[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents a heterogeneous disorder with recurrent chromosomal alterations and molecular abnormalities. Among AML with normal karyotype (NK-AML) FLT3 activating mutation, internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD), is present in about 30% of patients, conferring unfavorable outcome. Our previous data demonstrated specific up-regulation of miR-155 in FLT3-ITD+ AML. miR-155 is known to be directly implicated in normal hematopoiesis and in some pathologies such as myeloid hyperplasia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Methods and results:
To investigate about the potential influence of miR-155 de-regulation in FLT3-mutated AML we generated a transcription factors regulatory network and combined this with data from multiple sources that predict miR-155 interactions. From these analyses, we derived a sub-network, called "miR-155 module" that describes functional relationship among miR-155 and transcription factors in FLT3-mutated AML. We found that "miR-155 module" is characterized by the presence of six transcription factors as central hubs: four miR-155 regulators (JUN, RUNX1, FOSb, JUNB) and two targets of miR-155 (SPI1, CEBPB) all known to be "master" genes of myelopoiesis. We found, in FLT3-mutated AML, a significant down-regulation of miR-155 target genes CEBPB and SPI1 and up-regulation of miR-155 regulator genes JUN and RUNX1. We also showed that PKC412-related FLT3 inhibition, in MV4-11 cell line, causes down-regulation of miR-155 and increased level of mRNA and protein of miR-155 target SPI1. We showed in experiments of miR-155 mimic in K562 cell line, a high increase of miR-155 and an inverse correlation with the mRNA levels of its targets SPI1 and CEBPB. Moreover silencing of miR-155 in primary AMLs causes mRNA up-regulation of its target SPI1 and CEBPB.
Our results suggest that activating mutation of FLT3 in AML can lead, through the induction of JUN, to an increased expression of miR-155, which then causes down-regulation of SPI1 and CEBPB and consequently may causes block of myeloid differentiation.
Leukemia research 05/2015; 39(8). DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2015.04.017 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone disease is the most frequent complication in multiple myeloma (MM) resulting in osteolytic lesions, bone pain, hypercalcemia and renal failure. In MM bone disease the perfect balance between bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCs) and bone-forming osteoblasts (OBs) activity is lost in favour of OCs, thus resulting in skeletal disorders. Since exosomes have been described for their functional role in cancer progression, we here investigate whether MM cell-derived exosomes may be involved in OCs differentiation. We show that MM cells produce exosomes which are actively internalized by Raw264.7 cell line, a cellular model of osteoclast formation. MM cell-derived exosomes positively modulate pre-osteoclast migration, through the increasing of CXCR4 expression and trigger a survival pathway. MM cell-derived exosomes play a significant pro-differentiative role in murine Raw264.7 cells and human primary osteoclasts, inducing the expression of osteoclast markers such as Cathepsin K (CTSK), Matrix Metalloproteinases 9 (MMP9) and Tartrate-resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP). Pre-osteoclast treated with MM cell-derived exosomes differentiate in multinuclear OCs able to excavate authentic resorption lacunae. Similar results were obtained with exosomes derived from MM patient’s sera. Our data indicate that MM-exosomes modulate OCs function and differentiation. Further studies are needed to identify the OCs activating factors transported by MM cell-derived exosomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypereosinophilic syndromes in children are rare disorders traditionally characterized by an eosinophil count exceeding 1,500/mm on at least 2 occasions or evidence of tissue eosinophilia associated with symptoms and marked blood eosinophilia, lacking any secondary cause (such as infections, allergic disease, chemical-induced eosinophilia, hypoadrenalism, cancer). Until now there have only been 3 reported cases of pediatric FIP1L1-PDGFRα-positive hypereosinophilic syndromes. We describe a fourth patient, a white 14-year-old boy, the third treated with imatinib.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our study is designed to assess if exosomes released from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells may modulate angiogenesis. We have isolated and characterized the exosomes generated from LAMA84 CML cells and demonstrated that addition of exosomes to human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) induces an increase of both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 cell adhesion molecules and interleukin-8 expression. The stimulation of cell-cell adhesion molecules was paralleled by a dose-dependent increase of adhesion of CML cells to a HUVEC monolayer. We further showed that the treatment with exosomes from CML cells caused an increase in endothelial cell motility accompanied by a loss of VE-cadherin and β-catenin from the endothelial cell surface. Functional characterization of exosomes isolated from CML patients confirmed the data obtained with exosomes derived from CML cell line. CML exosomes caused reorganization into tubes of HUVEC cells cultured on Matrigel. When added to Matrigel plugs in vivo, exosomes induced ingrowth of murine endothelial cells and vascularization of the Matrigel plugs. Our results suggest for the first time that exosomes released from CML cells directly affect endothelial cells modulating the process of neovascularization.
International Journal of Cancer 05/2012; 130(9):2033-43. DOI:10.1002/ijc.26217 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of UNC13D are causative for familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3 (FHL3; OMIM 608898).
To carry out a genotype-phenotype study of patients with FHL3.
A consortium of three countries pooled data on presenting features and mutations from individual patients with biallelic UNC13D mutations in a common database.
84 patients with FHL3 (median age 4.1 months) were reported from Florence, Italy (n=54), Hamburg, Germany (n=18), Stockholm, Sweden (n=12). Their ethnic origin was Caucasian (n=57), Turkish (n=10), Asian (n=7), Hispanic (n=4), African (n=3) (not reported (n=3)). Thrombocytopenia was present in 94%, splenomegaly in 96%, fever in 89%. The central nervous system (CNS) was involved in 49/81 (60%) patients versus 36% in patients with FHL2 (p=0.001). A combination of fever, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia and hyperferritinaemia was present in 71%. CD107a expression, NK activity and Munc 13-4 protein expression were absent or reduced in all but one of the evaluated patients. 54 different mutations were observed, including 15 new ones: 19 missense, 14 deletions or insertions, 12 nonsense, nine splice errors. None was specific for ethnic groups. Patients with two disruptive mutations were younger than patients with two missense mutations (p<0.001), but older than comparable patients with FHL2 (p=0.001).
UNC13D mutations are scattered over the gene. Ethnic-specific mutations were not identified. CNS involvement is more common than in FHL2; in patients with FHL3 and disruptive mutations, age at diagnosis is significantly higher than in FHL2. The combination of fever, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia and hyperferritinaemia appears to be the most easily and frequently recognised clinical pattern and their association with defective granule release assay may herald FHL3.
Journal of Medical Genetics 04/2011; 48(5):343-52. DOI:10.1136/jmg.2010.085456 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutation of the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein is one of most frequent mechanisms by which chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells become resistant to imatinib. Here, we show that treatment of cell lines harbouring wild type or mutant BCR-ABL with carboxyamidotriazole (CAI), a calcium influx and signal transduction inhibitor, inhibits cell growth, the expression of Bcr-Abl and its downstream signalling, and induces apoptosis. Moreover, we show that CAI acts by increasing intracellular ROS. Clinically significant, CAI has also inhibitory effects on T315I Bcr-Abl mutant, a mutation that causes CML cells to become insensitive to imatinib and second generation abl kinase inhibitors.
Cancer letters 10/2010; 300(2):205-14. DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2010.10.007 · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare immune deficiency with uncontrolled inflammation; the clinical course usually starts within the first years of life, and is usually fatal unless promptly treated and then cured with haematopoietic stem cell transplant. FHL is caused by genetic mutations resulting in defective cell cytotoxicity; three disease related genes have been identified to date: perforin, Munc13-4 and syntaxin-11. A fourth gene, STXBP2, has been identified very recently as responsible for a defect in Munc18-2 in FHL-5.
To describe the result of the screening of families with HLH and previously unassigned genetic defects.
Patients with HLH diagnosed according to current diagnostic criteria, and who lacked mutations in the PRF1, Munc13-4, and STX11 genes were sequenced for mutations in STXBP2. Functional study was performed when material was available.
Among the 28 families investigated, 4 (14%) with biallelic STXBP2 mutations were identified. They originated from Italy, England, Kuwait and Pakistan. The p.Pro477Leu resulting from c.1430C>T, and p.Arg405Gln resulting from the single c.1214G>A nucleotide change are known, while we contribute two novel mutations: p.Glu132Ala resulting from c.395A>C, and p.Gly541Ser, resulting from c.1621G>A. The detrimental effect of the p.Gly541Ser mutation was documented biochemically and functionally in NK and CD8 cells. Additional polymorphisms are also described.
These data expand current knowledge on the genetic heterogeneity of FHL and suggest that patients with FHL5 may have different results in degranulation assays under different conditions.
Journal of Medical Genetics 09/2010; 47(9):595-600. DOI:10.1136/jmg.2009.075341 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the loss and expression level of miRNAs 14q32 clusters in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with cryptic deletions at 14q32 chromosomal band to investigate their involvement in this disease. We demonstrate that a subset of ALL cases bearing 14q32 LOH showed a down-regulation of miRNA 14q32 clusters, which is directly linked to the submicroscopic chromosomal deletion. As a consequence of miRNAs deregulation we reported an inverse correlation with the expression of their target BCL11a, a transcription factor involved in lymphoid differentiation. These results suggest that 14q32/miRNA clusters LOH may be another mechanism involved in lymphoid B cell transformation and differentiation and therefore, could be used as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in subsets of ALL.
American Journal of Hematology 08/2010; 85(8):575-8. DOI:10.1002/ajh.21758 · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) the most common acute leukemia in adults is characterized by various cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities. However, the genetic etiology of the disease is not yet fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs which regulate the expression of target mRNAs both at transcriptional and translational level. In recent years, miRNAs have been identified as a novel mechanism in gene regulation, which show variable expression during myeloid differentiation. We studied miRNA expression of leukemic blasts of 29 cases of newly diagnosed and genetically defined AML using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 365 human miRNA. We showed that miRNA expression profiling reveals distinctive miRNA signatures that correlate with cytogenetic and molecular subtypes of AML. Specific miRNAs with consolidated role on cell proliferation and differentiation such as miR-155, miR-221, let-7, miR-126 and miR-196b appear to be associated with particular subtypes. We observed a significant differentially expressed miRNA profile that characterizes two subgroups of AML with different mechanism of leukemogenesis: core binding factor (CBF) and cytogenetically normal AML with mutations in the genes of NPM1 and FLT3-ITD. We demonstrated, for the first time, the inverse correlation of expression levels between miRNA and their targets in specific AML genetic groups. We suggest that miRNA deregulation may act as complementary hit in the multisteps mechanism of leukemogenesis offering new therapeutic strategies.
American Journal of Hematology 05/2010; 85(5):331-9. DOI:10.1002/ajh.21667 · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of UNC13D have been described in patients affected by familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL3). The Munc13-4 protein contributes to the priming of the secretory granules. Mutation in this gene results in defective cellular cytotoxicity and the familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis clinical picture. Among reported mutations, few are predicted to impair splicing. Yet, functional impact of these mutations has not been addressed. We identified 18 out of 31 familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis families showing at least one mutation responsible for splicing error. We identified some known and three novel splicing mutations: one falls at the acceptor site of exon 11 and 2 are deep intronic mutations in IVS1 and in IVS30. We demonstrated that these deep intronic mutations affect regulatory sequences causing aberrant splicing. We report that UNC13D mutations leading to splicing errors represent the majority of mutations observed in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. This finding has implications for designing strategies for analysis of the families with suspected familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have studied a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and t(10;11)(q23;p15) as the sole cytogenetic abnormality. Molecular analysis revealed a translocation involving nucleoporin 98 (NUP98) fused to the DNA-binding domain of the hematopoietically expressed homeobox gene (HHEX). Expression of NUP98/HHEX in murine bone marrow cells leads to aberrant self-renewal and a block in normal differentiation that depends on the integrity of the NUP98 GFLG repeats and the HHEX homeodomain. Transplantation of bone marrow cells expressing NUP98/HHEX leads to transplantable acute leukemia characterized by extensive infiltration of leukemic blasts expressing myeloid markers (Gr1(+)) as well as markers of the B-cell lineage (B220(+)). A latency period of 9 months and its clonal character suggest that NUP98/HHEX is necessary but not sufficient for disease induction. Expression of EGFP-NUP98/HHEX fusions showed a highly similar nuclear localization pattern as for other NUP98/homeodomain fusions, such as NUP98/HOXA9. Comparative gene expression profiling in primary bone marrow cells provided evidence for the presence of common targets in cells expressing NUP98/HOXA9 or NUP98/HHEX. Some of these genes (Hoxa5, Hoxa9, Flt3) are deregulated in NUP98/HHEX-induced murine leukemia as well as in human blasts carrying this fusion and might represent bona fide therapeutic targets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rab27a is required for polarized secretion of lysosomes from cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) at the immunological synapse. A series of Rab27a-interacting proteins have been identified; however, only Munc13-4 has been found to be expressed in CTL. In this study, we screened for expression of the synaptotagmin-like proteins (Slps): Slp1/JFC1, Slp2-a/exophilin4, Slp3-a, Slp4/granuphilin, Slp5 and rabphilin in CTL. We found that both Slp1 and Slp2-a are expressed in CTL. Isoforms of Slp2-a in CTL showed variation of the linker region but conserved the C2A and C2B and Slp homology (SHD) domains. Both Slp1 and Slp2-a interact with Rab27a in CTL, and Slp2-a, but not Slp1, is rapidly degraded when Rab27a is absent. Slp2-a contains PEST-like sequences within its linker region, which render it susceptible to degradation. Both Slp1 and Slp2-a localize predominantly to the plasma membrane of both human and mouse CTLs, and we show that Slp2-a can focus tightly at the immunological synapse formed with a target cell. Individual knockouts of either Slp2-a or Slp1 fail to impair CTL-mediated killing of targets; however, overexpression of a dominant-negative construct consisting of the SHD of Slp2-a, which is 56% identical to that of Slp1, reduces target cell death, suggesting that both Slp1 and Slp2-a contribute to secretory lysosome exocytosis from CTL. These results suggest that both Slp1 and Slp2-a may form part of a docking complex, capturing secretory lysosomes at the immunological synapse.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although imatinib mesylate (IM) has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), some patients develop resistance with progression of leukemia. Alternative or additional targeting of signaling pathways deregulated in bcr-abl-driven CML cells may provide a feasible option for improving clinical response and overcoming resistance. In this study, we show that carboxyamidotriazole (CAI), an orally bioavailable calcium influx and signal transduction inhibitor, is equally effective in inhibiting the proliferation and bcr-abl dependent- and independent-signaling pathways in imatinib-resistant CML cells. CAI inhibits phosphorylation of cellular proteins including STAT5 and CrkL at concentrations that induce apoptosis in IM-resistant CML cells. The combination of imatinib and CAI also down-regulated bcr-abl protein levels. Since CAI is already available for clinical use, these results suggest that it may be an effective addition to the armamentarium of drugs for the treatment of CML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-17A is a T cell-specific cytokine that is involved in chronic inflammations, such as Mycobacterium infection, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Mouse models have explained the molecular basis of IL-17A production and have shown that IL-17A has a positive effect not only on granuloma formation and neurodegeneration through unknown mechanisms, but also on bone resorption through Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) induction in osteoblasts. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of unknown etiology, lacking an animal model, that cumulates symptoms that are found separately in various IL-17A-related diseases, such as aggressive chronic granuloma formation, bone resorption and soft tissue lesions with occasional neurodegeneration. We examined IL-17A in the context of LCH and found that there were high serum levels of IL-17A during active LCH and unexpected IL-17A synthesis by dendritic cells (DCs), the major cell type in LCH lesions. We also found an IL-17A-dependent pathway for DC fusion, which was highly potentiated by IFN-gamma and led to giant cells expressing three major tissue-destructive enzymes: tartrate resistant acidic phosphatase and matrix metalloproteinases 9 and 12. IFN-gamma expression has been previously documented in LCH and observed in IL-17A-related diseases. Notably, serum IL-17A-dependent fusion activity correlates with LCH activity. Thus, IL-17A and IL-17A-stimulated DCs represent targets that may have clinical value in the treatment of LCH and other IL-17A-related inflammatory disorders.
Nature medicine 02/2008; 14(1):81-7. DOI:10.1038/nm1694 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PRF1 gene mutations are associated with familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 2 (FHL2). Genotype-phenotype analysis, previously hampered by limited numbers of patients, was for the first time performed by data pooling from five large centres worldwide.
Members of the Histiocyte Society were asked to report cases of FHL2 on specific forms. Data were pooled in a common database and analysed.
The 124 patients had 63 different mutations (including 15 novel mutations): 11 nonsense, 10 frameshift, 38 missense and 4 in-frame deletions. Some mutations were found more commonly: 1122 G-->A (W374X), associated with Turkish origin, in 32 patients; 50delT (L17fsX22) associated with African/African American origin, in 21 patients; and 1090-91delCT (L364fsX), in 7 Japanese patients. Flow cytometry showed that perforin expression was absent in 40, reduced in 6 and normal in 4 patients. Patients presented at a median age of 3 months (quartiles: 2, 3 and 13 months), always with fever, splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia. NK activity was absent in 36 (51%), <or=2% in 18 (26%), 3-<or=5% in 10 (14%), >5% in 4 (6%), "reduced" in 2 (3%) (not reported, n = 54). Nonsense mutations were significantly associated with younger age at onset (p<0.001) and absent natural killer activity (p = 0.008).
PRF1 mutations are spread over the functional domains. Specific mutations are strongly associated with Turkish, African American and Japanese ethnic groups. Later onset and residual cytotoxic function are observed in patients with at least one missense mutation.
Journal of Medical Genetics 01/2008; 45(1):15-21. DOI:10.1136/jmg.2007.052670 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monoallelic and biallelic mutations of the PRF1 gene have been reported in some cases of childhood lymphoma. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) accounts for 10% to 15% of all childhood lymphomas. To assess the possible role of PRF1 mutations in ALCL, the authors screened a series of patients collected by the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP).
The authors investigated 44 patients with ALCL by direct sequence of the PRF1 gene. To address the issue of the prevalence of the most frequently observed PRF1 mutations in the control population, the authors examined a series of 400 healthy white control subjects for the 272C>T mutation (A91V).
A total of 6 different mutations were identified in 12 patients (27.3%). Eleven patients had 1 mutation whereas 1 patient was found to have 2 mutations. Of the 6 PRF1 mutations identified, 2 were novel mutations: 529C>T (resulting in R177C) and 1471G>A (resulting in D491N). The remaining 4 mutations were previously described; in particular, the 272C>T mutation (resulting in the A91V amino acid change) was found in 8 patients, whereas the 368G>A (R123H), 695G>A (R232H), and 1262T>G (F421C) mutations were all found in 1 case each. Overall, the incidence of PRF1 mutations was found to be significantly higher in patients with ALCL compared with 400 control subjects, among whom only heterozygous A91V was observed in 41 subjects (10.2%) (chi-square test, 10.9; P <.01).
Patients with childhood ALCL have a higher probability of being a carrier of a PRF1 mutation compared with healthy controls, suggesting a possible predisposing role. Cancer 2007.
Cancer 06/2007; 109(12):2566 - 2571. DOI:10.1002/cncr.22718 · 4.89 Impact Factor