Bronwyn A Kingwell

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (193)1281.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation increases energy expenditure and may have therapeutic potential to combat obesity. The primary activating and adaptive signal for BAT is via β-adrenergic signalling. We previously demonstrated that human BAT is acutely responsive to oral administration of the sympathomimetic, ephedrine. Here we aimed to determine whether adaptive thermogenesis can be induced via chronic treatment with ephedrine. Twenty-three healthy young men, recruited from the general public in Melbourne, Australia, who were non-smokers, physically inactive and non-medicated with no prior history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes were recruited for this study. They were assigned to receive either 1.5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ephedrine ('active' group; n = 12, age 23 ± 1 years, BMI 24 ± 1 kg/m(2)) or placebo (n = 11; 22 ± 2 years, 23 ± 2 kg/m(2)) for 28 days in a randomised (computer-generated random order sequence), placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Participants and all investigators were blinded to treatments. Body composition was measured before and after the intervention by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. BAT activity, measured via (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography, in response to a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg ephedrine, was the primary outcome measure to be determined before and after the 28 day treatment period. Twenty-eight individuals were randomised and consented to the study. Twenty-three completed the trial and only these participants were included in the final analyses. After 28 days of treatment, the active group lost a significant amount of total body fat (placebo 1.1 ± 0.3 kg, ephedrine -0.9 ± 0.5 kg; p < 0.01) and visceral fat (placebo 6.4 ± 19.1 g, ephedrine -134 ± 43 g; p < 0.01), with no change in lean mass or bone mineral content compared with the placebo group. In response to acute ephedrine, BAT activity (change in mean standardised uptake value: placebo -3 ± 7%, ephedrine -22 ± 6%) and the increase in systolic blood pressure were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in the active group compared with placebo. Chronic ephedrine treatment reduced body fat content, but this was not associated with an increase in BAT activity. Rather, chronic ephedrine suppressed BAT glucose disposal, suggesting that chronic ephedrine treatment decreased, rather than increased, BAT activity. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02236962 Funding: This study was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia Program Grant (1036352) and the OIS scheme from the Victorian State Government.
    Diabetologia 03/2015; · 6.88 Impact Factor
  • Andrew L Carey, Bronwyn A Kingwell
    Nature Medicine 02/2015; 21(2):114-6. · 28.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) protects cells against a variety of stressors, and multiple studies have suggested that Hsp72 plays a cardioprotective role. As skeletal muscle Hsp72 overexpression can protect against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, alterations in substrate metabolism may be a mechanism by which Hsp72 is cardioprotective. We investigated the impact of transgenically overexpressing (Hsp72 Tg) or deleting Hsp72 (Hsp72 KO) on various aspects of cardiac metabolism. Mice were fed a normal chow (NC) or HFD for 12 weeks from 8 weeks of age to examine the impact of diet-induced obesity on metabolic parameters in the heart. The HFD resulted in an increase in cardiac fatty acid oxidation and a decrease in cardiac glucose oxidation and insulin-stimulated cardiac glucose clearance; however, there was no difference in Hsp72 Tg or Hsp72 KO mice in these rates compared with their respective wild-type control mice. Although HFD-induced cardiac insulin resistance was not rescued in the Hsp72 Tg mice, it was preserved in the skeletal muscle, suggesting tissue-specific effects of Hsp72 overexpression on substrate metabolism. Comparison of two different strains of mice (BALB/c vs. C57BL/6J) also identified strain-specific differences in regard to HFD-induced cardiac lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. These strain differences suggest that cardiac lipid accumulation can be dissociated from cardiac insulin resistance. Our study finds that genetic manipulation of Hsp72 does not lead to alterations in metabolic processes in cardiac tissue under resting conditions, but identifies mouse strain-specific differences in cardiac lipid accumulation and insulin-stimulated glucose clearance.
    Cell Stress and Chaperones 01/2015; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether the introduction of intermittent standing bouts during the workday using a height-adjustable workstation can improve subjective levels of fatigue, musculoskeletal discomfort and work productivity relative to seated work.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine 08/2014; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipidomics has developed rapidly over the past decade to the point where clinical application may soon be possible. Developments including high throughput technologies enable the simultaneous quantification of several hundred lipid species, thereby providing a global assessment of lipid metabolism. Given the key role of lipids in the pathophysiology of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, lipidomics has the potential to: i)significantly improve prediction of future disease risk,ii)inform on mechanisms of disease pathogenesis,iii)identify patient groups responsive to particular therapies andiv)more closely monitor response to therapy. Lipidomic analyses of both whole plasma and lipoprotein subfractions are integral to the current initiative to understand the relationships between lipoprotein composition and function and how these are affected by disease and treatment. This approach will not only aid in appropriate targeting of existing lipid lowering therapies such as statins and fibrates, but will be important in unravelling the controversies surrounding HDL-based therapies which have failed in clinical trials to date. The ultimate utility of lipidomics to clinical practice will depend firstly on the ability of risk prediction models incorporating lipidomic parameters to significantly improve upon conventional clinical risk markers in predicting future disease risk. Secondly, for widespread application, lipidomic-based measurements must be practical and accessible through standard pathology laboratories. This review will cover developments in lipidomics including methodology, bioinformatics/statistics, insights into disease pathophysiology, the effect of therapeutic interventions, the role of large clinical outcome trials in validating lipidomic approaches to patient management and potential applications in clinical practice.
    Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 07/2014; · 7.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in high-throughput lipid profiling by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) have made it possible to quantify hundreds of individual molecular lipid species (e.g. fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids) in a single experimental run for hundreds of samples. This enables the lipidome of large cohorts of subjects to be profiled to identify lipid biomarkers significantly associated with disease risk, progression and treatment response. Clinically, these lipid biomarkers can be used to construct classification models for the purpose of disease screening or diagnosis. However, the inclusion of a large number of highly correlated biomarkers within a model may reduce classification performance, unnecessarily inflate associated costs of a diagnosis or a screen and reduce the feasibility of clinical translation. An unsupervised feature reduction approach can reduce feature redundancy in lipidomic biomarkers by limiting the number of highly correlated lipids while retaining informative features to achieve good classification performance for various clinical outcomes. Good predictive models based on a reduced number of biomarkers are also more cost effective and feasible from a clinical translation perspective.
    Bioinformatics 06/2014; · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the discovery in the 1970s that plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are inversely associated with cardiovascular outcome, it has been postulated that HDL is anti-atherogenic and that increasing HDL-C levels is a promising therapeutic strategy. However, the recent failure of three orally active, HDL-C-raising agents has introduced considerable controversy, prompting the question of whether increasing the cholesterol cargo of HDL in a non-selective manner is an effective pharmacological approach for the translation of its atheroprotective and vasculoprotective activities. The interrelationships between HDL-C concentration, HDL particle number and levels of diverse HDL particle subpopulations of defined composition are complex, as are their relationships with reverse cholesterol transport and other anti-atherogenic functions. Such complexity highlights the incompleteness of our understanding of the biology of HDL particles. This article examines the HDL hypothesis in molecular and mechanistic terms, focusing on features that have been addressed, those that remain to be tested, and potential new targets for future pharmacological interventions.
    dressNature Reviews Drug Discovery 05/2014; · 37.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the effect of 7 h of prolonged sitting on resting blood pressure with a similar duration of sitting combined with intermittent brief bouts of light-intensity or moderate-intensity physical activity.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 05/2014; · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential therapeutic target to reverse obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether primary precursor cells isolated from human adult subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) can be induced to differentiate in-vitro into adipocytes that express key markers of brown or beige adipose, and whether the expression level of such markers differs between lean and obese young adult males. Adipogenic precursor cells were isolated from lean and obese individuals from subcutaneous abdominal WAT biopsies. Cells were grown to confluence, differentiated for 2.5 weeks then harvested for measurement of gene expression and UCP1 protein. There was no difference between groups with respect to differentiation into adipocytes, as indicated by oil red-O staining, rates of lipolysis, and expression of adipogenic genes (FABP4, PPARG). WAT genes (HOXC9, RB1) were expressed equally in the two groups. Post differentiation, the beige adipose specific genes CITED1 and CD137 were significantly increased in both groups, but classic BAT markers ZIC1 and LHX8 decreased significantly. Cell lines from both groups also equally increased post-differentiation expression of the thermogenic-responsive gene PPARGC1A (PGC-1α). UCP1 gene expression was undetectable prior to differentiation, however after differentiation both gene expression and protein content were increased in both groups and were significantly greater in cultures from lean compared with obese individuals (p<0.05). Human subcutaneous WAT cells can be induced to attain BAT characteristics, but this capacity is reduced in WAT cells from obese individuals.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e91997. · 3.53 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether reductions in sitting time through alternating 30 minute bouts of sitting and standing can reduce postprandial glucose, insulin and triglyceride responses. Twenty-three overweight/obese sedentary office workers (17 males; 6 females; mean ± SD; age: 48.2 ± 7.9 yrs, BMI: 29.6 ± 4.0 kg/m) undertook two, short-term (5-day) experimental conditions in an equal, randomised (1:1) order. In a simulated office environment, participants performed typical occupational tasks for 8 hours/day while in a: 1) seated work posture (control condition); or, 2) interchanging between a seated and standing work posture every 30 minutes using an electric, height-adjustable workstation (intervention condition). Fasting and postprandial blood samples after a mixed test drink were collected hourly for 4 hours on Day 1 and 5 of each condition to assess serum insulin, plasma glucose and triglycerides. Dietary intake (KJ/d) and physical activity were standardised during each condition. The trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12611000632998). Following adjustment for time (Day 1 and Day5), incremental area under the analyte time curve (iAUC) differed significantly between conditions for plasma glucose (P=0.007) but not for serum insulin or plasma triglycerides. Adjusted mean glucose iAUC was lowered by 11.1% after the intervention condition (6.38mmol/L·h [CI: 5.04, 7.71] ) relative to the control condition (7.18mmol/L·h [CI: 5.85, 8.52] ). No temporal changes (Day 1 vs Day 5) between conditions were observed. Alternating standing and sitting in 30 minute bouts results in modest beneficial effects on postprandial glucose responses in overweight/obese office workers.
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise 03/2014; · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Julian W Sacre, Garry L R Jennings, Bronwyn A Kingwell
    Hypertension 02/2014; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -Currently the relationship between circulating lipids and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is unclear. We conducted a lipidomic analysis to identify serum lipids associated with AAA presence. Secondary analyses assessed the ability of models incorporating lipidomic features to improve stratification of patient groups with and without AAA beyond traditional risk factors. -Serum lipids were profiled via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of serum from 161 AAA patients and 168 peripheral artery disease controls. Binary logistic regression was used to identify AAA associated lipids. Classification models were created based on a combination of 1) traditional risk factors only, or 2) lipidomic features and traditional risk factors. Model performance was assessed using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Three diacylglycerols and 7 triacylglycerols were associated with AAA. Combining lipidomic features with traditional risk factors significantly improved stratification of AAA and PAD groups compared to consideration of traditional risk factors alone (mean area under the ROC curve (95% CI): 0.760 (0.756-0.763) and 0.719 (0.716-0.723) respectively; p<0.05). -A group of linoleic acid containing triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols were significantly associated with AAA presence. Inclusion of lipidomic features in multivariate analyses significantly improved prediction of AAA presence compared to traditional risk factors alone.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics 01/2014; · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of brown adipose tissue (BAT) associated proteins like uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in inguinal WAT (iWAT) has been suggested to alter iWAT metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in exercise training and cold exposure-induced iWAT UCP1 expression. The effect of daily intraperitoneal injections of IL-6 (3 ng/g) in C57BL/6 mice for 7 days on iWAT UCP1 expression was examined. In addition, the expression of UCP1 in iWAT was determined in response to 3 days of cold exposure (4°C) and 5 weeks of exercise training in wild type (WT) and whole body IL-6 knockout (KO) mice. Repeated injections of IL-6 in C57BL/6 mice increased UCP1 mRNA but not UCP1 protein content in iWAT. Cold exposure increased iWAT UCP1 mRNA content similarly in IL-6 KO and WT mice, while exercise training increased iWAT UCP1 mRNA in WT mice but not in IL-6 KO mice. Additionally, a cold exposure-induced increase in iWAT UCP1 protein content was blunted in IL-6 KO mice, while UCP1 protein content in iWAT was lower in both untrained and exercise trained IL-6 KO mice than in WT mice. In conclusion, repeated daily increases in plasma IL-6 can increase iWAT UCP1 mRNA content and IL-6 is required for an exercise training-induced increase in iWAT UCP1 mRNA content. In addition IL-6 is required for a full induction of UCP1 protein expression in response to cold exposure and influences the UCP1 protein content iWAT of both untrained and exercise trained animals.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84910. · 3.53 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that ramipril more than doubled walking times in peripheral artery disease patients with intermittent claudication. To conduct exploratory analyses of the effects of ramipril therapy on circulating biomarkers of angiogenesis/arteriogenesis, thrombosis, inflammation and leukocyte adhesion in patients with intermittent claudication. 165 patients with intermittent claudication (mean (SD), 65.3 (6.7) years), were administered ramipril 10mg/d (n=82) or matching placebo (n=83) for 24 weeks, in a randomized, double-blind study. Plasma biomarkers of angiogenesis/arteriogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF-A; fibroblast growth factor, FGF-2), thrombosis (D-dimer; von Willebrand Factor, vWF; thrombin-antithrombin III, TAT), inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hsCRP; osteopontin, OPN), and leukocyte adhesion (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, sVCAM-1; soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, sICAM-1) were measured at baseline and 24 weeks. Relative to placebo, ramipril was associated with increases in VEGF-A by 38% (95% CI, 34 to 42%) and FGF-2 by 64% (44 to 85%; P<0.001 for both), and reductions in D-dimer by 24% (-30 to -18%), vWF by 22% (-35 to -9%), TAT by 16% (-19 to -13%), hsCRP by 13% (-14 to -9%), OPN by 12% (-14 to -10%), sVCAM-1 by 14% (-18 to -10%), and sICAM-1 by 15% (-17 to -13 %; all P<0.001). With the exception of vWF all the above changes correlated significantly with the change in maximum walking time (P= 0.02-0.001) in the group treated with ramipril. Ramipril is associated with an increase in biomarkers of angiogenesis/arteriogenesis and reduction in markers of thrombosis, inflammation and leukocyte adhesion. This study informs strategies to improve mobility in patients with intermittent claudication.
    Circulation Research 01/2014; · 11.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim To compare the effect of 7 hours of prolonged sitting on resting blood pressure with a similar duration of sitting combined with intermittent brief bouts of light-intensity or moderate-intensity physical activity. Methods and Results Overweight/obese adults (n = 19; aged 45-65 years) were recruited for a randomized three-treatment crossover trial with a one-week washout between treatments: 1) uninterrupted sitting; 2) sitting with 2 minute bouts of light-intensity walking at 3.2km/hr every 20 minutes; and, 3) sitting with 2 minute bouts of moderate-intensity walking at between 5.8-6.4km/hr every 20 minutes. After an initial 2 hour period seated, participants consumed a test meal (75g carbohydrate, 50g fat) and completed each condition over the next 5 hours. Resting blood pressure was assessed oscillometrically every hour as a single measurement, 5 minutes prior to each activity bout. GEE models were adjusted for sex, age, BMI, fasting blood pressure and treatment order. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, breaking up prolonged sitting with light and moderate-intensity activity breaks was associated with lower systolic blood pressure [light:120 ± 1mmHg (estimated marginal mean ± SEM), P=0.002; moderate: 121 ± 1mmHg, P=0.02], compared to uninterrupted sitting (123 ± 1mmHg). Diastolic blood pressure was also significantly lower during both of the activity conditions (light: 76 ± 1mmHg, P=0.006; moderate: 77 ± 1mmHg, P=0.03) compared to uninterrupted sitting (79 ± 1mmHg). No significant between-condition differences were observed in mean arterial pressure or heart rate. Conclusion Regularly breaking up prolonged sitting may reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Trial Registration Number ACTRN12609000656235 (http://www.anzctr.org.au), Trial Registration Date August 4th 2009
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Children of obese mothers have increased risk of metabolic syndrome as adults. Here we report the effects of a high-fat diet in the absence of maternal obesity at conception on skeletal muscle metabolic and transcriptional profiles of adult male offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed a diet rich in saturated fat and sucrose [high-fat diet (HFD): 23.5% total fat, 9.83% saturated fat, 20% sucrose wt:wt) or a normal control diet [(CD): 7% total fat, 0.5% saturated fat, 10% sucrose wt:wt) for the 3 wk prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Maternal weights were not different at conception; however, HFD-fed dams were 22% heavier than controls during pregnancy. On a normal diet, the male offspring of HFD-fed dams were not heavier than controls but demonstrated features of insulin resistance, including elevated plasma insulin concentration [40.1 ± 2.5 (CD) vs 56.2 ± 6.1 (HFD) mU/L; P = 0.023]. Next generation mRNA sequencing was used to identify differentially expressed genes in the offspring soleus muscle, and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to detect coordinated changes that are characteristic of a biological function. GSEA identified 15 upregulated pathways, including cytokine signaling (P < 0.005), starch and sucrose metabolism (P < 0.017), inflammatory response (P < 0.024), and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction (P < 0.037). A further 8 pathways were downregulated, including oxidative phosphorylation (P < 0.004), mitochondrial matrix (P < 0.006), and electron transport/uncoupling (P < 0.022). Phosphorylation of the insulin signaling protein kinase B was reduced [2.86 ± 0.63 (CD) vs 1.02 ± 0.27 (HFD); P = 0.027] and mitochondrial complexes I, II, and V protein were downregulated by 50-68% (P < 0.005). On a normal diet, the male offspring of HFD-fed dams did not become obese adults but developed insulin resistance, with transcriptional evidence of muscle cytokine activation, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. These data indicate that maternal overnutrition, even in the absence of prepregnancy obesity, can promote metabolic dysregulation and predispose offspring to type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Nutrition 12/2013; 144(3):237. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysfunctional lipid metabolism is a hallmark of obesity and insulin resistance and a risk factor for various cardiovascular and metabolic complications. In addition to the well known increase in plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids, recent work in humans and rodents has shown that obesity is associated with elevations in the bioactive class of sphingolipids known as ceramides. However, in obesity little is known about the plasma concentrations of sphinogsine-1-phosphate (S1P), the breakdown product of ceramide, which is an important signaling molecule in mammalian biology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of obesity on circulating S1P concentration and its relationship with markers of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Plasma S1P levels were determined in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced and genetically obese (ob/ob) mice along with obese humans. Circulating S1P was elevated in both obese mouse models and in obese humans compared with lean healthy controls. Furthermore, in humans, plasma S1P positively correlated with total body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c (%), total and LDL cholesterol. In addition, fasting increased plasma S1P levels in lean healthy mice. We show that elevations in plasma S1P are a feature of both human and rodent obesity and correlate with metabolic abnormalities such as adiposity and insulin resistance.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e72449. · 3.53 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
  • Bronwyn A Kingwell, M John Chapman
    Circulation 09/2013; 128(10):1112-21. · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been postulated that chronic exposure to high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), in particular from dietary sources, can impair insulin secretion. In the present study, we investigated the cross-sectional relationship between AGEs and acute insulin secretion during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and following a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy humans. We report the cross-sectional association between circulating AGE concentrations and insulin secretory function in healthy humans (17 F: 27 M, aged 30 ± 10 years) with a wide range of BMI (24.6-31.0 kg/m(2)). Higher circulating concentrations of AGEs were related to increased first phase insulin secretion during IVGTT (r = 0.43; p < 0.05) and lower 2-h glucose concentrations during OGTT (r = -0.31; p < 0.05). In addition, fasting (r = -0.36; p < 0.05) and 2-h glucose concentrations were negatively related to circulating levels of soluble receptor for AGE (RAGE) isoforms (r = -0.39; p < 0.01). In conclusion, in healthy humans, we show a cross-sectional association between advanced glycation end products and acute insulin secretion during glucose tolerance testing.
    Amino Acids 07/2013; · 3.65 Impact Factor
  • Andrew L Carey, Bronwyn A Kingwell
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    ABSTRACT: Harnessing the considerable capacity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to consume energy was first proposed as a potential target to control obesity nearly 40 years ago. The plausibility of this approach was, however, questioned due to the prevailing view that BAT was either not present or not functional in adult humans. Recent definitive identification of functional BAT in adult humans as well as a number of important advances in the understanding of BAT biology have reignited interest in BAT as an anti-obesity target. Proof-of-concept evidence demonstrating drug-induced BAT activation provides an important foundation for development of targeted pharmacological approaches with clinical application. This review considers evidence from both human and relevant animal studies to determine whether harnessing BAT for the treatment of obesity via pharmacological intervention is a realistic goal.
    Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 05/2013; · 7.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,281.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Physiology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2003–2014
    • Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute
      • • Clinical Diabetes and Epidemiology Research Group
      • • Diabetic Complications Division
      • • Metabolic and Vascular Physiology Research Group
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • Niigata University
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
  • 1991–2014
    • Alfred Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2008–2011
    • National Neuroscience Institute
      • Department of Neurology
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Singapore General Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2004–2009
    • Heart Research Institute
      • Free Radical Group
      Newtown, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2007
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1999–2007
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • Department of Physiology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2006
    • Baker College, Australia
      Hornsby, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2005
    • University of Western Australia
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
  • 1999–2003
    • La Trobe University
      • School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia