[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphovascular invasion (LBVI) including lymphatic (LVI) and blood (BVI) vessel invasion is a critical step in cancer metastasis. In breast cancer, the optimal detection method of LBVI remains unclear. This research aimed to compare the prognostic value of different assessments of the LVI and BVI in patients with early breast cancer.
BMC Cancer 09/2014; 14(1):676. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During last three decades, global incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has increased more rapidly than any other cancer. A concurrent reduction in the incidence of gastric cancer has been reported from some populations. We aimed to examine the geographical pattern of oesophageal adenocarcinoma versus gastric non-cardia cancer across the world where reliable cancer registry data were available.
British Society of Gastroenterology, Manchester; 06/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:The percentage of tumour stroma (TSP) has recently been reported to be a novel independent predictor of outcome in patients with a variety of common solid organ tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between TSP, clinicopathological characteristics and outcome in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer, in particular node negative and triple negative disease.Methods:A total of 361 patients with primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer were included in this study. The TSP was assessed visually on the haematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. With a cutoff value of 50% TSP, patients with ⩽50% stroma were classified as the low-TSP group and those with >50% stroma were classified as the high-TSP group.Results:A total of 109 (30%) patients had high TSP. Patients with high TSP were old age (P=0.035), had more Her-2-positive tumours (P=0.029), low-grade tumour inflammatory infiltrate (P=0.034), low CD68+macrophage infiltrate (P<0.001), low CD4+ (P=0.023) and low CD8+ T-lymphocytes infiltrate (P=0.017), tumour recurrence (P=0.015) and shorter cancer-specific survival (P<0.001). In node-negative patients (n=207), high TSP was associated with low CD68+macrophage infiltrate (P=0.001), low CD4+ (P=0.040) and low CD8+ T-lymphocytes infiltrate (P=0.016) and shorter cancer-specific survival (P=0.005). In triple negative patients (n=151), high TSP was associated with high tumour grade (P=<0.001), lymph node positivity (P=0.027), low CD68+macrophage infiltrate (P=0.011) and shorter cancer-specific survival (P=0.035). The 15-year cancer-specific survival rate was 79% vs 21% in the low-TSP group vs high-TSP group. In multivariate survival analysis, a high TSP was associated with reduced cancer-specific survival in the whole cohort (P=0.001), node-negative patients (P=0.007) and those who received systemic adjuvant therapy (P=0.021), independent of other pathological characteristics including host inflammatory response. However, TSP was not an independent prognostic factor for triple negative patients (P=0.151).Conclusions:A high TSP in primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer was associated with recurrence and poorer long-term survival. The inverse relation with the tumour inflammatory infiltrate highlights the importance of the amount of tumour stroma on immunological response in patients with primary operable ductal breast cancer. Implementing this simple and reproducible parameter in routine pathological examination may help optimise risk stratification in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 29 May 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.279 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 05/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum pepsinogen I:II ratio, a surrogate marker of atrophic gastritis, suggests that some adenocarcinomas at the gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) develop on a background of atrophic gastritis, similar to non-cardia gastric cancer, while others arise on a backgrounds of healthy, non-atrophic gastric mucosa similar to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In this current study, we have directly the background gastric body mucosa in patients with junctional adenocarcinomas compared to oesophageal adenocarcinomas and non-cardia gastric cancers.
DDW 2014, American Gastroenterological Association, Chicago, USA; 05/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Barrett's oesophagus shows appearances described as 'intestinal metaplasia', in structures called 'crypts' but do not typically display crypt architecture. Here, we investigate their relationship to gastric glands.
Cell proliferation and migration within Barrett's glands was assessed by Ki67 and iododeoxyuridine (IdU) labelling. Expression of mucin core proteins (MUC), trefoil family factor (TFF) peptides and LGR5 mRNA was determined by immunohistochemistry or by in situ hybridisation, and clonality was elucidated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations combined with mucin histochemistry.
