C O Adewunmi

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ilesha, Osun, Nigeria

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Publications (49)63.74 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The extracts of nine selected Nigerian medicinal plants were investigated on Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected mice. The anti-inflammatory properties of hexane fraction of the most promising U. chamae extract was assessed by acute oedema of the mice paw model while the modulatory effect of the extract on Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response on in vivo leucocytes mobilization was evaluated. 'Dose-probing acute toxicity tests' established an oral and intraperitoneal LD50 for T. ivorensis stem bark as >1600 < 5000 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg respectively, while the oral LD50 of Uvaria. chamae was >5000 mg/kg. Extracts of Khaya senegalensis, Harungana madagascariensis, Terminalia ivorensis, Curcuma longa, Ocimum gratissimum and Alcornea cordifolia showed weak anti-trypanosomal effect and did not exhibit significant clearance in parasitemia at the test dose administered compared with the positive control (Diminal®). However, the leaf extract of U. chamae and its hexane fraction demonstrated a significant response (P < 0.01). The fraction at 1000 mg/kg inhibited oedema by 107%. Uvaria. chamae demonstrated both antitrypanosomal and anti-inflammatory properties by increasing the survival time of infected mice due to reduction in parasitemia caused by T. brucei brucei.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 03/2013; 10(6):469-76. · 0.52 Impact Factor
  • Afr. J.T. Com. Alt. Med. 01/2011; 8:27-33.
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    ABSTRACT: The antioxidant principles isolated from the various parts of the plant are verminoside (leaf, stem bark and flowers; EC(50) = 2.04 µg/ml), Specioside (flowers; EC(50) = 17.44 µg/ml), Kampeferol diglucoside (leaf; EC(50) = 8.87 µg/ml) and Caffeic acid (leaf and fruits). The non anti-oxidant components isolated in the study include ajugol (stem bark and fruits) and phytol (leaf).
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 01/2011; 8(1):27-33. · 0.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In malarial endemic countries especially in the tropics, conventional antimalarial drugs are used with herbal remedies either concurrently or successively. Khaya grandifoliola is one of such popular herbs used in the treatment of malaria.Various doses of ethanol extract of K. grandifoliola stem bark (50-400 mg/kg/day) were administered orally to Swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii nigerense. A dose of 100 mg/kg/day of the extract was also combined with 2.5 mg/kg/day of chloroquine or 6.25 mg/kg/day of halofantrine in both early and established malaria infection test models. The results showed that in the early malaria infection test, K. grandifoliola in combination with chloroquine or halofantrine elicited enhanced antiplasmodial effect in the established infection, there was significantly greater parasite clearance following administration of the combination when compared to the effects of K. grandifoliola or the conventional drugs alone. The mean survival period of parasitized animals was also enhanced by the extract/halofantrine combination. Lower therapeutic doses of halofantrine may be required to potentiate parasite clearance when used in combination with K. grandifoliola. This may constitute great advantage to halofantrine which is associated with cardiotoxicity at high doses.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 01/2010; 7(4):370-6. · 0.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The concentrations of 15 elements and heavy metals in the stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis were determined using an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. The anti-anemic activity was done using the changes in hematological parameters (PCV, RBC and Hb) influenced by phenylhydrazine HCL (80 mg/kg) and malaria parasites-induced anemia. Results show Cd, Ni, Mo, Cr and Br were in the range of 0.021–0.94 mg/g, while Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu and Hg were in the range of 1.50–7.24 mg/g. The elements with very high concentration were Ca, K, Sr, Mn and Cl and were in the range of 10.5–774.3 mg/g. Remarkable anti-anemic activity was obtained with PCV of 40–48%, RBC count of 81-155 x104 and Hb value of 57-66 g/dL after treatment; compared with 30% PCV, 67 x104 RBC count and 36.5 g/dL Hb value obtained for the untreated control animals. Our results suggest that H. madagascariensis stem bark extract constituents exhibit anti-anemic activity.
    Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology. 01/2009;
  • Nigerian Journal of Natural Products & Medicine. 01/2009; 13:1-12.
