of beta-catenin was also negative in all cases, while positive cytoplasmic beta-catenin expression was observed in approximately half of the patients. The majority of LMS had expression of topoisomerase IIalpha, although only in 10 patients was this expression in more than 20% of tumour cells. From the analysed factors, tumour size was statistically significantly correlated with relapse-free survival. Further evidence with larger series is required in order to determine the implication of these markers in LMS.
    Clinical and Translational Oncology 09/2009; 11(8):548-51. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: :Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined radiotherapy and indomethacin as compared to indomethacin alone for the prevention of HO after hip arthroplasty. 96 patients were prospectively enrolled to receive either a single dose of postoperative radiotherapy of 7.0 Gy and indomethacin for the first 15 postoperative days or indomethacin alone for the same period. A historical group of 50 patients that received indomethacin alone served as control. Primary endpoint was the radiographic evidence of HO at 6 months. Secondary endpoints were the evaluation of factors related to HO development, side effects from each treatment, and group differences in the clinical assessment with the Merle d'Aubigné Score. Four patients in the combined-therapy group developed HO compared to 13 patients in the indomethacin group (p < 0.05) and 13 patients in the historical group (p < 0.05). One patient each in the combined group and the historical group developed Brooker III HO (nonsignificant difference). Duration of surgery and congenital hip disease were associated with HO development in the indomethacin groups, while age and congenital hip disease showed such an association in the combined-therapy group. The side effects and mean Merle d'Aubigné Score did not differ significantly between the three groups. Combined radiotherapy and indomethacin was more efficacious in preventing HO after total hip arthroplasty compared to indomethacin alone and should be considered for future investigation.
    Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 08/2009; 185(8):500-5. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the possibility of hamstring tendon contamination, the correlation with clinical infection and its association with C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) values in 89 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Two tissue samples were obtained for culture from each graft: immediately after harvesting the graft and before implantation. The ESR and the CRP were evaluated preoperatively and on the 4th and 20th postoperative days. Nine patients (10%) had positive cultures but no patient had signs of postoperative infection. All patients had ESR and CRP values elevated at the 4th postoperative day. ESR and CRP values returned to normal levels at the 20th postoperative day. Higher mean values of CRP levels at the 4th day were observed in patients with contaminated grafts compared to those with uncontaminated. Both values reached normal levels at the 20th postoperative day.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 07/2009; 17(9):1043-7. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of traditional clinical predictors in osteosarcoma through an international collaboration of 10 teams of investigators (2680 patients) who participated. In multivariate models the mortality risk increased with older age, presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis, development of local recurrence when the patient was first seen, use of amputation instead of limb salvage/wide resection, employment of unusual treatments, use of chemotherapeutic regimens other than anthracycline and platinum and use of methotrexate. It was also influenced by the site of the tumour. The risk of metastasis increased when metastatic disease was present at the time the patient was first seen and also increased with use of amputation or unusual treatment combinations or chemotherapy regimens not including anthracycline and platinum. Local recurrence risk was higher in older patients, in those who had local recurrence when first seen and when no anthracycline and platinum were used in chemotherapy. Results were similar when limited to patients seen after 1990 and treated with surgery plus combination chemotherapy. This large-scale international collaboration identifies strong predictors of major clinical outcomes in osteosarcoma.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 05/2009; 45(13):2367-75. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate retrospectively the efficacy of combined postoperative radiotherapy and indomethacin compared to indomethacin alone for the prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) in high-risk patients with congenital disease of hip (CDH) undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). Fifty-five patients received indomethacin alone (Group A), while 44 patients received the combined protocol (Group B). Patients >or=55 years were enrolled in Group B and those younger than 55 years in Group A. Patients were evaluated radiologically for the presence of HO 6 months after the operation. The incidence of HO in Group A was 34.5% (95% confidence interval 22.2-48.6%), while the respective incidence in Group B patients was 27.3% (95% CI 15.0- 42.8%). The difference was not statistically significant (p=0.5). No significant treatment-related side effects were reported. This is the first study evaluating the impact of HO prophylaxis in an immiscible population of patients with secondary arthritis due to CDH undergoing THA. Further future randomised evidence is required in order to ascertain the observed trend towards improved efficacy of the combined protocol for HO development.
    Clinical and Translational Oncology 02/2009; 11(2):103-8. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report an unusual case of solitary osteolytic tibial metastasis from a primary endometrial cancer in a 62-year-old woman. The primary cancer was treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined with postoperative external beam radiotherapy, while the tibial metastasis was treated with an above knee amputation. The rarity of the case lies on the fact that metastases distally to the elbow and knee are uncommon and endometrial cancer rarely gives distal bone metastases and particularly solitary to the extremities.
    Case Reports in Medicine 02/2009; 2009:352085.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to assess the efficacy of epidural steroid injections (ESI) in acute and subacute pain due to lumbar spine disk herniation, we conducted a randomized trial, comparing 2 different protocols. Fourty patients with radicular pain due to L4-L5 and L5-S1 disc herniation were assigned to receive either 3 consecutive ESI every 24 hours through a spinal catheter (group A) or 3 consecutive ESI every 10 days with an epidural needle (group B). All patients had improved Oswestry Disabilty Index (ODI) and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain scores at 1 month of follow-up compared to baseline, while no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups. The scores for group B were statistically significant lower at 2 months of follow-up compared to those of group A. The improvement in the scores of group B was continuous since the mean scores at 2 months of follow up were lower compared to the respective scores at 1 month. Protocol B (3 consecutive ESI every 10 days) was found more effective in the treatment of subacute pain compared to Protocol A (3 consecutive ESI every 24 hours) with statistically significant differences in the ODI and VAS scores at 2 months of follow-up.
    The Open Orthopaedics Journal 01/2009; 3:121-4.
  • Strahlentherapie Und Onkologie - STRAHLENTHER ONKOL. 01/2009; 185(8):500-505.
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the reliability and reproducibility of a magnetic tracking technique for the assessment of overall cervical spine motion (principal and coupled movements). Ten asymptomatic male volunteers with a mean age of 29.3 years (range 20-37 years) were included in the study. Flexion, extension, left and right lateral bending and left and right axial rotation were measured using a magnetic tracking device (MTD) mounted onto a custom head-piece. For rotational movements in the frontal and sagittal planes the results were compared with the measurements of two standard inclinometers. Intra-observer, inter-observer and intra-instrument reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient method. There were no significant differences for all motion measurements between the MTD and the inclinometer. High inter-observer reliability was found in flexion, extension, axial rotation and lateral bending indicating that the testing routine is applicable for different examiners. The intra-observer variability was high in flexion and extension, whereas in lateral bending the reliability coefficients were lower and displayed a fair to good reliability for most of the measurements with the MTD. The results of the MTD were found to be highly comparable with the inclinometer results with an inter-instrument correlation coefficient ranging from 0.88 to 0.99. The MTD is a reliable, reproducible method for three-dimensional motion analysis of the cervical spine and therefore a valuable method both for the clinical assessment of various degenerative and traumatic disorders and as a supplement of different therapeutic procedures and rehabilitation.
    European Spine Journal 01/2009; 18(2):276-81. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin and topoisomerase II has been associated with clinical outcome of several cancers including sarcomas. We aimed to evaluate the expression of these markers in leiomyosarcomas (LMS). Materials and methodsParaffin blocks of 19 primary, nonmetastatic LMS were analysed immunohistochemically for the expression of the above-mentioned markers with a cutoff level for positivity of 20% of cell staining. ResultsExpression of E-cadherin was negative in all LMS. Nuclear expression of β-catenin was also negative in all cases, while positive cytoplasmic β-catenin expression was observed in approximately half of the patients. The majority of LMS had expression of topoisomerase IIα, although only in 10 patients was this expression in more than 20% of tumour cells. From the analysed factors, tumour size was statistically significantly correlated with relapse-free survival. ConclusionsFurther evidence with larger series is required in order to determine the implication of these markers in LMS.
    Clinical and Translational Oncology 01/2009; 11(8):548-551. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this cadaveric study was to compare the transtibial versus the anteromedial portal with respect to the anatomic femoral positioning of the ACL attachment. Ten fresh frozen cadaveric knees were included in our study. A standard arthroscopy was performed and the normal ACL was partially cut through with arthroscopic scissors leaving a small footprint of 2 mm at the anatomical insertion area on the lateral femoral condyle. The femoral tunnel was drilled through the tibial tunnel and subsequently through the anteromedial portal. Using a probe with standard magnification, we measured the distances of the two femoral tunnels from the margin of ACL footprint arthroscopically. The femurs were then dissected and we measured the distances of the two tunnels from the posterior part of the lateral femoral condyle. The median arthroscopically measured distance of the centers of transtibial femoral tunnel and of the femoral tunnel through the anteromedial portal from the margin of the femoral ACL footprint were 6.20 mm and 2.80 mm respectively. The difference was statistically significant. After femoral dissection the median distance of the centers of the transtibial femoral tunnel and the femoral tunnel performed through the anteromedial portal from the border of the articular surface at the lateral femoral condyle was 6.10 mm and 5.25 mm respectively (p<0.001). Both measurements showed that ACL reconstruction technique through the anteromedial portal is more accurate compared to the transtibial technique.
    The Knee 06/2008; 15(5):364-7. · 2.01 Impact Factor