Martin Visser

University of Leipzig , Leipzig, Saxony, Germany

Are you Martin Visser?

Claim your profile

Publications (60)72.21 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During 2008 to 2011, faecal samples, ear swabs, and ectoparasites obtained by full body search and total body comb were collected from 252 cats originating from the greater Tirana area. Faecal samples were examined using the McMaster and Baermann techniques, and a subset of 58 samples was tested for Giardia-specific antigen using a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ear swabs were examined for the presence of parasitic mites. Overall, almost 93 % of the cats were identified harbouring one or more parasites: 59.1 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 53.0-65.0) and 86.9 % (95 % CI, 82.7-91.1) of the cats tested positive for ecto- or endoparasites, respectively; 53.2 % of the cats had evidence for concomitant ectoparasite infestation and endoparasite infection. For ectoparasite infestation, prevalence was 52.0 % for total fleas (Ctenocephalides felis, 51.2 %; Ctenocephalides canis, 2.0 %; and Leptopsylla segnis, 0.4 %), 8.3 % each for Felicola subrostratus and Otodectes cynotis and 4.0 % for Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. The most prevalent endoparasites were Toxocara ascarids (48.0 %), followed by Aelurostrongylus lungworms (39.7 %), Capillaria spp. (31.7 %), hookworms (32.9 %), dipylidiid cestodes (27.8 %), Cystoisospora spp. (23.4 %) and taeniid cestodes (2.0 %). One animal was found shedding Pseudamphistomum truncatum eggs. Giardia-specific antigen was detected in 29.3 % of the 58 cats tested. Mixed infections with up to six endoparasites concurrently (excluding Giardia) and mixed infestations with two or three species of ectoparasites were recorded in 73.1 and 22.8 % of the parasite-positive cats, respectively. Cats ≤9 months of age were more frequently tested (p < 0.05) positive for Toxocara and Cystoisospora infections than cats >9 months while these cats tested more often (p < 0.05) Aelurostrongylus-positive compared with the younger cats. The prevalence of infestation with ectoparasites did not differ between the cats of these two age groups. Given the impact that some of the parasites may have upon animal health as well as the zoonotic potential of some of them, measures should be taken to minimise the transmission of these parasites.
    Parasitology research. 07/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During 2008 to 2011, faecal samples, ear swabs, and ectoparasites obtained by full body search and total body comb were collected from 252 cats originating from the greater Tirana area. Faecal samples were examined using the McMaster and Baermann techniques, and a subset of 58 samples was tested for Giardia-specific antigen using a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ear swabs were examined for the presence of parasitic mites. Overall, almost 93 % of the cats were identified harbouring one or more parasites: 59.1 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 53.0–65.0) and 86.9 % (95 % CI, 82.7–91.1) of the cats tested positive for ecto-or endoparasites, respectively; 53.2 % of the cats had evidence for concomitant ectoparasite infestation and endoparasite infection. For ectoparasite infes-tation, prevalence was 52.0 % for total fleas (Ctenocephalides felis, 51.2 %; Ctenocephalides canis, 2.0 %; and Leptopsylla segnis, 0.4 %), 8.3 % each for Felicola subrostratus and Otodectes cynotis and 4.0 % for Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. The most prevalent endoparasites were Toxocara ascarids (48.0 %), followed by Aelurostrongylus lungworms (39.7 %), Capillaria spp. (31.7 %), hookworms (32.9 %), dipylidiid cestodes (27.8 %), Cystoisospora spp. (23.4 %) and taeniid cestodes (2.0 %). One animal was found shedding Pseudamphistomum truncatum eggs. Giardia-specific antigen was detected in 29.3 % of the 58 cats tested. Mixed infections with up to six endoparasites concurrently (excluding Giardia) and mixed infestations with two or three species of ectopara-sites were recorded in 73.1 and 22.8 % of the parasite-positive cats, respectively. Cats ≤9 months of age were more frequent-ly tested (p<0.05) positive for Toxocara and Cystoisospora infections than cats >9 months while these cats tested more often (p<0.05) Aelurostrongylus-positive compared with the younger cats. The prevalence of infestation with ectoparasites did not differ between the cats of these two age groups. Given the impact that some of the parasites may have upon animal health as well as the zoonotic potential of some of them, measures should be taken to minimise the transmission of these parasites.
    Parasitology Research 06/2014; · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ≥99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P<0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against a broad range of feline intestinal nematode and cestode infections.
    Veterinary Parasitology 04/2014; 202(1-2):18-25. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Five controlled, blinded and randomized studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of a single topical application of a combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel (BROADLINE(®), Merial) against induced infestations with Ixodes ticks on cats. Three studies investigated the efficacy against Ixodes ricinus and two against Ixodes scapularis. In each study, purpose-bred cats were assigned at random to an untreated group or to a treated group. For the studies using I. ricinus, cats were infested with 50 female ticks and a similar number of males 2 days before treatment application, and weekly afterwards on between four and six occasions. For the studies using I. scapularis, cats were infested with a total of 50 ticks (approximately 25 females and 25 males) according to the same schedule as for I. ricinus. Tick counts for the evaluation of efficacy were performed 48h after treatment and 48h after the subsequent weekly infestations. Weekly attachment rates to untreated cats of at least 29% for I. ricinus and at least 30% for I. scapularis demonstrated consistently that the ticks were vigorous and that the attachment rates were adequate for efficacy evaluation. In the I. ricinus studies, an efficacy of at least 93% was demonstrated for up to 37 days after the treatment. In the I. scapularis studies, the efficacy level was at least 95% 30 days after the treatment. The product was well tolerated and caused no adverse reaction.
    Veterinary Parasitology 04/2014; 202(1-2):59-63. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination product (BROADLINE(®), Merial) was evaluated against adult Toxascaris leonina ascarids in experimentally infected cats in two controlled studies under an identical protocol. For each study, 30 nematode-naive, purpose-bred European Short Hair cats were inoculated orally with approximately 300 larvated T. leonina eggs. Twenty-two and 24 cats, respectively, that were shown to be positive for Toxascaris eggs by pre-treatment faecal examination were subsequently included in the two studies. In each study, the animals were allocated randomly to an untreated (control) group or to a treatment group. The treatment was a novel topical combination: fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4% w/v) and praziquantel (8.3% w/v). Treatment was applied on Day 0 at 0.12mL/kg bodyweight. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely seven days after treatment and necropsied. All untreated cats harboured adult T. leonina (range, 1-31 nematodes). The treatment provided a high level of efficacy against adult T. leonina in both studies (95.8% and 98.1%, respectively p<0.001). All cats accepted the treatment well based on hourly post-treatment observations for 4h and daily observations thereafter. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. Thus the data indicate that this novel combination product will provide a safe and effective treatment against T. leonina in cats.
    Veterinary Parasitology 04/2014; 202(1-2):40-4. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although foxes are the main reservoir of Echinococcus multilocularis, it is recognized that dogs and cats also may become infected. In cats the infection and egg production rates are usually low. Nevertheless, cats are a potential source of transmission of E. multilocularis. Due to the high human medical significance of E. multilocularis infection, it is important in endemic areas that owned cats are dewormed regularly. This paper presents the efficacy results of a new topical formulation, Broadline(®) (Merial) tested against E. multilocularis infection in cats. Two blinded laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate this novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel against E. multilocularis. In each study, purpose-bred cats were assigned randomly to two treatment groups of 10 cats each: one untreated control group and one group treated at the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.12mL/kg bodyweight to deliver 10mg fipronil, 12mg (S)-methoprene, 0.5mg eprinomectin and 10mg praziquantel/kg bodyweight. The cats were inoculated orally with E. multilocularis protoscolices, 22 or 23 days before treatment. Based on necropsy and intestinal worm count, 8 or 11 days after treatment, the two studies confirmed 100% efficacy of Broadline(®) against adult E. multilocularis.
    Veterinary Parasitology 04/2014; 202(1-2):26-9. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Four studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel (BROADLINE(®), Merial) against Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Ancylostoma braziliense hookworms of cats. In each study, purpose-bred cats were randomly assigned to treatment groups of 10 or 12 cats per group. In three studies the cats were inoculated with A. tubaeforme and in one study with A. braziliense. The inoculations were undertaken on a schedule which resulted in the hookworms reaching the fourth larval stage in two of the studies, or the adult stage in four of the studies, by the day of treatment. In each study there was also an untreated control and 1 or 2 groups treated with the novel combination. In the two studies where efficacy against the fourth larval stage of A. tubaeforme was tested, the efficacy recorded was 100%. In the three studies where efficacy against the adult stage of A. tubaeforme was tested, efficacy of 100% was also confirmed. In the study where efficacy against the adult stage of A. braziliense was tested efficacy was 99.5%.
    Veterinary Parasitology 04/2014; 202(1-2):30-3. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel topical combination product (BROADLINE(®), Merial) composed of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was evaluated for safety and efficacy against nematode and cestode infections in domestic cats. The study comprised a multi-centre, positive control, blinded, field study, using a randomized block design based on order of presentation for allocation. In total 196 client-owned cats, confirmed as positive for naturally acquired infections of nematodes and/or cestodes by pre-treatment faecal examination, were studied in seven countries in Europe. Pre-treatment faecal examination revealed the presence of Toxocara, hookworm, Capillaria and/or spirurid nematode infections in 129, 73, 33 or 1 cat(s), respectively; infections with taeniid and Dipylidium cestodes were demonstrated in 39 and 17 cats, respectively. Cats were allocated randomly to one of two treatments in a ratio of 2, topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial; 130 cats); and 1, topical PROFENDER(®) Spot-On (Bayer; 66 cats) and treated once on Day 0. For evaluation of efficacy, two faecal samples were collected, one prior to treatment (Day -4±4 days) and one at the end of the study (Day 14±5 days). These were examined for fecal forms of nematode and cestode parasites. For evaluation of safety, cats were examined by a veterinarian before treatment and at the end of the study, and cat owners recorded the health status of their cats daily until the end of the study. For cats treated with Broadline(®), the efficacy was >99.9%, 100%, and 99.6% for Toxocara, hookworms, and Capillaria, respectively; and the efficacy was >99.9%, >99.9%, and 98.5%, respectively, for the cats treated with Profender(®) (p<0.001 for all nematodes and both treatments). Efficacy was 100% for both cestodes for both treatments (p<0.001). No treatment related adverse experiences were observed throughout the study. For both treatments, every cat that completed the study was given a safety score of 'excellent' for both local and systemic evaluations. The topical combination product of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was shown to have an excellent safety profile and demonstrated high levels of efficacy when administered once as topical solution to cats infected with nematodes and cestodes under field conditions.
    Veterinary Parasitology 04/2014; 202(1-2):10-7. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although the annual harvest of fallow deer increased markedly in Austria in the past two decades, only little is known about the parasites of fallow deer in Austria. To add current faunistic knowledge on the endoparasites of fallow deer in the country, viscera from six adult males and one male fawn from the game preserve Antheringer Au, Salzburg, were examined in 2009-2010 using standard techniques, and spleen samples were screened for DNA of tick-borne pathogens (polymerase chain reaction). Infections with sarcocysts (Sarcocystis spp.) and gastrointestinal nematodes (range: 379-1,294 worms) were demonstrated in all deer; four and three bucks had Dictyocaulus eckerti (range: two to seven worms) and Varestrongylus sagittatus lungworms, respectively; Fasciola hepatica (9 and 18 flukes) were isolated from the liver of two bucks, and DNA of Babesia capreoli was isolated from the spleen of one buck. In addition, Eimeria sordida oocysts were identified in the faeces of the fawn that harboured also one Setaria sp., presumably Setaria altaica, in its mesentery. Fifteen species (morphs for the ostertagians) of gastrointestinal nematodes were identified: Ostertagia leptospicularis, Ostertagia drozdzi/Skrjabinagia ryjikovi, Spiculopteragia asymmetrica, Spiculopteragia boehmi/Rinadia mathevossiani, Trichostrongylus askivali, Trichostrongylus capricola, Cooperia pectinata, Nematodirus battus, Nematodirus roscidus, Capillaria bovis, Oesophagostomum sikae, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris globulosa. Two and four bucks had high individual burdens of more than 500 and more than 1,000 worms, respectively. As the nematode counts of the five bucks harvested during the mating season were associated with unusual high faecal egg counts, and four of the bucks had Dictyocaulus lungworms in addition, these findings may suggest a reduced resistance to parasites related with high levels of androgens and experience of stress during rut.
    Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 02/2014; · 0.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE®, Merial) at 0.12 mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10 mg fipronil + 12 mg S-methoprene + 0.5 mg eprinomectin + 10 mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ≥99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P < 0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against a broad range of feline intestinal nematode and cestode infections.
    Veterinary Parasitology. 01/2014; 202(s 1–2):18–25.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Five controlled, blinded and randomized studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of a single topical application of a combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel (BROADLINE®, Merial) against induced infestations with Ixodes ticks on cats. Three studies investigated the efficacy against Ixodes ricinus and two against Ixodes scapularis. In each study, purpose-bred cats were assigned at random to an untreated group or to a treated group. For the studies using I. ricinus, cats were infested with 50 female ticks and a similar number of males 2 days before treatment application, and weekly afterwards on between four and six occasions. For the studies using I. scapularis, cats were infested with a total of 50 ticks (approximately 25 females and 25 males) according to the same schedule as for I. ricinus. Tick counts for the evaluation of efficacy were performed 48 h after treatment and 48 h after the subsequent weekly infestations. Weekly attachment rates to untreated cats of at least 29% for I. ricinus and at least 30% for I. scapularis demonstrated consistently that the ticks were vigorous and that the attachment rates were adequate for efficacy evaluation. In the I. ricinus studies, an efficacy of at least 93% was demonstrated for up to 37 days after the treatment. In the I. scapularis studies, the efficacy level was at least 95% 30 days after the treatment. The product was well tolerated and caused no adverse reaction.
    Veterinary Parasitology. 01/2014; 202(s 1–2):59–63.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel topical combination product (BROADLINE®, Merial) composed of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was evaluated for safety and efficacy against nematode and cestode infections in domestic cats. The study comprised a multi-centre, positive control, blinded, field study, using a randomized block design based on order of presentation for allocation. In total 196 client-owned cats, confirmed as positive for naturally acquired infections of nematodes and/or cestodes by pre-treatment faecal examination, were studied in seven countries in Europe. Pre-treatment faecal examination revealed the presence of Toxocara, hookworm, Capillaria and/or spirurid nematode infections in 129, 73, 33 or 1 cat(s), respectively; infections with taeniid and Dipylidium cestodes were demonstrated in 39 and 17 cats, respectively. Cats were allocated randomly to one of two treatments in a ratio of 2, topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE®, Merial; 130 cats); and 1, topical PROFENDER® Spot-On (Bayer; 66 cats) and treated once on Day 0. For evaluation of efficacy, two faecal samples were collected, one prior to treatment (Day −4 ± 4 days) and one at the end of the study (Day 14 ± 5 days). These were examined for fecal forms of nematode and cestode parasites. For evaluation of safety, cats were examined by a veterinarian before treatment and at the end of the study, and cat owners recorded the health status of their cats daily until the end of the study. For cats treated with Broadline®, the efficacy was >99.9%, 100%, and 99.6% for Toxocara, hookworms, and Capillaria, respectively; and the efficacy was >99.9%, >99.9%, and 98.5%, respectively, for the cats treated with Profender® (p < 0.001 for all nematodes and both treatments). Efficacy was 100% for both cestodes for both treatments (p < 0.001). No treatment related adverse experiences were observed throughout the study. For both treatments, every cat that completed the study was given a safety score of ‘excellent’ for both local and systemic evaluations. The topical combination product of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was shown to have an excellent safety profile and demonstrated high levels of efficacy when administered once as topical solution to cats infected with nematodes and cestodes under field conditions.
    Veterinary Parasitology. 01/2014; 202(s 1–2):10–17.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Four studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel (BROADLINE®, Merial) against Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Ancylostoma braziliense hookworms of cats. In each study, purpose-bred cats were randomly assigned to treatment groups of 10 or 12 cats per group. In three studies the cats were inoculated with A. tubaeforme and in one study with A. braziliense. The inoculations were undertaken on a schedule which resulted in the hookworms reaching the fourth larval stage in two of the studies, or the adult stage in four of the studies, by the day of treatment. In each study there was also an untreated control and 1 or 2 groups treated with the novel combination. In the two studies where efficacy against the fourth larval stage of A. tubaeforme was tested, the efficacy recorded was 100%. In the three studies where efficacy against the adult stage of A. tubaeforme was tested, efficacy of 100% was also confirmed. In the study where efficacy against the adult stage of A. braziliense was tested efficacy was 99.5%.
    Veterinary Parasitology. 01/2014; 202(s 1–2):30–33.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although foxes are the main reservoir of Echinococcus multilocularis, it is recognized that dogs and cats also may become infected. In cats the infection and egg production rates are usually low. Nevertheless, cats are a potential source of transmission of E. multilocularis. Due to the high human medical significance of E. multilocularis infection, it is important in endemic areas that owned cats are dewormed regularly. This paper presents the efficacy results of a new topical formulation, Broadline® (Merial) tested against E. multilocularis infection in cats. Two blinded laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate this novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel against E. multilocularis. In each study, purpose-bred cats were assigned randomly to two treatment groups of 10 cats each: one untreated control group and one group treated at the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight to deliver 10 mg fipronil, 12 mg (S)-methoprene, 0.5 mg eprinomectin and 10 mg praziquantel/kg bodyweight. The cats were inoculated orally with E. multilocularis protoscolices, 22 or 23 days before treatment. Based on necropsy and intestinal worm count, 8 or 11 days after treatment, the two studies confirmed 100% efficacy of Broadline® against adult E. multilocularis.
    Veterinary Parasitology. 01/2014; 202(s 1–2):26–29.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination product (BROADLINE®, Merial) was evaluated against adult Toxascaris leonina ascarids in experimentally infected cats in two controlled studies under an identical protocol. For each study, 30 nematode-naive, purpose-bred European Short Hair cats were inoculated orally with approximately 300 larvated T. leonina eggs. Twenty-two and 24 cats, respectively, that were shown to be positive for Toxascaris eggs by pre-treatment faecal examination were subsequently included in the two studies. In each study, the animals were allocated randomly to an untreated (control) group or to a treatment group. The treatment was a novel topical combination: fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4% w/v) and praziquantel (8.3% w/v). Treatment was applied on Day 0 at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely seven days after treatment and necropsied. All untreated cats harboured adult T. leonina (range, 1–31 nematodes). The treatment provided a high level of efficacy against adult T. leonina in both studies (95.8% and 98.1%, respectively p < 0.001). All cats accepted the treatment well based on hourly post-treatment observations for 4 h and daily observations thereafter. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. Thus the data indicate that this novel combination product will provide a safe and effective treatment against T. leonina in cats.
    Veterinary Parasitology. 01/2014; 202(s 1–2):40–44.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During 2012, ectoparasites obtained by body search, total body comb, and deep ear swabs were collected from 295 dogs (166 male, 129 female; approximately 2 months to 15 years old; 263 privately owned, 32 from shelter) originating from all regions of Bulgaria (Sofia Valley, Danube Plain, Upper Trakia Valley, Kazanlak Valley and Black Sea region). Privately owned dogs were used as guards, shepherds, or for hunting or breeding in kennels. Ear swabs were examined for the presence of ear mites, and skin scrapings were collected if clinical signs indicated the presence of other mite infestations. Overall, 63.1% of the dogs tested positive for ectoparasites. Prevalence rates for ectoparasites were 48.1% for fleas (Ctenocephalides canis 44.1%, Pulex irritans 15.9%, C. felis 4.1%, Archaeopsylla erinacei 0.3%), 23.7% for ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus 19.7%, Ixodes ricinus 6.4%), and 0.3% for Cheyletiella spp.. No ear mites were found in any of the swab samples. There was no difference between sexes for the prevalence of any of the parasites recovered. However, prevalence of infestation with P. irritans was significantly (p<0.0001) higher in shelter dogs than in privately owned dogs. In addition, the intensity of infestation of this species was higher in shelter dogs. In contrast, intensity of infestation of C. canis was higher (p=0.048) in privately owned dogs than in dogs from shelters. Mixed infestations with up to four ectoparasite species were recorded in 34.9% of positive dogs. Most common combinations were C. canis + P. irritans (37 dogs, 19.9% of positive dogs) and C. canis + R. sanguineus (16 dogs, 8.6% of positive dogs). This survey revealed a generally high prevalence of ectoparasites in dogs in Bulgaria. The data indicate that measures should be taken to reduce the rate of infestation of these parasites, including raising awareness, employing effective treatment, and improving local animal care.
    12th International Symposium on Ectoparasites in Pets (ISEP); 04/2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During 2008 to 2011, ear swabs and ectoparasites obtained by body searches and total body combs were collected from 252 cats (112 male, 140 female; 87 ≤9 months, 165 >9 months) from the greater Tirana area. Ear swabs were examined for the presence of ear mites, and skin scrapings were taken if clinical signs indicated the presence of other mite infections. Overall, 59.1% of the cats tested positive for ectoparasites. Prevalence of ectoparasites was 52.0% for fleas (Ctenocephalides felis 51.2%, C. canis 2.0%, Leptopsylla segnis 0.4%), 8.3% for Otodectes cynotis, 8.3% for Felicola subrostratus, and 4.0% for Rhipicephalus sanguineus. No mites were found in skin scrapings. There were no differences between sexes for the prevalence of any of the parasites recovered. Prevalence of infestation with ectoparasites did not differ between cats of different ages. However, comparing samples taken during different seasons, C. felis infestations were seen more frequently (p<0.0001) in autumn than in any other season. There also was a seasonal effect with R. sanguineus (p=0.0184): ticks were more frequently recorded in spring compared to summer and winter. Mixed infections with up to three ectoparasite species were recorded in 22.8% of positive cats. Most common infestation combinations were C. felis + F. subrostratus (14 cats, 9.4%) and C. felis + O. cynotis (12 cats, 8.0%). This survey revealed a high prevalence of ecto-parasites in cats from suburban areas of Tirana. These data indicate that measures should be taken to reduce the infestation rate of these parasites, including raising awareness, employing effective treatment, and improving local animal care.
    12th International Symposium on Ectoparasites in Pets (ISEP); 04/2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of eprinomectin in an extended-release injection (ERI) formulation was evaluated in cattle harbouring induced infestations of Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis (sarcoptic mange) in three studies conducted in Germany (two studies) and Austria (one study). A total of 44 cattle were included in the studies, 12 in one study and 16 in each of the other two studies. Approximately eight weeks following initial induced infestation, cattle in each study were formed into replicates of two animals each on the basis of pre-treatment bodyweights. Within replicates the animals were randomly allocated to one of two treatments: ERI vehicle (control) or Eprinomectin 5% (w/v) ERI (1.0mg eprinomectin/kg). Treatments were administered at 1mL/50kg bodyweight by subcutaneous injection in front of the shoulder once on day 0. The number of live mites in skin scrapings was determined prior to treatment and at weekly intervals for eight weeks after treatment. Severity of skin lesions was evaluated and scored when skin scrapings were taken. In all studies, animals were weighed before infestation and again prior to and at 56 days after treatment. Mite counts for treated cattle were significantly (p<0.05) lower than counts for controls from Day 7 onwards. Cattle treated with Eprinomectin ERI were Sarcoptes mite-free from seven, 21 or 28 days post-treatment to the end of the study in the three studies, and lesions regressed accordingly. Mean weight gain over the post-treatment period was significantly higher for treated cattle than for controls in two studies. All animals accepted the treatment well.
    Veterinary Parasitology 12/2012; · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During 2011, faeces from 235 owned domestic cats from a rural area in western Hungary were examined using standard coproscopical techniques. The overall prevalence of cats with endoparasites was 39.6% (95% CI 33.3-46.1). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 17.4%; Toxascaris 7.2%), followed by those of Aelurostrongylus lungworms (14.5%), hookworms (11.1%), taeniid cestodes (4.7%), Cystoisospora coccidians (4.3%), and capillarids (3.8%). Single and multiple infections with up to five parasites concurrently were founded in 24.7% and 14.9% of the cats, respectively. Mixed endoparasite infections were recorded more frequently (p=0.0245) in cats greater than one year old compared to younger cats. Young cats (≤1 year) were parasitized more frequently (p<0.05) with ascarids and Cystoisospora spp. but demonstrated infections of hookworms, lungworms and taeniid cestodes less often than the older cats. Cats with taeniid infection were more likely (p<0.05) to harbour Toxocara, hookworm, Aelurostrongylus, and capillarid infections than cats without taeniid cestodes. Cats of owners who claimed the use of wormers were less frequently helminth-positive compared to cats whose owners did not use anthelmintics (21.2% vs. 44.4%; p=0.001). A subset of 115 faecal samples screened by a coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia-specific antigen in 37.4% samples. Giardia cysts were found by immunofluorescent staining in 30 of the 43 samples tested positive for Giardia by ELISA. In addition, ectoparasites collected from 82 cats by body search and combing were identified. Fleas (1-30 per cat), biting lice (Felicola subrostratus), and ticks (1-5 per cat) were isolated from 58, 1 and 43 cats, respectively. Ctenocephalides felis was identified on all flea infested cats while single specimens of C. canis and Pulex irritans were recovered from three and two cats, respectively. All but one tick collected were adult Ixodes ricinus; the single other tick was a nymph of I. canisuga. By providing basic data on the epidemiology of parasitic infections, the results of this survey should emphasize the need of attending to parasites of cats from the veterinary point of view with respect to both appropriate diagnostics and control.
    Veterinary Parasitology 11/2012; · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Steffen Rehbein, Martin Visser, Renate Winter
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites were studied through a longitudinal survey in 400 horses over a 17-month period in an abattoir in Germany. Three hundred and ten horses (77.5 %) were demonstrated harbouring endoparasites either by direct recovery of parasites from the digestive tract and/or in terms of faecal egg counts (strongyles). The following parasites were found (percentage prevalence, range of counts): Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae (2.25 %, 1-154), Gasterophilus nasalis larvae (0.25 %, 44), Trichostrongylus axei (11.0 %, 1-3,620), Habronema majus (8.0 %; 1-422), Habronema muscae (26.5 %, 1-3,563), Habronema spp. fourth-stage larvae (5.5 %; 1-1,365), Parascaris equorum (total prevalence 11.3 %; adults 8.8 %, 1-178; fourth-stage larvae 2.5 %, 5-2,320), Anoplocephala perfoliata (28.5 %, 1-2,013) and Paranoplocephala mamillana (1.0 %, 1-11). Strongyle eggs (≥10 eggs per gram of faeces) were recorded in 60.8 % of the horses (10-6,450 eggs per gram of faeces).Prevalences of infection with T. axei, P. equorum and strongyles did not show a correlation to specific seasons. In contrast, a significant variation among seasons of collection was shown for the infection rates of Habronema spp. (p < 0.05) and A. perfoliata (p < 0.001). Seasonal prevalence of Habronema spp. infection was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in summer (39.0 %), autumn (34.8 %) and winter (36.5 %) than in spring (18.7 %), and A. perfoliata were significantly (p < 0.001) more often recorded during autumn (36.1 %) and winter (36.5 %) than in spring (17.3 %) and summer (15.9 %). Prevalences of T. axei, Habronema spp., strongyles and A. perfoliata in male and female horses were almost alike, but ascarids were significantly (p = 0.025) more often recorded in male than in female horses.
    Parasitology Research 10/2012; · 2.85 Impact Factor