Proliferation predominantly occurs in the middle of Barrett's glands, diminishing towards the surface and the base: IdU dynamics demonstrate bidirectional migration, similar to gastric glands. Distribution of MUC5AC, TFF1, MUC6 and TFF2 in Barrett's mirrors pyloric glands and is preserved in Barrett's dysplasia. MUC2-positive goblet cells are localised above the neck in Barrett's glands, and TFF3 is concentrated in the same region. LGR5 mRNA is detected in the middle of Barrett's glands suggesting a stem cell niche in this locale, similar to that in the gastric pylorus, and distinct from gastric intestinal metaplasia. Gastric and intestinal cell lineages within Barrett's glands are clonal, indicating derivation from a single stem cell.
Barrett's shows the proliferative and stem cell architecture, and pattern of gene expression of pyloric gastric glands, maintained by stem cells showing gastric and intestinal differentiation: neutral drift may suggest that intestinal differentiation advances with time, a concept critical for the understanding of the origin and development of Barrett's oesophagus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several well-established tumour prognostic factors are used to guide the clinical management of patients with breast cancer. Lymphovascular invasion and angiogenesis have also been reported to have some promise as prognostic factors. The aim of the present study was to examine the prognostic value of tumour lymphovascular invasion and microvessel density compared with that of established prognostic factors in invasive ductal breast cancer.Methodology: In addition to hormone receptor status and Ki-67 proliferative activity, lymphovascular invasion and microvessel density and their relationship with survival were examined in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. Full sections and tissue microarrays (n = 384 patients) were utilised to assess these factors and were scored by appropriate methods.
On univariate analysis tumour size (P < 0.05), lymph node involvement (P < 0.01), lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.05), microvessel density (P < 0.05) and local- regional treatment (P < 0.01) were associated with poorer survival in ER negative tumours. On multivariate analysis in ER negative tumours lymph node involvement (P < 0.01) and local- regional treatment (P < 0.05) were independently associated with poorer cancer-specific survival. On univariate analysis tumour grade (P < 0.05), lymph node involvement (P < 0.001), HER-2 (P < 0.05), Ki-67 (P < 0.01) and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001) were associated with poorer survival in ER positive tumours. On multivariate analysis lymph node involvement (P < 0.001), Ki-67 (P < 0.001) and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.05) were independently associated with poorer cancer-specific survival in ER positive tumours.
Lymphovascular invasion but not microvessel density was independently associated with poorer survival in patients with ER positive but not ER negative invasive ductal breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The introduction of the bowel cancer screening programme has resulted in increasing numbers of patients being diagnosed with node-negative disease. Unfortunately, approximately 30 % will develop recurrence following surgery. Given the toxicity associated with adjuvant chemotherapy, it is important to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. This study aims to identify which clinicopathological factors and genetic profiling markers predict outcome in node-negative disease.
Forty-nine microsatellite stable (MSS) patients undergoing curative resection between 1991 and 1993 were included. Local immune response was assessed by Klintrup criteria and vascular invasion status assessed through Miller's elastin staining. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) on a range of loci provided data on allelic imbalance. Analysis of survival included clinicopathological and CGH data in a multivariate (Cox) model.
On binary logistical regression analysis, 4p deletion was independently associated with low Klintrup score (HR 0.16; 95 % CI (0.03-0.96); P = 0.045), venous invasion (HR 4.19; 95 % CI (1.08-16.29); P = 0.039) and higher Dukes' stage (HR 6.43; 95 % CI (1.22-33.97); P = 0.028). Minimum follow-up was 109 months and there were 24 cancer deaths. On multivariate analysis, high Klintrup score (HR 0.33; 95 % CI (0.12-0.93); P = 0.036), 4p- (HR 4.01; 95 % CI (1.58-10.21); P = 0.004) and 5q- (HR 3.81; 95 % CI (1.54-9.47); P = 0.004) were significantly associated with survival.
4p-, 5q- and low Klintrup score were independently associated with poor cancer-specific survival in node-negative MSS colorectal cancer. Confirmatory work in a larger cohort is needed to determine whether these markers may be used to identify patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 09/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphovascular invasion (LBVI) has long been recognized as an essential step of metastases in patients with cancer. However, the process of invasion into lymphatic and blood vessels is still not well defined in breast cancer. To examine the evidence for LBVI, lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) and blood vessel invasion (BVI) in predicting survival in patients with primary operable breast cancer, and to evaluate the detection methods of vessel invasion. A systematic review of data published from 1964 to 2012 was undertaken according to a pre-defined protocol. There is robust evidence that general LBVI and LVI are independent prognostic factors of poorer survival. The prognostic role of BVI remains unclear. Most studies detected LBVI using H&E stained sections. The overall weighted average of the LBVI rate using immunostaining was higher (35%) than H&E (24%). The LBVI rate using H&E was variable (9-50%) and less variable using immunostaining (32-41%). The overall weighted average of the LVI rate was similar using H&E and immunostaining (33% vs. 25%). The LVI rate using H&E was variable (10-49%) and less variable using immunostaining (21-42%). The overall weighted average of the BVI rate was similar using H&E and/or classical staining and immunostaining (16% vs. 10%). The BVI rates using H&E and/or classical staining approach (4-46%) and immunostaining (1-29%) were both variable. The LBVI and LVI are powerful prognostic factors in primary operable breast cancer. However, BVI was rarely specifically examined and its role in predicting survival is not clear. Further work is required using reliable specific staining to establish the routine use of LVI and BVI in the prediction of outcome in patients with primary operable breast cancer.
Critical reviews in oncology/hematology 09/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:The importance of lymphocyte subtypes in determining outcome in primary operable ductal invasive breast cancer remains unclear. The aim of present study was to examine the relationship between tumour lymphocyte subsets infiltrate and standard clinico-pathological factors and survival in patients with primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer.Methods:The analysis of the inflammatory cell infiltrate, including lymphocyte subtypes, was undertaken using immunohistochemical techniques and visual quantitative and semi-quantitative techniques in 338 patients with ductal breast cancer.Results:The majority (91%) of patients had high grade inflammatory cell infiltrate. The median follow-up of the survivors was 164 months. During this period, 65 died of their cancer. On univariate analysis, tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate, macrophages infiltrate (P<0.05), lymphocytic infiltrate (P<0.001) and CD8+ T-lymphocytic infiltrate (P<0.01) were associated with improved cancer-specific survival, whereas neutrophil (P<0.05) and CD138+ B-lymphocytic infiltrate (P<0.001) were associated with poorer cancer-specific survival. On multivariate analysis, tumour lymphocytic infiltrate (P<0.001), macrophage infiltrate (P<0.05), CD8+ T-lymphocytic infiltrate (P<0.01) and CD138+ B-lymphocytic infiltrate (P<0.001) were independently associated with cancer survival. When the significant inflammatory cell types were included with tumour-based factors in multivariate analysis only tumour size (Hazard ratios (HR): 2.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53-4.27, P<0.001), Ki-67 index (HR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.08-4.00, P<0.05), lymphovascular invasion (HR: 4.40, 95% CI: 2.07-9.35, P<0.001), macrophage infiltrate (HR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.33-0.73, P<0.001), lymphocytic infiltrate (HR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05-0.23, P<0.001), CD8+ T-lymphocytic infiltrate (HR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.38-0.87, P<0.001) and CD138+ B-lymphocytic infiltrate (HR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.79-4.56, P<0.001) were independently associated with cancer survival.Conclusion:The majority of patients with invasive ductal breast cancer had high-grade inflammatory cell infiltrate. In these patients, inflammatory cells including macrophage and lymphocytic infiltrate, and subsets CD8+ T-lymphocytic infiltrate and CD138+ B-lymphocytic infiltrate had superior prognostic value, compared with hormone status and lymph node involvement in patients with primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 27 August 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.493 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 08/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the West, a substantial proportion of subjects with adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia and gastroesophageal junction have no history of reflux. We studied the gastroesophageal junction in asymptomatic volunteers with normal and large waist circumference (WC) to determine if central obesity is associated with abnormalities that might predispose individuals to adenocarcinoma.
We performed a study of 24 healthy, Helicobacter pylori-negative volunteers with small and 27 with large WC. Abdominal fat was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging. Orientated jumbo biopsies were taken across the squamo-columnar junction (SCJ). High-resolution pH-metry (12 sensors) and manometry (36 sensors) were performed in upright and supine subjects before and after a meal; the SCJ was visualized fluoroscopically.
The cardiac mucosa was significantly longer in the large WC group (2.5 mm vs 1.75 mm; P=.008); its length correlated with intra (R=.35, P=.045) and total (R=0.37, P=.034) abdominal fat. The SCJ was closer to the upper border of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in subjects with large WC (2.77 cm vs 3.54 cm, P=.02). There was no evidence of excessive reflux 5 cm above the LES in either group. Gastric acidity extended more proximally within the LES in the large WC group, compared with the upper border (2.65 cm vs 4.1cm, P=.027) and peak LES pressure (0.1 cm proximal vs 2.1 cm distal, P=.007). The large WC group had shortening of the LES, attributable to loss of the distal component (total LES length 3 cm vs 4.5 cm, P=.043).
Central obesity is associated with intra-sphincteric extension of gastric acid and cardiac mucosal lengthening. The latter might arise through metaplasia of the most distal esophageal squamous epithelium and this process might predispose individuals to adenocarcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, and several studies have reported increased angiogenesis, as quantified by microvessel density, to be a powerful prognostic tool in breast cancer. Therefore, there is considerable interest in automated assessment of microvessel density with possible benefits in improved accuracy, increased precision, and handling workload. Visual and automated assessment of microvessel density (CD34(+)) and survival were examined in patients with primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer. Tissue microarrays (n = 356 patients) immunostained for microvessel density (CD34(+)) were scored visually and automatically with the Slidepath Tissue IA system (Dublin, Ireland). Visual and automated microvessel density (CD34(+)) were in agreement (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.69, P < .001). Visual but not the automated method for microvessel density (CD34(+)) was associated with locoregional treatment and metastasis. On univariate survival analysis, visual but not automated method for microvessel density (CD34(+)) was associated with recurrence-free and cancer-specific survival in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer (P < .01). Although automated assessment of microvessel density (CD34(+)) is in reasonable agreement, it poorly predicts outcome in patients with operable invasive ductal breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A few studies have indicated inverse relationships between serum ghrelin and gastric and esophageal cancers but those associations have been restricted to specific populations, including smokers and overweight individuals. We examined the association between ghrelin and gastroesophageal cancers and atrophic gastritis in a population-based setting.
In total 220 gastroesophageal cancers, comprising non-cardia and cardia gastric cancer, esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and age and gender-matched controls were recruited. Serum ghrelin, pepsinogen I/II ratio (PGI/II) and anti-H.pylori IgG antibodies were measured. Relationships between ghrelin and gastroesophageal cancers, after adjustment for PGI/II ratio, H.pylori status and smoking, were tested using logistic regression. Furthermore, in 125 endoscopically normal volunteers, with and without histological atrophic gastritis, the relationship with ghrelin was compared.
Serum ghrelin (lowest vs. highest quintile) was inversely associated with gastric cancer: OR (95% CI) 8.71 (1.70-44.59) for cardia and 6.58 (1.26-34.46) for non-cardia cancer. Lower serum ghrelin was also associated with esophageal SCC: OR (95% CI) 5.69 (1.36-23.78), but not with esophageal adenocarcinoma. A similar association was observed between gastric cancer (cardia and non-cardia) and esophageal SCC when serum ghrelin was analysed as a continuous scaled variable. In endoscopically-normal volunteers, extensive atrophic gastritis was associated with low serum ghrelin [OR (95% CI) 0.25 (0.10-0.64)].
Inverse associations between ghrelin and some gastroesophageal cancers suggest a potential role for serum ghrelin as a biomarker of upper gastrointestinal cancers and atrophic gastritis. In areas with a high incidence of gastric and/or esophageal cancer, screening might be more effectively targeted to individuals with low serum ghrelin in addition to the PGI/II ratio.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74440. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is popularly held that cancer risk in Barrett's oesophagus is conferred by intestinal metaplasia (IM), defined by goblet cells. This belief is difficult to test, partly because it is impossible to prove an absence of goblet cells in a particular oesophagus: no matter how many biopsies without them have been examined, it is always possible there may be some in the very next biopsy.Also, little is known about the spatial distribution and temporal drift of the intestinal phenotype in Barrett's oesophagus; and ignorance of relationships between duration, extent and phenotypic diversity in a Barrett segment on the one hand, and dysplasia and its progression on the other is a problem.Cancer-related genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in non-intestinal glandular mucosa further call in question the belief that intestinalized mucosa alone is at increased risk of malignancy.Accurate determination of patient-specific cancer risk in Barrett's oesophagus will require more sophisticated understanding of how mucosal phenotype is determined (cell fate specification) and how dysplasia evolves than presently available, and is unlikely to be reducible to whether intestinal metaplasia is ‘present’ or ‘absent’. That intestinal metaplasia is a necessary precondition for Barrett's adenocarcinoma is a dogma hindering understanding of carcinogenesis in metaplastic oesophageal mucosa and at the oesophago-gastric junction, and has no value in the definition of Barrett's oesophagus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of the components of host local inflammatory response in determining outcome in primary operable ductal invasive breast cancer is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between components of the tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate and standard clinicopathological factors including hormone status (oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2), Ki-67 and survival in patients with primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer.
Tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate, hormone status (ER, PR and HER-2), Ki-67 and standard clinicopathological factors were determined using routine pathological and immuno-histochemical techniques in 468 patients.
The large majority (94%) of ductal tumours had evidence of inflammatory cell infiltrate. The general inflammatory cell infiltrate was positively associated with high grade (P<0.001), the absence of ER (P<0.001), the absence of PR (P<0.01), the presence of vascular invasion (P<0.05) and high lymphocytic infiltrate, plasma cell infiltrate, other inflammatory cell infiltrate and macrophage infiltrate (all P<0.001). The median follow-up of the survivors was 165 months. During this period, 93 patients died of their cancer. On univariate analysis, stratified for ER status, tumour size (P<0.01), lymph node involvement (P<0.001), tumour plasma cell infiltrate (P<0.001), other inflammatory cell infiltrate (P<0.05) and treatment (P<0.05) were associated with poorer cancer-specific survival whereas lymphocyte infiltrate (P<0.001) was associated with improved cancer-specific survival. On multivariate analysis, stratified for ER status, lymph node involvement (P<0.05) was independently associated with poorer cancer-specific survival whereas increased tumour lymphocyte infiltrate (P<0.001) was independently associated with improved cancer-specific survival.
The results of this study show that, using routine histology, the general inflammatory cell infiltrate was a common feature and was positively associated with high grade, the absence of ER, the absence of PR, the presence of vascular invasion and high-grade infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, other inflammatory cells and macrophages. Also, that within a mature cohort of patients, a high lymphocytic infiltrate was associated with improved survival, independent of clinicopathological characteristics including ER status, in primary operable ductal invasive breast cancer. These results rationalise previous work and provide a sound basis for future studies in this important area of breast cancer research.
British Journal of Cancer 08/2012; 107(5):864-73. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Barrett's oesophagus is a precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, via intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. Risk of cancer increases substantially with dysplasia, particularly high-grade dysplasia. Thus, there is a clinical need to identify and treat patients with early-stage disease (metaplasia and low-grade dysplasia) that are at high risk of cancer. Activated Wnt signalling is critical for normal intestinal development and homeostasis, but less so for oesophageal development. Therefore, we asked whether abnormally increased Wnt signalling contributes to the development of Barrett's oesophagus (intestinal metaplasia) and/or dysplasia. Forty patients with Barrett's metaplasia, dysplasia or adenocarcinoma underwent endoscopy and biopsy. Mice with tamoxifen- and β-naphthoflavone-induced expression of activated β-catenin were used to up-regulate Wnt signalling in mouse oesophagus. Immunohistochemistry of β-catenin, Ki67, a panel of Wnt target genes, and markers of intestinal metaplasia was performed on human and mouse tissues. In human tissues, expression of nuclear activated β-catenin was found in dysplasia, particularly high grade. Barrett's metaplasia did not show high levels of activated β-catenin. Up-regulation of Ki67 and Wnt target genes was also mostly associated with high-grade dysplasia. Aberrant activation of Wnt signalling in mouse oesophagus caused marked tissue disorganization with features of dysplasia, but only selected molecular indicators of metaplasia. Based on these results in human tissues and a mouse model, we conclude that abnormal activation of Wnt signalling likely plays only a minor role in initiation of Barrett's metaplasia but a more critical role in progression to dysplasia.
The Journal of Pathology 05/2012; 228(1):99-112. · 7.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the first studies highlighting the importance of the tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate were reported more than 80years ago, the prognostic value of this response in breast cancer is still controversial. With the realisation of the importance of the inflammatory response in determining tumour progression there has been renewed interest in establishing the relationship between the type, density and location of inflammatory cell infiltrate and survival in patients with primary operable breast cancer. The aim was to undertake a systematic review of the literature examining the evidence for the role of the tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate in predicting recurrence and survival in patients with primary operable breast cancer. A systematic review of published papers up to September 2011 was undertaken according to a pre-defined protocol (Fig. 1). A total of 66 independent studies (34,086 patients) were identified. It can be concluded from the review that despite the large number of studies and considerable effort over an extended period, the relationship between different aspects of tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate and outcome in primary operable breast cancer remains unclear. This is in large part due to the absence of methodological validation, underpowered studies (small sample size and sample subtype heterogeneity, insufficient follow-up) and the absence of validation datasets. Therefore, although there are tantalising examples of the potential of the tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate to improve risk stratification patients with operable breast cancer (personalised care), this has not yet been realised. Future studies with standardised methodology, large and homogenous groups, sufficient follow-up and validation datasets should be undertaken to unlock the potential of the tumour inflammatory infiltrate to predict outcome in patients with primary operable breast cancer.
Cancer Treatment Reviews 05/2012; 38(8):943-55. · 6.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The host inflammatory response is an important determinant of cancer outcome. We examined different methods of assessing the local inflammatory response in colorectal tumours and explored relationships with both clinicopathological characteristics and survival.
Cohort study of patients (n=130) with primary operable colorectal cancer and mature follow-up. Local inflammatory response at the invasive margin was assessed with: (1) a semi-quantitative assessment of peritumoural inflammation using Klintrup-Makinen (K-M) grading and (2) an assessment of individual immune cell infiltration (lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils).
The peritumoural inflammatory response was K-M low grade in 48% and high grade in 52%. Inflammatory cells were primarily macrophages, lymphocytes and neutrophils with relatively few plasma cells or eosinophils. On univariate analysis, K-M grade, lymphocyte infiltration and plasma cell infiltration were associated with cancer-specific survival. On multivariate analysis, only systemic inflammatory response, TNM (tumour, node and metastases) stage, venous invasion, tumour necrosis and K-M grade were independently associated with cancer-specific survival. There was no relationship between local infiltration of inflammatory cells and a systemic inflammatory response. However, high K-M grade, lymphocyte infiltration and plasma cell infiltration were associated with a number of favourable pathological characteristics, including an absence of venous invasion.
Infiltration of inflammatory cells in the invasive margin of colorectal tumours is beneficial to survival. The adaptive immune response appears to have a prominent role in the prevention of tumour progression in patients with colorectal cancer.
British Journal of Cancer 05/2012; 106(12):2010-5. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the assessment of steroid hormone receptor immunohistochemistry by eye and by computer-aided image analysis, and to examine their relationships with survival in breast cancer.
Allred scores and weighted histoscores for oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) immunohistochemistry were determined by eye (visual histoscore) for 459 primary invasive ductal breast carcinomas in triplicate tissue microarrays. Histoscores were also determined by computerized image analysis (automated histoscore). ER and PR status determined by these different methods were compared with each other and in their ability to predict survival over at least 142 months of follow-up. Allred and visual histoscore were highly associated for ER and PR (both P < 0.001). By univariate analysis, Allred score and visual histoscore for ER and PR were highly associated with recurrence-free and cancer-specific survival (both P < 0.001) in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer overall, in those who received tamoxifen, and in those with recurrence on tamoxifen. Visual and automated histoscores were in excellent agreement for ER and PR (both P < 0.001), and were equally effective in predicting recurrence and survival for patients with invasive breast cancer who received tamoxifen.
Automated histoscore appears to be a valid alternative to visual histoscore or Allred score for determining ER and PR status.