[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC1) is a bimodal Ca(2+) signal transduction switch. Lowering [Ca(2+)](i) from 200 to 20 nM progressively turns it "ON" as does raising [Ca(2+)](i) from 500 to 5000 nM. The mode operating at lower [Ca(2+)](i) plays a vital role in phototransduction in both rods and cones. The physiological function of the mode operating at elevated [Ca(2+)](i) is not known. Through comprehensive studies on mice involving gene deletions, biochemistry, immunohistochemistry, electroretinograms and single cell recordings, the present study demonstrates that the Ca(2+)-sensor S100B coexists with and is physiologically linked to ROS-GC1 in cones but not in rods. It up-regulates ROS-GC1 activity with a K(1/2) for Ca(2+) greater than 500 nM and modulates the transmission of neural signals to cone ON-bipolar cells. Furthermore, a possibility is raised that under pathological conditions where [Ca(2+)](i) levels rise to and perhaps even enter the micromolar range, the S100B signaling switch will be turned "ON" causing an explosive production of CNG channel opening and further rise in [Ca(2+)](i) in cone outer segments. The findings define a new cone-specific Ca(2+)-dependent feature of photoreceptors and expand our understanding of the operational principles of phototransduction machinery.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2012; 29(3-4):417-30. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ROS-GC1 membrane guanylate cyclase is a Ca(2+) bimodal signal transduction switch. It is turned "off" by a rise in free Ca(2+) from nanomolar to the semicromolar range in the photoreceptor outer segments and the olfactory bulb neurons; by a similar rise in the bipolar and ganglion retinal neurons it is turned "on". These opposite operational modes of the switch are specified by its Ca(2+) sensing devices, respectively termed GCAPs and CD-GCAPs. Neurocalcin delta is a CD-GCAP. In the present study, the neurocalcin delta-modulated site, V(837)-L(858), in ROS-GC1 has been mapped. The location and properties of this site are unique. It resides within the core domain of the catalytic module and does not require the alpha-helical dimerization domain structural element (amino acids 767-811) for activating the catalytic module. Contrary to the current beliefs, the catalytic module is intrinsically active; it is directly regulated by the neurocalcin delta-modulated Ca(2+) signal and is dimeric in nature. A fold recognition based model of the catalytic domain of ROS-GC1 was built, and neurocalcin delta docking simulations were carried out to define the three-dimensional features of the interacting domains of the two molecules. These findings define a new transduction model for the Ca(2+) signaling of ROS-GC1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ATP is an obligatory agent for the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and the type C natriuretic peptide (CNP) signaling of their respective receptor guanylate cyclases, ANF-RGC and CNP-RGC. Through a common mechanism, it binds to a defined ARM domain of the cyclase, activates the cyclase and transduces the signal into generation of the second messenger cyclic GMP. In this presentation, the authors review the ATP-regulated transduction mechanism and refine the previously simulated three-dimensional ARM model (Duda T, Yadav P, Jankowska A, Venkataraman V, Sharma RK. Three dimensional atomic model and experimental validation for the ATP-regulated module (ARM) of the atrial natriuretic factor receptor guanylate cyclase. Mol Cell Biochem 2000;214:7-14; reviewed in: Sharma RK, Yadav P, Duda T. Allosteric regulatory step and configuration of the ATP-binding pocket in atrial natriuretic factor receptor guanylate cyclase transduction mechanism. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2001;79: 682-91; Sharma RK. Evolution of the membrane guanylate cyclase transduction system. Mol Cell Biochem 2002;230:3-30). The model depicts the ATP-binding dependent configurational changes in the ARM and supports the concept that in the first step, ATP partially activates the cyclase and primes it for the subsequent transduction steps, resulting in full activation of the cyclase.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase type 1 (ROS-GC1), originally identified in the photoreceptor outer segments, is a member of the subfamily of Ca(2+)-modulated membrane guanylate cyclases. In phototransduction, its activity is tightly regulated by its two Ca(2+)-sensor protein parts, GCAP1 and GCAP2. This study maps the GCAP2-modulatory site in ROS-GC1 through the use of multiple techniques involving surface plasmon resonance binding studies with soluble ROS-GC1 constructs, coimmunoprecipitation, functional reconstitution experiments with deletion mutants, and peptide competition assays. The findings show that the sequence motif of the core GCAP2-modulatory site is Y965-N981 of ROS-GC1. The site is distinct from the GCAP1-modulatory site. It, however, partially overlaps with the S100B-regulatory site. This indicates that the Y965-N981 motif tightly controls the Ca(2+)-dependent specificity of ROS-GC1. Identification of the site demonstrates an intriguing topographical feature of ROS-GC1. This is that the GCAP2 module transmits the Ca(2+) signals to the catalytic domain from its C-terminal side and the GCAP1 module from the distant N-terminal side.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Odorant transduction is a biochemical process by which the odorant signal generates the electric signal. The cilia of the olfactory neuroepithelium are the sites of this process. This study documents the detailed biochemical, structural and functional description of an odorant-responsive Ca2+ -modulated membrane guanylate cyclase transduction machinery in the cilia. Myristoylated (myr)-neurocalcin delta is the Ca2+ -sensor component and the cyclase, ONE-GC, the transduction component of the machinery. Myr-neurocalcin delta senses increments in free Ca2+, binds to a defined domain of ONE-GC and stimulates the cyclase. The findings enable the formulation of an odorant transduction model in which three pivotal signaling components--Ca2+, myr-neurocalcin delta and ONE-GC--of the transduction machinery are locked. A glaring feature of the model is that its Ca2+ -dependent operational principle is opposite to the phototransduction model.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 01/2005; 267(1-2):107-22. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study documents the detailed biochemical, structural, and functional identity of a novel Ca(2+)-modulated membrane guanylate cyclase transduction system in the inner retinal neurons. The guanylate cyclase is the previously characterized ROS-GC1 from the photoreceptor outer segments (PROS), and its new modulator is neurocalcin delta. At the membrane, the myristoylated form of neurocalcin delta senses submicromolar increments in free Ca(2+), binds to its specific ROS-GC1 domain, and stimulates the cyclase. Neurocalcin delta is not present in PROS, indicating the absence of the pathway in the outer segments and the dissociation of its linkage with phototransduction. Thus, the pathway is linked specifically with the visual transduction machinery in the secondary neurons of the retina. With the inclusion of this pathway, the findings broaden the understanding of the existing mechanisms showing how ROS-GC1 is able to receive and transduce diverse Ca(2+) signals into the cell-specific generation of second-messenger cyclic GMP in the retinal neurons.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC) transduction system is a central component of the Ca(2+)-sensitive phototransduction machinery. The system is composed of two parts: Ca(2+) sensor guanylate cyclase activating protein (GCAP) and ROS-GC. GCAP senses Ca(2+) impulses and inhibits the cyclase. This operational feature of the cyclase is considered to be unique and exclusive in the phototransduction machinery. A combination of reconstitution, peptide competition, cross-linking, and immunocytochemical studies has been used in this study to show that the GCAP1/ROS-GC1 transduction system also exists in the photoreceptor synaptic (presynaptic) termini. Thus, the presence of this system and its linkage is not unique to the phototransduction machinery. A recent study has demonstrated that the photoreceptor-bipolar synaptic region also contains a Ca(2+)-stimulated ROS-GC1 transduction system [Duda, T., et al. (2002) EMBO J. 21, 2547-2556]. In this case, S100beta senses Ca(2+) and stimulates the cyclase. The inhibitory and stimulatory Ca(2+)-modulated ROS-GC1 sites are distinct. These findings allow the formation of a new topographic model of ROS-GC1 transduction. In this model, the catalytic module of ROS-GC1 at its opposite ends is flanked by GCAP1 and S100beta modules. GCAP1 senses the Ca(2+) impulse and inhibits the catalytic module; S100beta senses the impulse and stimulates the catalytic module. Thus, ROS-GC1 acts as a bimodal Ca(2+) signal transduction switch in the photoreceptor bipolar synapse.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study documents the identity of a calcium- regulated membrane guanylate cyclase transduction system in the photoreceptor-bipolar synaptic region. The guanylate cyclase is the previously characterized ROS-GC1 from the rod outer segments and its modulator is S100beta. S100beta senses increments in free Ca(2+) and stimulates the cyclase. Specificity of photoreceptor guanylate cyclase activation by S100beta is validated by the identification of two S100beta-regulatory sites. A combination of peptide competition, surface plasmon resonance binding and deletion mutation studies has been used to show that these sites are specific for S100beta and not for another regulator of ROS-GC1, guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1. One site comprises amino acids (aa) Gly962-Asn981, the other, aa Ile1030-Gln1041. The former represents the binding site. The latter binds S100beta only marginally, yet it is critical for control of maximal cyclase activity. The findings provide evidence for a new cyclic GMP transduction system in synaptic layers and thereby extend existing concepts of how a membrane-bound guanylate cyclase is regulated by small Ca(2+)-sensor proteins.
The EMBO Journal 07/2002; 21(11):2547-56. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes cloning of the bovine 2D-adrenergic receptor (_2D-AR) gene and determination of the transcription start site, unequivocal presence of the 2D-AR transcript in the retina, and pharmacological characteristics of the encoded product. Furthermore, expression of the gene in selected bovine tissues has also been scrutinized. A genomic clone was isolated from EMBL3 library and a 3 kb fragment was subcloned and sequenced. This fragment contained the putative TATA box and the coding region. The encoded receptor was transiently expressed in COS cells. The recombinant receptor expressed pharmacological characteristics almost identical to the wild-type bovine retinal receptor, which were typical of the 2D-AR subtype. RNase protection analysis confirmed the expression of the gene in the retina. The bovine receptor was structurally close to its rat analogue which also encodes the 2D-AR, but, the highest homology was observed with the porcine receptor expressing 2A-AR pharmacological characteristics. Certain structural features of the bovine gene were unique to itself and not shared by any other 2-AR subtype. Among the tissues tested using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the 2D-AR message was the most abundant in retina, followed by the brain and olfactory lobe. Thus, the availability of the bovine receptor gene probe will become an important additional tool in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms behind the 2D-AR physiology in neurosensory processes such as those occurring in the eye and the brain.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 11/1997; 177(1):113-123. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this report, 5 amino acid residues (aa) in the third cytoplasmic loop of the a2D-adrenergic receptor are identified which (individually or together) alter its ligand-binding characteristics. An important structural discrepancy exists in the third cytoplasmic loop of the a2D-ARs encoded by the rat cDNA and the rat gene - five aa are different. The newly identified bovine receptor as well as the mouse receptor contained the 5 aa identical to that encoded by the rat cDNA. Site-directed mutation of these residues to those of the rat gene encoded receptor resulted in alteration of binding characteristics: significant changes in the ability of the mutant receptor to bind to a number of agonists and antagonists were observed - ranging from a decrease by half in the case of oxymetazoline, to near total loss of binding in the case of prasozin. Thus, the mutant receptor was no longer pure a2D-AR. This indicated a hitherto unrealized role of the third cytoplasmic loop in defining the ligand-binding characteristics of the receptor, and also suggested that the rat gene sequence was most probably in error.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 01/1997; 177(1):125-129. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rat cA2-47 gene encodes the pharmacologically defined 2D-adrenergic receptor (2D-AR) subtype. Previously, the expression of its mRNA was shown in bovine retina by amplification through the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of a region corresponding to the rat 2D-AR, amino acid (aa) residues 382–439, indicating the presence of this subtype in this neural tissue. In the present study, the structure of this gene has been probed and the encoded receptor subtype has been characterized in bovine retina and its photoreceptor cells. The deduced as sequence of the two bovine gene fragments, aa residues 290–375 and as residues 392–434, demonstrates 77% overall identity with the rat 2D AR subtype and 80% overall identity with the mouse 2D-AR. The receptor encoded by the bovine gene was expressed in the retina and its photoreceptors with the typical pharmacological characteristics established for the rat (2D-AR subtype: The receptor bound rauwolscine with a KD of 14 nM in the retina and with that of 19 nM in the photoreceptor cells; the binding association rate constant, k+1, for the ligand was 0.012 min–1, the dissociation rate constant, k–1, was 0.14 min–1 and the half-time for dissociation was 5 min. Oxymetazoline displaced the bound [3H]-rauwolscine with an EC50 value of 85 nM, while SK & F 104078, and prazosin displaced the bound [3H]-rauwolscine with the respective IC50 values of 900 nM and 3000 nM. The other 2-AR subtypes – 2B-AR, 2C-AR — were not detected in the retina and its photoreceptors. Thus, this study shows that the bovine 2D AR gene is a structural variant of the rat and mouse genes, that the bovine gene encodes the typical pharmacologically defined 2D-AR. subtype, that this subtype is present in its exclusive form in the bovine retina and its photoreceptors, where it may be presynaptic in nature.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 08/1996; 159(2):129-138. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present review focuses on an emerging Ca 2+ signal transduction concept that might be applicable to the general operation of all sensory neural networks. The central theme of this concept is that Ca 2+ signals through a delicately controlled membrane guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC) transduction machinery. This, in turn, generates pulsated levels of cyclic GMP. Cyclic GMP then serves as a Ca 2+ second messenger. The delicacy and specificity of the transduction machinery is achieved through its unique composition and structural design. An extraordinary operational property of these features in the machinery is that in response to the parent Ca 2+ spike it is able to be stimulated or inhibited. Thus, it can cause depolarization or hyperpolarization in the plasma membranes of the neurons. The presence of this machinery has been successfully tested in the three model systems— SIGHT, SMELL, TASTE--of the sensory neurons and also in the light-regulated pineal gland.