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    ABSTRACT: Clausena lansium (Fool's Curry Leaf) is used for various ethnomedical conditions in some countries, including bronchitis, malaria, viral hepatitis, acute and chronic gastro-intestinal inflammation, and as a spicy substitute of the popular Curry leaf tree (Murraya koenigii). This study was to evaluate the ethnomedical uses of the stem bark in inflammatory conditions, hepatotoxicity and to determine the anti-diabetic and anti-trichomonal properties of the plant. Anti-trichomonal, in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic and insulin stimulating, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities using Trichomonas gallinae, glucose loaded rats and in vitro insulin secreting cell line (INS-1 cell), carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema, CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity and DPPH scavenging ability methods respectively for the extracts and some isolates were determined. A dichloromethane extract was superior over methanolic extract with respect to an anti-trichomonal activity which was measured after 24 and 48 h. The isolated compounds imperatorin and 3-formylcarbazole had the main anti-trichomonal activity (LC(50)s of 6.0, 3.0 and 3.6, 9.7 microg/mL after 24 and 48 h, respectively). Methanolic extract (100 mg/kg) induced maximum and significant (p<0.05) anti-hyperglycaemic activity of 15.8% at 30 min and a 38.5% increase in plasma insulin at 60 min, compared to control. The increase in plasma insulin after 60 min, compared to 0 min, was 62.0% (p<0.05). The significant 174.6% increase of insulin release from INS-1 cells (in vitro) at 0.1 mg/ml indicates that it mediates its antidiabetic action mainly by stimulating insulin release. Imperatorin and chalepin were the major active constituents increasing in vitro insulin release to 170.3 and 137.9%, respectively. 100 mg/kg of the methanolic extract produced an anti-inflammatory activity after 4 h. A sedative effect was not observed. 100 and 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract administered i.p., reduced CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity firstly by 5.3 and 8.4% reduction in phenobarbitone-sleeping time respectively, secondly by reversing the reduction in serum liver proteins by 7.0-8.8%, serum AST, ALT and ALP activities by 27.7-107.9% and thirdly by diminishing increased values of plasma AST, ALT and ALP activities by 13.2-83.8%. The extract exhibited antioxidant activities. The hepatoprotective activity of C. lansium is partly due to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and confirms its folkloric use in the treatment of gastro-intestinal inflammation, bronchitis and hepatitis. In addition the use of C. lansium stem bark would be useful in diabetes and trichomoniasis.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 12/2008; 122(1):10-9. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ethanolic stem bark extract of Harungana madagascariensis (Hypericaceae), (Choisy) Poir were evaluated for their activities on Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta) Stabler isolated from the pigeon (Columba livia). It was also tested for their anti-malarial activity on N67 Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (in vivo) in mice and on Plasmodium falciparum isolates in vitro. The anti-trichomonal screening was performed in vitro using Trichomonas gallinae culture. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) is the lowest concentration of the test extract in which no motile organisms were observed. The anti-malarial effects were determined in-vivo for suppressive, curative and prophylactic activities in mice receiving a standard inoculum size of 1 x 10(7) (0.2 ml) infected erythrocytes of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis intraperitoneally, and the in vitro was performed against 3 isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in a candle jar procedures. The IC(50) of the extract and metronidazole (MDZ) (Flagyl) on Trichomonas gallinae at 48 h are 187 and 1.56 microg/ml. The IC(50) of the extract, chloroquine (CQ) and artemether (ART) on Plasmodium falciparum are between 0.052 and 0.517 microg/ml for the extract and 0.021 and 0.0412 microg/ml for ART and CQ, respectively. The actions of the extract in in vivo study on Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis showed that in both suppressive and prophylactic tests the percentages chemo-suppressive were between 28.6-44.8% and 30.2-78.2% respectively, while only 80 mg/kg of the extract reduced the parasitaemia level when compared to the control and the standard drugs in curative test. Harungana madagascariensis stem bark extract therefore exhibited significant anti-protozoan effects against Trichomonas and Plasmodium both in vivo and in vitro.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 06/2008; 117(3):507-11. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of two chalcones, 2<SUP>1</SUP>-hydroxy-2,4<SUP>1</SUP>-dimethoxychalcone [2-DMC] and 4-hydroxychalcone [4HC] synthesized in our laboratory. Antioxidant property of the two chalcones were compared with ascorbic acid and were evaluated in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. Results showed a potent analgesic effect of the two chalcones at 50, 100 and 200 mg kg<SUP>-1</SUP> intraperitoneally. A significant inhibitions in acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions and significant percentage increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test were exhibited. However in flick test, highest analgesic activity was observed only with 4HC (200 mg kg<SUP>-1</SUP>, i.p.) which exhibited 91.9% increase in pain threshold even more than the standard drug, acetylsalicylic acid that produced 85.0%. The % antioxidant activity (AA) of 2-DMC and 4HC ranges between 14.42- 48.99 and 17.09 -24.83%. AA of 2-DMC and 4HC were shown to be long and short acting respectively with the time period of 20 min. The anti-inflammatory effects of the two chalcones of both 2-DMC and 4HC produced% inhibitions between 27.0, 49.2, 78.9% and 30.2, 49.2, 77.8% respectively, while indomethacin gave 28.6% in oedema formation of mice right hind paw. In pulmonary oedema and leucocytes count from the mice pleurisy, only 200 mg kg<SUP>-1</SUP> i.p of the chalcones produced significant anti-inflammatory effect. This study demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of 2-DMC and 4HC on various mediators responsible for pain and inflammation and indicated the effectiveness of the chalcones as potent analgesic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.
    Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2008;
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    Planta Medica - PLANTA MED. 01/2008; 74(09).
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    Clement O Adewunmi, John A O Ojewole
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 01/2007; 4(4):382. · 0.52 Impact Factor
  • Clement O Adewunmi, John A O Ojewole
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines (ISSN: 0189-6016) Vol 4 Num 4. 01/2007;
  • Ife Journal of Science. 01/2007; 9(2):155-160.
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    ABSTRACT: The methanolic extract of Murraya koenigii leaf was screened for toxicological and biochemical effects on rats because of the folkloric uses as an anti-dysentery and anti-diabetes. The extract was moderately toxic (LD(50)=316.23 mg/kg body weight) to rats and had appreciable effect on the liver and kidney at higher doses leading to liver inflammation. It had little or no effect on haematology and relative organ weight of lungs, heart and spleen. Acute doses (500 mg/kg) reduced significantly serum globulin, albumin, urea, glucose, total protein, aspartate transaminase (AST), and increased cholesterol and alanine transaminase (ALT) indicating hepatic injury. However, chronic administration for 14 days gave a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the serum cholesterol, glucose, urea, bilirubin, ALT and AST showing that the plant has hypoglycaemic and hepatoprotective effects after prolonged use. The activity demonstrated by some of the isolated carbazole alkaloids and their derivatives against Trichomonas gallinae confirmed that the anti-trichomonal activity of the leaf may be due to its carbazole alkaloids. The order of activity was C(18)>C(23)>C(13). Girinimbine and girinimbilol with IC(50) values of 1.08 and 1.20 microg/ml were the most active. Acetylation of girinimbilol and mahanimbilol improved their activities to 0.60 and 1.08 microg/ml.
    Phytomedicine 04/2006; 13(4):246-54. · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • C. O. Adewunmi, A. J. Aladesanmi
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    ABSTRACT: Four alkaloids, dyshomerythrine (2), 3-epischelhammericine (6), 2,7-dihydrohomoerysotrine (7); and 3-epi-12-hydroxyschelhammericine (8); two 1-phenylethylisoquinoline, homolaudanosine (9) and dysoxyline (10); a novel alkaloid, dysazecine (3); two diterpenes, 8β-hydroxysandaracopimar-15-ene (1) and phyllocladene (5) and p-hydroxyacetophenone (4) isolated from the leaves of Dysoxylum lenticellare have been tested against Biomphalaria glabrata and found to possess molluscicidal activity. p-hydroxyacetophenone (4) demonstrated high molluscicidal activity. An increase in the methoxy groupings increased the activity of the alkaloids whilst the disruption of the carbon skeleton decreased activity. All the compounds tested possessed cardiodepressant activities on the heart of B. glabrata.
    Phytotherapy Research 01/2006; 2(2):104 - 106. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dorstenia barteri and D. convexa extracts and some isolated components of the former were investigated for effectiveness against Trichomonas gallinarum and compared with quercetin and quercitrin. The antioxidant activity of the extracts/compounds was also determined. The minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) for the extract of D. barteri leaves and twigs at 24 h were found to be 15.625 and 15.625 microg/ml, respectively. However, the MLCs of the leaf and twig extract of D. convexa were 125 and 437.5 microg/ml, respectively. The prenylated and geranylated chalcones were as active as the prenylated flavones, 6-prenylapigenin and the diprenylated derivative 6,8-diprenyleridictyol. The order of the antitrichomonal activity of the compounds at 24 h was: quercetin (0.121 microg/ml) > quercitrin (0.244 microg/ml) > or = bartericin B (0.244 microg/ml) > bartericin A (0.73 microg/ml) > stigmasterol (0.98 microg/ml) > 6,8-diprenyleridictyol = isobavachalcone = dorsmanin F (31.25 microg/ml). D. barteri extracts, quercitrin, and bartericin A, and the prenylated flavonoids had potent antioxidant properties. The twig extract of D. barteri was more potent than the leaf extract. Moderate (EC50 >50 microg/ml) and high (EC50 <50 microg/ml) antioxidant activities were detected in the leaf and twig extracts of D. barteri and the prenylated flavonoids. Prenylated flavonoids and the isolated compounds with antioxidant properties described here may account for the anti-inflammatory action of these extracts. The antitrichomonal and antioxidant activities shown by the extracts and compounds in this study are consistent with the ethnomedicinal and local use of the Dorstenia species studied.
    Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 08/2005; 38(7):1087-94. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of boiled, cold, and methanolic extracts of nine edible vegetables in Southwest Nigeria were evaluated in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay and hemagglutination assay in bovine erythrocytes, respectively. Crassocephalum rubens showed the highest antioxidant activity (56.5%), Solanum americanum and Vernonia amygdalina exhibited moderate antioxidant activity (26.0-37.5% and 14.8-36.2%, respectively), Solanum macrocarpon, Telfaria occidentalis, Amaranthus hybridus, and Jatropha tanjorensis produced weak activity (1.6-15.8%, 1.6-7.7%, 2.8-6.62%, and 10.7-12.1%, respectively), while Celosia argentea and Talinum triangulare were pro-oxidants. It was also shown that extracts from all the vegetables are pro-oxidants at high concentrations of either 1 or 5 mg/mL or both. On the other hand, the studies on the cytoprotective effect showed that all the plant extracts demonstrated a very low hemagglutination titer value between 0.32 and 5.56 except S. americanum methanolic extract, which had a titer of 50.0. These results indicated correlation between the antioxidant properties and the hemagglutination values of these plant extracts; however, the membrane stabilizing capacity of the extracts supports the plants' antioxidant activity.
    Journal of Medicinal Food 02/2005; 8(4):539-44. · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • John A O Ojewole, Clement O Adewunmi
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    ABSTRACT: The fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Taub) [Fabaceae] is frequently used in Tropical African traditional medicine for the management and/or control of an array of human ailments, including arthritis and other inflammatory conditions, asthma, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, epilepsy, schistosomiasis, and so on. The present study was undertaken to examine the anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Taub) fruit aqueous extract in rats. Fresh egg albumin-induced pedal oedema and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus were used as experimental test models of inflammation and diabetes. Diclofenac (DIC, 100mg/kg p.o.) and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were employed as reference anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic agents, respectively, for comparison. Tetrapleura tetraptera (TTE, 50-800 mg/kg p.o.) produced dose-related, significant reductions (P < 0.05-0.001) of the fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation of the rat hind paw oedema. The plant extract (TTE, 50-800 mg/kg p.o.) also produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (P < 0.05-0.001) in the blood glucose concentrations of both fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. The results of this experimental animal study indicate that T. tetraptera fruit aqueous extract possesses anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties. These findings lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant's fruit in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions, as well as in adult-onset, type-2 diabetes mellitus in some Yoruba-speaking communities of South-Western Nigeria.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 01/2005; 95(2-3):177-82. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the leaf and twig extracts of Dorstenia barteri (Moraceae) in mice. Both the leaf and twig extracts of Dorstenia barteri at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05-0.01) antinociceptive activities in chemical-, mechanical- and thermal-induced pain test models. Intraperitoneal administration of the plant extracts at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) inhibited carrageenin-induced acute inflammation in oedema paw weight, pulmonary oedema and number of pleural leucocytes in a dose-dependent way. The twig extract was found to be more active than the leaf extract in all the experimental models used. The inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were comparable to those of the reference drugs acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) and phenylbutazone (PBZ) at 100 mg/kg i.p. The significant reduction in acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions, the decrease in oedema paw weight as well as in the number of leucocytes in the pleural cavity exudates, and the significant increase in the reaction time and pain threshold of mice observed in this study suggest that Dorstenia barteri extracts possess both anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The present study, therefore, lend pharmacological support to the folkloric uses of Dorstenia barteri extracts in the treatment, control and/or management of arthritis, rheumatism, gout, headache and other forms of body pains in some parts of Africa.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 12/2004; 95(1):7-12. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of S. haematobium infection in 18 Local Government Area (LGA) in Ondo state was determined by examining pupils from randomly selected schools in the state. A total of 4266 urine samples were examined and 1303 (30.5%) were infected with the parasite. The infection was recorded in both rural and urban communities in each LGA. The overall prevalence was significantly higher in males (33.7%) than in females (26.0%) (P = -0.001). The LGA exhibiting the highest overall prevalence of infection was Akure north (86.2%; Cl, 0.82-0.9). The infection was most common in subjects between the ages of 11 and 15 years. Seven species of aquatic snails were encountered and B. (P). globosus was the most abundant and widespread species. The Owena river/dam in Idanre LGA was richest in molluscan fauna. B. (P). globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi shedding cercariae were recovered from Owena river and dam. The study shows that there were spatial heterogeneities in the prevalence of infections in both human population and the snail intermediate hosts. The implications of the clustering nature of the disease, for a successful control program in the state, were discussed.
    African journal of medicine and medical sciences 10/2004; 33(3):219-24.

Publication Stats

271 Citations
63.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2013
    • Obafemi Awolowo University
      • • Drug Research and Production Unit
      • • Faculty of Pharmacy
      • • Department of Medical Microbiology and Parastiology
      Ilesha, Osun, Nigeria
  • 2004–2005
    • University of KwaZulu-Natal
      • School of Health Sciences
      Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
  • 2001–2003
    • Durban University of Technology
      • Faculty of Health Sciences
      Port Natal, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
  • 1996
    • University of Hamburg
      • Zoological Institute
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany