[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of peptide apelin-12 (H-Arg-Pro-Arg-Leu-Ser-His-Lys-Gly-Pro-Met-Pro-Phe-OH, A12) and its novel structural analog (H-(N(α)Me)Arg-Pro-Arg-Leu-Ser-His-Lys-Gly-Pro-Nle-Pro-Phe-OH, AI) on myocardial antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, and reactive oxygen species formation in ex vivo and in vivo models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Isolated working rat hearts were subjected to global ischemia and reperfusion. Infusion of 140 μM A12 or AI before global ischemia improved cardiac function recovery; increased the activity of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px); decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in reperfused heart; and reduced the formation of hydroxyl radical adduct of the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide in the myocardial effluent during early reperfusion compared with these indices in control. Anesthetized open-chest rats were subjected to the left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and coronary reperfusion. Peptide A12 or its analog AI was injected intravenously at the onset of reperfusion at a dose of 0.35 μmol/kg. Treatment with A12 or AI significantly limited infarct size and reduced the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase MB isoenzyme in blood plasma at the end of reperfusion compared with control. These effects were accompanied by complete recovery of Cu,Zn SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities; and decrease in MDA content in the area at risk by the end of reperfusion. The study concluded that C-terminal fragment of native peptide apelin-12 and its synthesized analog is involved in the upregulation of cardiac antioxidant defense systems and attenuation of lipid peroxidation in myocardial I/R injury.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 03/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine cardioprotective effects of Ρ-terminal fragment of adipokine apelin-12 (A12), its novel structural analogue [MeArg(1), NLe(10)]-A12 (I), and [d-Ala(12)]-A12 (II), a putative antagonist of APJ receptor, employing in vivo model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.
Peptides were synthesized by the automatic solid phase method using Fmoc technology. Anesthetized open-chest male Wistar rats were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion and coronary reperfusion. Hemodynamic variables and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored throughout the experiment. Myocardial injury was assessed by infarct size (IS), activity of necrosis markers in plasma, and metabolic state of the area at risk (AAR).
Intravenous injection of A12, I, or II at the onset of reperfusion led to a transient reduction of the mean arterial pressure. A12 or I administration decreased the percent ratio of IS/AAR by 40% and 30%, respectively, compared with control animals which received saline. Both peptides improved preservation of high-energy phosphates, reduced lactate accumulation in the AAR, and lowered CK-MB and LDH activities in plasma at the end of reperfusion compared with these indices in control. Treatment with II did not significantly affect either the IS/AAR, % ratio, or activities of both markers of necrosis compared with control. The overall metabolic protection of the AAR in the treated groups increased in the following rank: II < A12 < I.
The structural analogue of apelin-12 [MeArg(1), NLe(10)]-A12 may be a promising basis to create a new drug for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome.
Journal of pharmacology & pharmacotherapeutics. 07/2013; 4(3):198-203.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine cardioprotective effects of С‑terminal fragment of adipokine apelin‑12 (A12), its novel structural analogue [MeArg 1 , NLe 10 ]‑A12 (I), and [d‑Ala 12 ]‑A12 (II), a putative antagonist of APJ receptor, employing in vivo model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Materials and Methods: Peptides were synthesized by the automatic solid phase method using Fmoc technology. Anesthetized open‑chest male Wistar rats were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion and coronary reperfusion. Hemodynamic variables and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored throughout the experiment. Myocardial injury was assessed by infarct size (IS), activity of necrosis markers in plasma, and metabolic state of the area at risk (AAR). Results: Intravenous injection of A12, I, or II at the onset of reperfusion led to a transient reduction of the mean arterial pressure. A12 or I administration decreased the percent ratio of IS/AAR by 40% and 30%, respectively, compared with control animals which received saline. Both peptides improved preservation of high‑energy phosphates, reduced lactate accumulation in the AAR, and lowered CK‑MB and LDH activities in plasma at the end of reperfusion compared with these indices in control. Treatment with II did not significantly affect either the IS/AAR, % ratio, or activities of both markers of necrosis compared with control. The overall metabolic protection of the AAR in the treated groups increased in the following rank: II<A12<I. Conclusions: The structural analogue of apelin‑12 [MeArg 1 , NLe 10 ]‑A12 may be a promising basis to create a new drug for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome.
J of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherateutics. 06/2013; 4(3):198-203.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of apelin-12 H-Arg-Pro-Arg-Leu-Ser-His-Lys-Gly-Pro-Met-Pro-Phe-OH (A12) and its modified analogue H-(NMe)Arg-Pro-Arg-Leu-Ser-His-Lys-Gly-Pro-Nle-Pro-Phe-OH (I) on activity of antioxidant enzymes, formation of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were studied in ex vivo and in vivo models of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury in Wistar rats. Preischemic infusion of peptide A12 or AI enhanced cardiac function recovery of isolated perfused heart and was accompanied by a marked attenuation of ROS generation detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique in myocardial effluent at early reperfusion compared with control. Intravenous administration (i.v.) of peptides in narcotized rats with regional myocardial ischemia limited infarct size and reduced activity of lactate dehydrogenase and MB-fraction of creatine kinase in plasma at the end of reperfusion. Treatment with peptide A12 prevented reduction or augmented activity of myocardial u/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase by the end of reperfusion in both I/R models compared with control. Increased MDA content in the area at risk of rat heart in situ at the end of reperfusion was reduced to the initial value under the effect of i.v. A12 administration. Therefore, cardioprotective action of natural apelin-12 and its structural analog AI involve reduction of short-lived ROS generation and improvement of the antioxidant state of ischemic heart during reperfusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apelin 12 (A-12) was synthesized by the automatic solid phase method with the use of Fmoc technology. The synthesized peptide was purified by preparative HPLC and identified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Acute myocardial infarction was induced by 40-min LAD occlusion followed by 60-min reperfusion in narcotized Wistar rats. A-12 was administrated at the onset of the reperfusion at doses of 0.07, 0.35 and 0.70 micromole/kg; N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a NOS inhibitor, was applied at a dose of 10 mg/kg 10 min prior to reperfusion alone or before A-12 administration (0.35 micromole/kg); saline was used in control. The indicated A-12 doses induced a transient reduction of the arterial systolic blood pressure (ASBP) to 85, 58, and 56% of the initial level, respectively, which was accompanied by its recovery by the end of reperfusion. All A-12 doses significantly limited myocardial infarct size by 26, 40 and 33%, respectively, compared to the value in control. After administration of A-12 at dose of 0.35 micromol/kg, this effect was combined with reduction of MB-creatine kinase (MB-CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in plasma at the end of reperfusion by 56 and 47%, respectively, compared to the values in control. Inhibition of NO formation by L-NAME increased SABP but did not affect myocardial infarct size compared with that in control. Coadministration of L-NAME and A-12 resulted in lesser reduction of ASBP during reperfusion than injection of A-12 alone. This intervention led to an increase in infarct size by 26% with concomitant 1.8- and 1.5-times elevation of MB-CK and LDH activities, respectively, compared to the values in the A-12 group. The results indicate that NO is involved as a mediator of the effects of A-12 on the overall protection consisting in a limitation of infarct size and reduction of postischemic cardiomyocyte membrane damage. Cardioprotective mechanisms of apelin action are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apelin-12 (A-12) peptide was synthesized by automated solid phase method and purified by reverse phase HPLC. Its homogeneity and structure were confirmed by HPLC, (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy. Acute myocardial infarction was induced by 40-min occlusion of the left coronary artery with subsequent 60-min reperfusion in narcotized Wistar rats. Peptide A-12 was injected (intravenous bolus, 0.07 or 0.35 μmol/kg) to experimental animals simultaneously with the beginning of reperfusion. Injections of A-12 in these doses led to reduction of systolic BP to 67 and 85% of the initial level, respectively, which was virtually restored completely by the end of reperfusion, and to a significant reduction of the infarction focus in the myocardium (by 21 and 34% in comparison with the control, respectively). Injection of A-12 in a dose of 0.35 μmol/kg led to reduction of plasma concentrations of necrosis markers in comparison with the control by the end of reperfusion: MB-creatine kinase by 56%, lactate dehydrogenase by 30%. The results attest to vasodilatory effects of A-12 under conditions of heart reperfusion in vivo; the peptide injected after local ischemia limits the myocardial infarction size and reduces damage to cardiomyocyte membrane.
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 11/2011; 152(1):79-82. · 0.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The injection of dinitrosyliron iron complexes with glutathione at the onset of 40-min rat regional myocardial ischemia was shown to exert a clear cardioprotective action by decreasing the infarct size and suppressing the cardiac rhythm disturbance. After the introduction of the preparation, its effective accumulation with protein thiol-containing ligands in the myocardial tissue was registered be the EPR method. It was also found that, as a result of postischemic reperfusion, the rate of the decrease in the content of these complexes in the ischemic area increases, which demonstrates the effective scavenging of short-lived reactive oxygen species by molecules of dinitrosyl iron complexes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) and 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decylrhodamine 19 (SkQR1) on rat models of H2O2- and ischemia-induced heart arrhythmia, heart infarction, kidney ischemia, and stroke have been studied ex vivo and in vivo. In all the models listed, SkQ1 and/or SkQR1 showed pronounced protective effect. Supplementation of food with extremely low SkQ1 amount (down to 0.02 nmol SkQ1/kg per day for 3 weeks) was found to abolish the steady heart arrhythmia caused by perfusion of isolated rat heart with H2O2 or by ischemia/reperfusion. Higher SkQ1 (125-250 nmol/kg per day for 2-3 weeks) was found to decrease the heart infarction region induced by an in vivo ischemia/reperfusion and lowered the blood levels of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase increasing as a result of ischemia/reperfusion. In single-kidney rats, ischemia/reperfusion of the kidney was shown to kill the majority of the animals in 2-4 days, whereas one injection of SkQ1 or SkQR1 (1 micromol/kg a day before ischemia) saved lives of almost all treated rats. Effect of SkQR1 was accompanied by decrease in ROS (reactive oxygen species) level in kidney cells as well as by partial or complete normalization of blood creatinine and of some other kidney-controlled parameters. On the other hand, this amount of SkQ1 (a SkQ derivative of lower membrane-penetrating ability than SkQR1) saved the life but failed to normalize ROS and creatinine levels. Such an effect indicates that death under conditions of partial kidney dysfunction is mediated by an organ of vital importance other than kidney, the organ in question being an SkQ1 target. In a model of compression brain ischemia/reperfusion, a single intraperitoneal injection of SkQR1 to a rat (1 micromol/kg a day before operation) effectively decreased the damaged brain area. SkQ1 was ineffective, most probably due to lower permeability of the blood-brain barrier to this compound.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether nutritional supplementation with SkQ1 can reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo, Wistar rats were fed a regular diet supplemented with different doses of SkQ1 for two or three weeks. Control groups of rats were fed the same diet supplemented with NaBr. Anaesthetized rats were subjected to 40-min regional myocardial ischemia and 1-h reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining method. SkQ1-fed rats (125 nmol/kg/day for two weeks and 250 nmol/kg/day for two and three weeks) revealed significantly smaller myocardial infarction and less lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB fraction (CK-MB) activity elevations in plasma at the end of reperfusion compared with the controls. This effect was combined with improvement of energy state of the area at risk at the end of reperfusion, namely, augmentation of adenine nucleotide content, two-fold increase in phosphocreatine, reduction of lactate accumulation and decrease of lactate/pyruvate ratio in myocardial tissue. Therefore, nutritional supplementation with SkQ1 renders the hearts resistant to ischemia-reperfusion injury affecting oxidative metabolism of postischemic cardiomyocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of intravenous infusion of potassium-magnesium aspartate (K-Mg-Asp), a glucoseinsulin-potassium cocktail (GIK),
a combination of glucose, insulin and potassium aspartate (GIKAsp), and insulin (I) alone on metabolism of the risk area (AR)
and cardiomyocyte membrane damage have been investigated in rats during reperfusion after myocardial regional ischemia. Acute
myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by a 40-min occlusion of the anterior descending coronary artery followed by a 60-min
reperfusion. During reperfusion, K-Mg-Asp, GIK, GIKAsp, I or the physiological solution (control) was infused into the jugular
vein at a rate of 1 ml/kg/h. After reperfusion, the MI sizes were significantly lower than in control and reduced in the following
order: K-Mg-Asp > GIKAsp > I > GIK. By the end of reperfusion with metabolic protectors, ATP and phosphocreatine levels in
the AR were 2–2.5 times higher that in the control (56.3 ± 3.4 and 81.8 ± 7.9% of the initial values, respectively). The losses
of aspartate and glutamate pool and lactate and glucose accumulation in AR were significantly lower in the experimental groups
than in control. At the end of the reperfusion, the total creatine content in the AR decreased to 32.3 ± 2.3% of the initial
value in control, but restored after perfusion with GIK, I and K-Mg-Asp to 78.0 ± 5.7, 76.7 ± 5.5, and 62.4 ± 5.6% (of the
initial value), respectively. The recovery of most parameters of aerobic metabolism and cell membrane integrity was maximal
in the GIK and I groups and insignificantly lower after reperfusion with K-Mg-Asp.
The metabolic efficacy of these protectors corresponded to MI size limitation induced by their infusion. The results suggest
that myocardial reperfusion with GIK, I and K-Mg-Asp is a promising adjunctive therapy in patients with acute MI.
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series B Biomedical Chemistry 11/2008; 2(4):411-417.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of the work was to study effect of nicorandil [N-(2-nitrooxiethyl) nicotinamide, SG75] on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and rhythm disturbances during regional ischemia and reperfusion of the heart in rats in vivo and its ability to limit acute myocardial infarction (MI). Nicorandil was obtained by nitrating nicotinamide ethanol using produced by industry ethylnicotinate. MI in Wistar rats was modeled by 40-min occlusion of anterior descending coronary artery (ADCA) and subsequent 60-min reperfusion. Nicorandil (3,2 mmol/kg) was administered intravenously before occlusion. Nitroglycerine was used as preparation of comparison; it was administered in the same dose. MI area and zone at risk (ZR) were measured by computer planimetry after staining of left ventricular sections with 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Lowering of mean BP under influence of nicorandil during ADCA occlusion and subsequent reperfusion were deeper and longer than under influence of nitroglycerine. Contrary to nitroglycerine administration of nicorandil did not cause decrease of HR. Administration of both drugs postponed origination of rhythm disturbances during ischemia but did not affect their duration. MI dimension assessed by MI/ZR ratio after administration of nicorandil and nitroglycerine was significantly lowered down to 22 +/- 4 and 32 +/- 3%, respectively, compared with 47 +/- 3% in control. The results obtained evidence that in this model of ischemic and reperfusion damage of the heart vasodilating properties of nicorandil combined with decrease of postischemic loss of cardiomyocytes in ZR are comparable with effects of nitroglycerine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in nitric oxide concentration in the rat myocardium in situ during temporary occlusion of the anterior descending
coronary artery and subsequent reperfusion were monitored by microdialysis in the risk zone and a normal zone, using an NO
trap (complex of ferrous ions with N-methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate, Fe3+-MGD). The amplitude of the EPR signal of the reduced adduct NO-Fe2+-MGD in the samples from the risk zone increased during the 40-min occlusion and remained higher than the initial or the current
control values during 60-min postischemic reperfusion, indicating substantial NO production. By the end of reperfusion, the
infarct size was 47 ± 3% of the risk area. The contents of ATP, creatine phosphate, and total creatine in the risk zone decreased
to respectively 44 ± 4, 51 ± 5, and 60 ± 3% of the initial values, whereas the level of lactate was six times the initial.
The normal zone of the left ventricle showed no changes in NO or energy metabolite levels throughout the experiment. Thus,
intense nitric oxide production in acute regional ischemia and reperfusion is associated with disturbance of energy metabolism,
cell membrane damage, and death of cardiomyocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The possibility of decreasing the degree of irreversible alterations in cardiomyocytes with original saline reperfusion solution enriched with L-aspartic acid, D-glucose, and Dmannitol was studied on experimental rats with regional ischemia and reperfusion. Infusion of the test solution into the left ventricle during the early reperfusion stage significantly reduced the area of myocardial infraction. This effect was accompanied by improvement of energy metabolism and decrease in damage to cell membranes in the risk zone. Our results indicate that metabolic protection during reperfusion increases myocardial resistance to ischemic and reperfusion stress.
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 04/2006; 141(3):296-8. · 0.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of this study was to compare effects of BIIB-722, a novel Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 inhibitor, and ischemic preconditioning (IP) on infarct size and metabolism of area at risk in rats. Regional ischemia was induced by 40-min occlusion of a diagonal branch of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD); it was followed by 60-min reperfusion. Intravenous bolus injection of BIIB-722 (3 mg/kg) dissolved in 280 mM xylitol was performed before regional ischemia or during the first minute of reperfusion. In the control group 280 mM xylitol was infused before ischemia or at the beginning of reperfusion at the same mode. IP was initiated by two cycles of 5-min LAD occlusion followed by 5-min reperfusion prior to sustained regional ischemia. Microdialysis technique was used to monitor pH and inorganic phosphate (P(i)) in the interstitial fluid of the area at risk. Metabolic state of the area at risk was assessed by ATP, phosphocreatine (PCr) and lactate levels; cellular membrane damage was evaluated by total creatine (SigmaCr=PCr+Cr) tissue content. Myocardial infarct size was determined by computer planimetry after staining of left ventricular slices with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. BIIB-722 administration before or after ischemia, as well as IP, had no effect on cardiac hemodynamics and acid-base indices of arterial blood throughout the experiments. The infarct size/area at risk ratio was 43.5+/-5.2% in control and was reduced to 11.4+/-3.1% with IP, and to 17.0+/-3.6% and 25.8+/-2.6% with BIIB-722 infused on early reperfusion and before ischemia, respectively. BIIB-722 administration during the first minute of reperfusion as well as IP significantly augmented ATP and PCr contents, reduced lactate level and decreased ECr loss at the area at risk by the end of reperfusion as compared with values in control. Additionally significantly higher rates of pH recovery and reduction of P(i) concentration in the interstitial fluid were observed during reperfusion compared with these indices in control. BIIB-722 administration before ischemia had much effects on contents of energy and carbohydrate metabolites at area at risk. The results obtained indicate that ability of BIIB-722 to limit infarct size and improve metabolism in the area at risk is comparable to cardioprotective effects of IP. Therefore this study substantiates a possibility of application of a novel Na(+)/H(+) exchange inhibitor for clinical investigations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to study cardioprotective effects of BIIB 722, a novel Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 inhibitor, during regional ischemia and reperfusion in canine myocardium. The experiments were carried out on anaesthetized dogs intubated and artificially ventilated with room air enriched with oxygen. Regional ischemia was induced by 30-min occlusion of a diagonal branch of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), which was followed by 60-min reperfusion. BIIB 722, dissolved in 280 mM xylitol, was infused intracoronary for 10 min prior to LAD occlusion and at the beginning of reperfusion at the rate of 1 ml/min (30 microg/g myocardial tissue). In the control group, 280 mM xylitol was used for intracoronary administration with the same regimen. Microdialysis probes were implanted in the region of LAD occlusion to monitor interstitial pH, inorganic phosphate (Pi) and hydroxyl radical adduct. Energy state of the area at risk was evaluated by ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) contents, cell membrane damage was assessed by total creatine (SigmaCr=PCr+Cr) tissue content. Myocardial infarct size was determined by staining with Evans Blue dye and further incubation of left ventricular slices in 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The percentage ratio of infarct size to area at risk was calculated by computer planimetry. BIIB 722 administration had no effect on cardiac hemodynamics and acid-base indices of arterial blood throughout the experiments but induced 1.8-fold reduction of myocardial infarct size comparing with control. Treatment with BIIB 722 decreased acidification of the interstitial fluid following ischemia and facilitated recovery of pH to initial value on reperfusion. This effect was combined with significantly less Pi formation in the area at risk during LAD occlusion and reduction of this index to the initial value during reperfusion. At the end of reperfusion, the treated group showed augmented recovery of ATP and PCr tissue levels and higher content of SigmaCr comparing with the control. Additionally, BIIB 722 treatment markedly decreased generation of free oxygen radicals following LAD occlusion and completely avoided their formation on early reperfusion. The results indicate that BIIB 722 ability to limit myocardial infarct size in dogs is tightly connected with its influence on energy metabolism and oxygen radical generation.