[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab improves progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in metastatic colorectal cancer patients however currently there are no biomarkers that predict response to this treatment. The aim of this study was to assess if differential protein expression can differentiate patients who respond to chemotherapy and bevacizumab, and to assess if select proteins correlate with patient survival.
Pre-treatment serum from patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with chemotherapy and bevacizumab were divided into responders and nonresponders based on their progression free survival (PFS). Serum samples underwent immunoaffinity depletion and protein expression was analysed using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), followed by LC-MS/MS for protein identification. Validation on selected proteins was performed on serum and tissue samples from a larger cohort of patients using ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively (n = 68 and n = 95, respectively).
68 proteins were identified following LC-MS/MS analysis to be differentially expressed between the groups. Three proteins (apolipoprotein E (APOE), angiotensinogen (AGT) and vitamin D binding protein (DBP)) were selected for validation studies. Increasing APOE expression in the stroma was associated with shorter progression free survival (PFS) (p = 0.0001) and overall survival (OS) (p = 0.01), DBP expression (stroma) was associated with shorter OS (p = 0.037). Increasing APOE expression in the epithelium was associated with a longer PFS and OS, and AGT epithelial expression was associated with a longer PFS (all p < .05). Increasing serum AGT concentration was associated with shorter OS (p = 0.009).
APOE, DBP and AGT identified were associated with survival outcomes in mCRC patients treated with chemotherapy and bevacizumab.
BMC Cancer 11/2014; 14(1):887. · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Small bowel involvement of Clostridiumdifficile is increasingly encountered. Data on many management aspects are lacking.
To synthesis existing reports and assess the frequency, pathophysiology, outcomes, risk factors, diagnosis and management of C.difficle enteritis.
A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate evidence regarding frequency, pathophysiology, risk factors, optimal diagnosis, management and outcomes for C.difficle enteritis. Three major databases (PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library) were searched. The review included original articles reporting C.difficle enteritis from January 1950 to December 2012.
C.difficle enteritis is rare but increasingly encountered. Presentation is variable and distinct predisposing factors include emergency surgery, white race and increased age. Diagnosis generally involves a sensitive but often non specific screening test for C.difficile antigens. Oral metronidazole represents first line therapy and surgery may be required for complications. Outcomes are inconsistent but may be improving.
A high index of clinical suspicion, early diagnosis and treatment are vital. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the significance of asymptomatic small bowel C.difficile infections.
The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 10/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Debate exists as to whether the traditional three-tiered grading of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) should be replaced by a more reproducible two-tiered system. In this study, we review our experience with AIN to determine the most suitable classification system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Over 5,100 colorectal cancers (CRC) are diagnosed in the United Kingdom 85 year and older age group per year but little is known of cancer progression in this group. We assessed clinical, pathological and molecular features of CRC with early and late mortality in such patients.
METHODS: Data were analysed in relation to early mortality and long-term survival in 90 consecutive patients with CRC patients aged 85 years or older in a single hospital.
RESULTS: Patients not undergoing operation, those with an ASA score of III or greater and those with advanced tumour stage were more likely to die within 30 days. Regression analysis showed that 30 day mortality was independently related to failure to undergo resection (odds ratio (O.R.), 10.0; 95% confidence interval [C.I.],1.7-58.2; p=0.01) and ASA score of III or greater (O.R. 13.0; 95% C.I.,1.4-12.6; p=0.03). All cause three and five year survival was 47% and 23% percent respectively for patients alive 30 days after diagnosis. Three and five year relative survival was 64% percent and 54%, percent respectively. Long-term outcome was independently related to tumour stage (relative risk [R.R.], 2; 95% C.I.1.3-3.1;p=0.001) presence of co-morbid diseases (R.R.,2.8; 95% C.I., 1.3-6.0;p=0.007) and lipid peroxidation status (R.R.,2.9; 95% C.I.,1.1-7.5;p=0.025).
CONCLUSIONS: An active multidisciplinary approach to the care of patients with CRC patients at the upper extreme of life is reasonable. It also seems sensible to individualise care based upon the extent of disease at diagnosis and the presence of co-morbid conditions. Further studies to examine the role of lipid peroxidation are warranted.
Journal of Geriatric Oncology 05/2014; · 1.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abdominal rectopexy is used to treat full thickness rectal prolapse and obstructed defecation syndrome, with good outcomes. Use of a laparoscopic approach may reduce morbidity. The current study assessed short-term operative outcomes for patients undergoing laparoscopic or open rectopexy.
Rectopexy cases were identified from theater logs in two tertiary referral centers. Patient demographics, intra-operative details and early postoperative outcomes were examined.
There were 62 patients included over 10 years, a third of whom underwent laparoscopic rectopexy. Laparoscopy was associated with a longer operative time (195.9 versus 129.6 min, p = 0.003), but this did not affect postoperative outcomes, with no significant differences found for complication rates and length of stay between the two groups. Univariable analysis found no influence of laparoscopic approach on the likelihood of postoperative complications, and no factor achieved significance with multivariable analysis. This study included the first laparoscopic cases performed in the involved institutions, and a "learning curve" existed as seen with a decreasing operative duration per case over time (p = 0.002).
Laparoscopic rectopexy has similar short-term outcomes to open rectopexy.
Irish Journal of Medical Science 04/2014; · 0.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
The incidence of primary colorectal lymphoma (PCL) is rare (0.2–0.6% of large bowel malignancy). Up to one third of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma will present with extra-nodal manifestations only. Extra-nodal lymphomas arise from tissues other than the lymph nodes and even from sites, which contain no lymphoid tissue. The incidence of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has increased over the past fifty years. The objective of this study was to examine our experience of PCL.
A prospectively-compiled database (1988–2012) of patients with colorectal cancer was retrospectively examined for cases of colorectal lymphoma. A retrospective chart review identified cases of PCL based on Dawson's criteria. Clinical information was obtained from case notes.
Eleven patients (0.3% of 4219 patients) were identified (6 male, 5 female). The median age at diagnosis was 63 years. Mode of presentation varied; abdominal pain, a palpable mass and per rectal bleeding being the most frequent. The caecum was the most frequently involved site (5/11). Nine patients underwent surgical management, one had chemotherapy alone and one had radiotherapy alone. All cases were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in majority. The median event-free survival of those treated with surgery and post-operative chemotherapy was 10 months (range 5–120 months).
Primary colorectal lymphoma is rare. Management is multidisciplinary and dependent on the subtype of lymphoma. Due to the rarity of diagnosis, there is a paucity of randomised control trials. Most information published is based on individual case reports and there is, thus, no clear treatment algorithm for these cases.
The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 03/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CTGF (connective tissue growth factor) and patient outcomes after terminal ileal resection for Crohn's disease.
The primary indication for intestinal resection in Crohn's disease is fibrostenotic terminal ileal disease. CTGF is a cytokine overexpressed in the intestine of patients with Crohn's disease that influences outcomes in other disease processes.
DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 147 patients with Crohn's disease who had undergone terminal ileal resection between 1981 and 2009. Genotyping was performed for 4 CTGF SNPs (rs9402373, rs12526196, rs6918698, and rs9399005), which modulate nuclear factor binding and CTGF production, and a smad3 SNP (rs17293632) involved in the CTGF pathway. Patients were phenotyped using the Montreal Disease Classification.
Sixty-seven of 147 patients (45.6%) were male; the mean age at diagnosis was 30.3 ± 12.6 years and the mean follow-up duration was 8.3 ± 7.1 years. Genotype-phenotype analysis demonstrated that the rs6918698GG genotype was associated with an older age of disease onset [>40 years; 30.6% vs 13.2%; odds ratio (OR): 2.891; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.170-7.147). The rs9402373CC genotype was positively associated with type B1 disease (50.7% vs 26.3%; OR: 2.876; 95% CI: 1.226-6.743) and negatively associated with B2 disease (37.0% vs 65.0%; OR: 0.317; 95% CI: 0.144-0.699). None of the 5 SNPs assessed influenced clinical or surgical recurrence of Crohn's disease after intestinal resection. On multivariate analysis, male sex odds ratio (OR): 0.235; 95% CI: 0.073-0.755; P = 0.015] and never having smoked tobacco (OR: 0.249; 95% CI: 0.070-0.894; P = 0.033) reduced the risk, whereas having a prior appendectomy increased the risk (OR: 5.048; 95% CI: 1.632-15.617; P = 0.005) of surgical recurrence.
These data implicate the rs6918698GG genotype with an age of disease onset of greater than 40 years in Crohn's disease whereas the rs9402373CC genotype is associated with a nonstricturing, nonpenetrating disease phenotype. CTGF SNPs do not influence the rate of recurrence after terminal ileal resection for Crohn's disease.
Annals of surgery 11/2013; 258(5):767-774. · 7.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : The use of self-expanding metal stents as a bridge to surgery in the setting of malignant colorectal obstruction has been advocated as an acceptable alternative to emergency surgery. However, concerns about the safety of stenting have been raised following recent randomized studies.
: The aim of the current study was to compare outcomes.
: This was an observational, comparative study.
: This study was conducted at a tertiary referral center and university teaching hospital.
: Patients with malignant colonic obstruction (n = 49) treated by either emergency surgery (n = 26) or with stent placement (n = 23) as a bridge to surgery were identified and followed.
: Short-term outcomes including stoma rates and postoperative morbidity and medium-term oncological outcomes were compared based on an "intention-to-treat" analysis.
: Patients in both groups were well matched on clinicopathological parameters. Technical and clinical successful stent deployment was achieved in 91% and 83%. This did not adversely impact cancer-specific and overall survival (log rank = nonsignificant). No difference was observed in stoma rates, primary anastomosis rates, perioperative mortality rates, or reoperation rates between the 2 groups. Significantly fewer patients underwent total colectomy in the stent group in comparison with the emergency surgery group (1/23 vs 6/26: p = 0.027). There was no difference in postoperative morbidity (59% vs 66%: p = 0.09). There was a significant reduction in readmission rates in the stent group (5/26 vs 0/23: p = 0.038).
: The small sample size of this study could lead to type II error. In addition, the study was nonrandomized and demonstrated a limited length of follow-up.
: Despite a high rate of technical and clinical success in selected patients with colonic obstruction, stenting has no impact on stoma rates. Despite concerns about the rate of stent-associated perforation, stenting does not adversely impact disease progression or survival. Future comparative trials are essential to better define the role of stenting in this setting and to ensure that we are not using costly technology to create an elective operative situation without concomitant patient benefits.
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 04/2013; 56(4):433-40. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the clinicopathological features and survival rates of patients with inflammatory bowel disease who developed colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on a prospectively maintained institutional database (1981-2011) to identify patients with inflammatory bowel disease who developed CRC. Clinicopathological parameters, management and outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 2,843 patients with inflammatory bowel disease were identified. One thousand six hundred and forty-two had ulcerative colitis (UC) and 1,201 had Crohn's disease (CD). Following exclusion criteria, there were 29 patients with biopsy-proven colorectal carcinoma, 22 of whom had UC and 7 had CD. Twenty-six patients had a preoperative diagnosis of malignancy/dysplasia; 16 of these were diagnosed at surveillance endoscopy. Nodal/distant metastasis was identified at presentation in 47 and 71 % of the UC and CD group, respectively. Operative morbidity for UC and CD was 33 and 17 %, respectively. Despite the less favourable operative outcomes following surgery management of UC-related CRC, overall 5-year survival was significantly better in the UC group compared to the CD group (41 vs. 29 %; p = 0.04) reflecting the difference in stage at presentation between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who undergo surgery for UC-related CRC have less favourable short-term outcomes but present at a less advanced stage and have a more favourable long-term prognosis than similar patients with CRC and CD.
Techniques in Coloproctology 02/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Defects in DNA repair pathways have been linked with colorectal cancer (CRC). Adjuvant radiotherapy has become commonplace in the treatment of rectal cancer however it is associated with a higher rate of second cancer formation. It is known that radiation results in DNA damage directly or indirectly by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) by causing double-strand breaks (DSBs). The majority of work in RIBE has been performed in cell lines and limited studies have been in or ex vivo. METHODS: The first study aim was to examine by immunohistochemistry, levels of DSB (expression of the protein MRE11) in normal colonic tissue outside the irradiated field post neo-adjuvant radiotherapy (group 1). These levels were compared to (a) irradiated tumour tissue post neo-adjuvant radiation within the same group, (b) a CRC patient group (group 2) who had not undergone neo-adjuvant radiotherapy and (c) a non-cancer patient group (group 3). The second aim was to determine if MRE11 expression levels were related to survival or radio-sensitivity post neo-adjuvant radiotherapy. RESULTS: There was a highly significant increase in MRE 11 expression in group 1 versus groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.001). There was no association between MRE11 levels and survival or radio-sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Our findings show radiotherapy causes DSBs at significantly higher levels in normal colonic mucosa of patients post neo-adjuvant treatment which may represent RIBE. If this damage remains unrepaired, increased levels of genomic instability may contribute to the higher occurrence of second cancers in patients treated post neo-adjuvant radiotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although well described, there is limited published data related to management on the coexistence of prostate and rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to describe a single institution's experience with this and propose a treatment algorithm based on the best available evidence.
From 2000 to 2011, a retrospective review of institutional databases was performed to identify patients with synchronous prostate and rectal cancers where the rectal cancer lay in the lower two thirds of the rectum. Operative and non-operative outcomes were analysed and a management algorithm is proposed.
Twelve patients with prostate and rectal cancer were identified. Three were metachronous diagnoses (>3-month time interval) and nine were synchronous diagnoses. In the synchronous group, four had metastatic disease at presentation and were treated symptomatically, while five were treated with curative intent. Treatment included pelvic radiotherapy (74 Gy) followed by pelvic exenteration (three) and watchful waiting for rectal cancer (one). The remaining patient had a prostatectomy, long-course chemoradiotherapy and anterior resection. There were no operative mortalities and acceptable morbidity. Three remain alive with two patients disease-free.
Synchronous detection of prostate cancer and cancer of the lower two thirds of the rectum is uncommon, but likely to increase with rigorous preoperative staging of rectal cancer and increased awareness of the potential for synchronous disease. Treatment must be individualized based on the stage of the individual cancers taking into account the options for both cancers including EBRT (both), surgery (both), hormonal therapy (prostate), surgery (both) and watchful waiting (both).
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 03/2012; 27(11):1501-8. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of peritoneal involvement in colonic cancer (CC) can be difficult. We studied pT4N0 cancers and their association with pathological prognostic markers, including tumour budding.
Tumours were classified as (i) at the peritoneal surface or free in the peritoneal cavity (pT4a subgroup n = 44); (ii) directly invading adjacent organ (pT4b subgroup n = 8); or (iii) showing inflammatory involvement of the peritoneum (pT4I subgroup n = 25). A published pT3N0 cohort was used to compare Stage II subgroups. Standard pathological markers including tumour budding were assessed. Elastin staining was performed in the pT4I subgroup. Seventy-seven Stage II CCs met inclusion criteria. There was no significant difference in survival across subgroups. pT4b tumours were larger than pT4a tumours (P < 0.001). Over-represented features in pT4a versus pT4b tumours were tumour budding (P = 0.02) and infiltrative margin (P = 0.02). Tumour budding did not predict survival. Using multivariate analysis, neural invasion was the only parameter predictive of survival (hazard ratio = 2.8; 95% CI 1.2-6.4; P = 0.02).
Stage II pT4I CCs have a similar outcome to T4a/b tumours. Elastin staining is useful in defining this group. Tumour budding may facilitate peritoneal invasion in pT4a tumours, but does not predict outcome in pT4N0 disease. Only neural invasion independently predicted poor outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Local excision of rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been proposed as an alternative to radical surgery in selected patients. However, little is known about the significance of the morphological and histological features of residual tumour.
Patients who had undergone CRT at the authors' institution between 1997 and 2010 were identified. Multiple features were assessed as putative markers of pathological response. These included: gross residual disease, diameter of residual mucosal abnormalities, tumour differentiation, presence of lymphovascular/perineural invasion and lymph node ratio.
Data from 220 of 276 patients were suitable for analysis. Diameter of residual mucosal abnormalities correlated strongly with pathological tumour category after CRT (ypT) (P < 0·001). Forty of 42 tumours downstaged to ypT0/1 had residual mucosal abnormalities of 2·99 cm or less after CRT. Importantly, 19 of 31 patients with a complete pathological response had evidence of a residual mucosal abnormality consistent with an incomplete clinical response. The ypT category was associated with both pathological node status after CRT (P < 0·001) and lymph node ratio (P < 0·001). Positive nodes were found in only one of 42 patients downstaged to ypT0/1. The risk of nodal metastases was associated with poor differentiation (P = 0·027) and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0·001).
In this series, the majority of patients with a complete pathological response did not have a complete clinical response. In tumours downstaged to ypT0/1 after CRT, residual mucosal abnormalities were predominantly small and had a 2 per cent risk of positive nodes, thus potentially facilitating transanal excision. The presence of adverse histological characteristics risk stratified tumours for nodal metastases.
British Journal of Surgery 02/2012; 99(7):993-1001. · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Local excision is an alternative to anterior or abdomino-perineal resection in patients with early rectal cancer. In more advanced disease, neo-adjuvant therapy (CRXT) can result in significant disease regression such that local excision may be considered. The primary aim was to assess oncological outcome in patients with T3 rectal cancer treated with CRXT and local excision due to unsuitability for or aversion to anterior resection and stoma. The secondary aim was to examine oncological outcomes in patients treated in a similar way in the published literature.
Between July 2006 and July 2009, patients with rectal cancer staged T3, N0/N1, M0 who were deemed unfit for or who refused anterior resection were offered long-course CRXT. Patients were restaged 8 weeks following completion. If there was a good response (regression grade 2 or 3 clinically and radiologically), full thickness transanal excision was performed. All patients were followed regularly (monthly CT abdomen/pelvis and annual endoscopy) to assess for recurrence of disease. A literature search of PubMed was performed to identify all prospective data available of T3 rectal cancers managed with CRXT and local excision.
Ten patients were treated over 3 years. Six patients had complete pathological response, while four patients had a partial response. The resection margins following local excision were clear in all. There was no local recurrence (median follow-up 24 months, range 9-42 months).
Neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and local excision is an option in patients unfit for or averse to major surgical resection if there is a good response to CRXT.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 12/2011; 27(6):759-64. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current prognostic factors are poor at identifying patients at risk of disease recurrence after surgery for stage II colon cancer. Here we describe a DNA microarray-based prognostic assay using clinically relevant formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples.
A gene signature was developed from a balanced set of 73 patients with recurrent disease (high risk) and 142 patients with no recurrence (low risk) within 5 years of surgery.
The 634-probe set signature identified high-risk patients with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.62 (P < .001) during cross validation of the training set. In an independent validation set of 144 samples, the signature identified high-risk patients with an HR of 2.53 (P < .001) for recurrence and an HR of 2.21 (P = .0084) for cancer-related death. Additionally, the signature was shown to perform independently from known prognostic factors (P < .001).
This gene signature represents a novel prognostic biomarker for patients with stage II colon cancer that can be applied to FFPE tumor samples.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2011; 29(35):4620-6. · 17.88 Impact Factor