James J Going

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (137)867.64 Total impact

  • Cathy Bennett, Janusz Jankowski, Paul Moayyedi, Corley DA, DeCaestecker J, Falck-Ytter Y, Falk G, Vakil N, Sanders S, Vieth M, [......], Stein H, Stuart R, Talley N, Tam W, Tayyab G, Triadafilopoulos G, Villanacci V, Wajed S, Waxman I, Wong RK
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    ABSTRACT: doi: 10.1038/ajg.2015.55 http://www.nature.com/ajg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/ajg201555a.html OBJECTIVES: Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a common premalignant lesion for which surveillance is recommended. This strategy is limited by considerable variations in clinical practice. We conducted an international, multidisciplinary, systematic search and evidence-based review of BE and provided consensus recommendations for clinical use in patients with nondysplastic, indefinite, and low-grade dysplasia (LGD). METHODS: We defined the scope, proposed statements, and searched electronic databases, yielding 20,558 publications that were screened, selected online, and formed the evidence base. We used a Delphi consensus process, with an 80% agreement threshold, using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) to categorize the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. RESULTS: In total, 80% of respondents agreed with 55 of 127 statements in the final voting rounds. Population endoscopic screening is not recommended and screening should target only very high-risk cases of males aged over 60 years with chronic uncontrolled reflux. A new international definition of BE was agreed upon. For any degree of dysplasia, at least two specialist gastrointestinal (GI) pathologists are required. Risk factors for cancer include male gender, length of BE, and central obesity. Endoscopic resection should be used for visible, nodular areas. Surveillance is not recommended for <5 years of life expectancy. Management strategies for indefinite dysplasia (IND) and LGD were identified, including a de-escalation strategy for lower-risk patients and escalation to intervention with follow-up for higher-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this uniquely large consensus process in gastroenterology, we made key clinical recommendations for the escalation/de-escalation of BE in clinical practice. We made strong recommendations for the prioritization of future research.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2015; · 9.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, we showed that the length of cardiac mucosa in healthy volunteers correlated with age and obesity. We have now examined the immunohistological characteristics of this expanded cardia to determine whether it may be due to columnar metaplasia of the distal oesophagus. We used the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ), antral and body biopsies from the 52 Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy volunteers who had participated in our earlier physiological study and did not have hiatus hernia, transsphincteric acid reflux, Barrett's oesophagus or intestinal metaplasia (IM) at cardia. The densities of inflammatory cells and reactive atypia were scored at squamous, cardiac and oxyntocardiac mucosa of SCJ, antrum and body. Slides were stained for caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX-2), villin, trefoil factor family 3 (TFF-3) and liver-intestine (LI)-cadherin, mucin MUC1, Muc-2 and Muc-5ac. In addition, biopsies from 15 Barrett's patients with/without IM were stained and scored as comparison. Immunohistological characteristics were correlated with parameters of obesity and high-resolution pH metry recording. Cardiac mucosa had a similar intensity of inflammatory infiltrate to non-IM Barrett's and greater than any of the other upper GI mucosae. The immunostaining pattern of cardiac mucosa most closely resembled non-IM Barrett's showing only slightly weaker CDX-2 immunostaining. In distal oesophageal squamous mucosa, expression of markers of columnar differentiation (TFF-3 and LI-cadherin) was apparent and these correlated with central obesity (correlation coefficient (CC)=0.604, p=0.001 and CC=0.462, p=0.002, respectively). In addition, expression of TFF-3 in distal oesophageal squamous mucosa correlated with proximal extension of gastric acidity within the region of the lower oesophageal sphincter (CC=-0.538, p=0.001). These findings are consistent with expansion of cardia in healthy volunteers occurring by squamo columnar metaplasia of distal oesophagus and aggravated by central obesity. This metaplastic origin of expanded cardia may be relevant to the substantial proportion of cardia adenocarcinomas unattributable to H. pylori or transsphincteric acid reflux. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Gut 03/2015; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-308914 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Recently, we showed that the length of cardiac mucosa in healthy volunteers correlated with age and obesity. We have now examined the immunohistological characteristics of this expanded cardia to determine whether it may be due to columnar metaplasia of the distal oesophagus. METHODS: We used the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ), antral and body biopsies from the 52 Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy volunteers who had participated in our earlier physiological study and did not have hiatus hernia, transsphincteric acid reflux, Barrett's oesophagus or intestinal metaplasia (IM) at cardia. The densities of inflammatory cells and reactive atypia were scored at squamous, cardiac and oxyntocardiac mucosa of SCJ, antrum and body. Slides were stained for caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX-2), villin, trefoil factor family 3 (TFF-3) and liver-intestine (LI)-cadherin, mucin MUC1, Muc-2 and Muc-5ac. In addition, biopsies from 15 Barrett's patients with/without IM were stained and scored as comparison. Immunohistological characteristics were correlated with parameters of obesity and high-resolution pH metry recording. RESULTS: Cardiac mucosa had a similar intensity of inflammatory infiltrate to non-IM Barrett's and greater than any of the other upper GI mucosae. The immunostaining pattern of cardiac mucosa most closely resembled non-IM Barrett's showing only slightly weaker CDX-2 immunostaining. In distal oesophageal squamous mucosa, expression of markers of columnar differentiation (TFF-3 and LI-cadherin) was apparent and these correlated with central obesity (correlation coefficient (CC)=0.604, p=0.001 and CC=0.462, p=0.002, respectively). In addition, expression of TFF-3 in distal oesophageal squamous mucosa correlated with proximal extension of gastric acidity within the region of the lower oesophageal sphincter (CC=-0.538, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with expansion of cardia in healthy volunteers occurring by squamo columnar metaplasia of distal oesophagus and aggravated by central obesity. This metaplastic origin of expanded cardia may be relevant to the substantial proportion of cardia adenocarcinomas unattributable to H. pylori or transsphincteric acid reflux.
    Gut 03/2015; · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    DESCRIPTION: Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5th International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy
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    ABSTRACT: A 69-year-old man, seven years post Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, was diagnosed to have a moderately differentiated 4 cm, malignant ulcer within the gastric tube remnant on an endoscopic biopsy. His original presentation was with a T1N0 oesophageal adenocarcinoma, histologically intestinal in type with inflammatory features. He presented with anaemia and melena due to a malignant ulcer in the mid body of his gastric tube on an endoscopy which was confirmed to be a gastric neo-adenocarcinoma on biopsy. He underwent right posterolateral thoracotomy and a wedge resection of the gastric tube including the tumour. Pathology confirmed a T3 N0 (0/7 lymph nodes) with clear margins moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of intestinal phenotype with papillary features and was reported to be a histopathologically new tumour. Proposed surgical treatments in such patients are dependent on patient's fitness for major resection and may vary from Endoscopic Mucosal Resection to partial resection with preservation of right gastroepiploic vessels or total gastrectomy with intestinal interposition via a retromediastinal route. We suggest that regular endoscopic surveillance may be indicated in such post-oesophagectomy patients as the number of patients developing gastric tube cancers may increase with improve survival of those patients. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
    Scottish medical journal 02/2015; DOI:10.1177/0036933015570520 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundLymphovascular invasion (LBVI) including lymphatic (LVI) and blood (BVI) vessel invasion is a critical step in cancer metastasis. In breast cancer, the optimal detection method of LBVI remains unclear. This research aimed to compare the prognostic value of different assessments of the LVI and BVI in patients with early breast cancer.MethodsThe study cohort included 360 patients with a median follow-up of 168 months. LBVI on H&E sections (LBVIH&E) was reviewed centrally and blinded to the pathology report. Immunohistochemical staining for D2-40 and Factor VIII was performed to identify LVID2–40 and BVIFVIII.ResultsLBVIH&E, LVID2–40 and BVIFVIII were present in 102 (28%), 127 (35%) and 59 (16%) patients respectively. In node-negative patients (206), LBVIH&E, LVID2–40 and BVIFVIII were present in 41 (20%), 53 (26%) and 21 (10%) respectively. In triple-negative patients (120), LBVIH&E, LVID2–40 and BVIFVIII were present in 35 (29%), 46 (38%) and 16 (13%) respectively. LBVIH&E was significantly associated with tumour recurrence in the whole cohort (P < 0.001), node-negative patients (P = 0.001) and triple-negative patients (P = 0.004). LVID2–40 and BVIFVIII were significantly associated with tumour recurrence in whole cohort, node-negative (all P < 0.001) and triple-negative patients (P = 0.002). In multivariate survival analysis, only LVID2–40 and BVIFVIII were independent predictors of cancer specific survival in the whole cohort (P = 0.023 and P < 0.001 respectively), node-negative patients (P = 0.004 and P = 0.001 respectively) and triple-negative patients (P = 0.014 and P = 0.001 respectively).ConclusionAssessment of LVI and BVI by IHC using D2-40 and Factor VIII improves prediction of outcome in patients with node-negative and triple-negative breast cancer.
    BMC Cancer 09/2014; 14(1):676. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-676 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During last three decades, global incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has increased more rapidly than any other cancer. A concurrent reduction in the incidence of gastric cancer has been reported from some populations. We aimed to examine the geographical pattern of oesophageal adenocarcinoma versus gastric non-cardia cancer across the world where reliable cancer registry data were available.
    British Society of Gastroenterology, Manchester; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background:The percentage of tumour stroma (TSP) has recently been reported to be a novel independent predictor of outcome in patients with a variety of common solid organ tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between TSP, clinicopathological characteristics and outcome in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer, in particular node negative and triple negative disease.Methods:A total of 361 patients with primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer were included in this study. The TSP was assessed visually on the haematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. With a cutoff value of 50% TSP, patients with ⩽50% stroma were classified as the low-TSP group and those with >50% stroma were classified as the high-TSP group.Results:A total of 109 (30%) patients had high TSP. Patients with high TSP were old age (P=0.035), had more Her-2-positive tumours (P=0.029), low-grade tumour inflammatory infiltrate (P=0.034), low CD68+macrophage infiltrate (P<0.001), low CD4+ (P=0.023) and low CD8+ T-lymphocytes infiltrate (P=0.017), tumour recurrence (P=0.015) and shorter cancer-specific survival (P<0.001). In node-negative patients (n=207), high TSP was associated with low CD68+macrophage infiltrate (P=0.001), low CD4+ (P=0.040) and low CD8+ T-lymphocytes infiltrate (P=0.016) and shorter cancer-specific survival (P=0.005). In triple negative patients (n=151), high TSP was associated with high tumour grade (P=<0.001), lymph node positivity (P=0.027), low CD68+macrophage infiltrate (P=0.011) and shorter cancer-specific survival (P=0.035). The 15-year cancer-specific survival rate was 79% vs 21% in the low-TSP group vs high-TSP group. In multivariate survival analysis, a high TSP was associated with reduced cancer-specific survival in the whole cohort (P=0.001), node-negative patients (P=0.007) and those who received systemic adjuvant therapy (P=0.021), independent of other pathological characteristics including host inflammatory response. However, TSP was not an independent prognostic factor for triple negative patients (P=0.151).Conclusions:A high TSP in primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer was associated with recurrence and poorer long-term survival. The inverse relation with the tumour inflammatory infiltrate highlights the importance of the amount of tumour stroma on immunological response in patients with primary operable ductal breast cancer. Implementing this simple and reproducible parameter in routine pathological examination may help optimise risk stratification in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 29 May 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.279 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 05/2014; DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.279 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum pepsinogen I:II ratio, a surrogate marker of atrophic gastritis, suggests that some adenocarcinomas at the gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) develop on a background of atrophic gastritis, similar to non-cardia gastric cancer, while others arise on a backgrounds of healthy, non-atrophic gastric mucosa similar to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In this current study, we have directly the background gastric body mucosa in patients with junctional adenocarcinomas compared to oesophageal adenocarcinomas and non-cardia gastric cancers.
    DDW 2014, American Gastroenterological Association, Chicago, USA; 05/2014
  • Gastroenterology 05/2014; 146(5):S-5. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(14)60015-9 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Barrett's oesophagus shows appearances described as 'intestinal metaplasia', in structures called 'crypts' but do not typically display crypt architecture. Here, we investigate their relationship to gastric glands. Cell proliferation and migration within Barrett's glands was assessed by Ki67 and iododeoxyuridine (IdU) labelling. Expression of mucin core proteins (MUC), trefoil family factor (TFF) peptides and LGR5 mRNA was determined by immunohistochemistry or by in situ hybridisation, and clonality was elucidated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations combined with mucin histochemistry. Proliferation predominantly occurs in the middle of Barrett's glands, diminishing towards the surface and the base: IdU dynamics demonstrate bidirectional migration, similar to gastric glands. Distribution of MUC5AC, TFF1, MUC6 and TFF2 in Barrett's mirrors pyloric glands and is preserved in Barrett's dysplasia. MUC2-positive goblet cells are localised above the neck in Barrett's glands, and TFF3 is concentrated in the same region. LGR5 mRNA is detected in the middle of Barrett's glands suggesting a stem cell niche in this locale, similar to that in the gastric pylorus, and distinct from gastric intestinal metaplasia. Gastric and intestinal cell lineages within Barrett's glands are clonal, indicating derivation from a single stem cell. Barrett's shows the proliferative and stem cell architecture, and pattern of gene expression of pyloric gastric glands, maintained by stem cells showing gastric and intestinal differentiation: neutral drift may suggest that intestinal differentiation advances with time, a concept critical for the understanding of the origin and development of Barrett's oesophagus.
    Gut 02/2014; 63(12). DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306508 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several well-established tumour prognostic factors are used to guide the clinical management of patients with breast cancer. Lymphovascular invasion and angiogenesis have also been reported to have some promise as prognostic factors. The aim of the present study was to examine the prognostic value of tumour lymphovascular invasion and microvessel density compared with that of established prognostic factors in invasive ductal breast cancer.Methodology: In addition to hormone receptor status and Ki-67 proliferative activity, lymphovascular invasion and microvessel density and their relationship with survival were examined in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. Full sections and tissue microarrays (n = 384 patients) were utilised to assess these factors and were scored by appropriate methods. On univariate analysis tumour size (P < 0.05), lymph node involvement (P < 0.01), lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.05), microvessel density (P < 0.05) and local- regional treatment (P < 0.01) were associated with poorer survival in ER negative tumours. On multivariate analysis in ER negative tumours lymph node involvement (P < 0.01) and local- regional treatment (P < 0.05) were independently associated with poorer cancer-specific survival. On univariate analysis tumour grade (P < 0.05), lymph node involvement (P < 0.001), HER-2 (P < 0.05), Ki-67 (P < 0.01) and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001) were associated with poorer survival in ER positive tumours. On multivariate analysis lymph node involvement (P < 0.001), Ki-67 (P < 0.001) and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.05) were independently associated with poorer cancer-specific survival in ER positive tumours. Lymphovascular invasion but not microvessel density was independently associated with poorer survival in patients with ER positive but not ER negative invasive ductal breast cancer.
    BMC Clinical Pathology 11/2013; 13(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1472-6890-13-31
  • International Journal of Surgery (London, England) 10/2013; 11(8):630. DOI:10.1016/j.ijsu.2013.06.232 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A few studies have indicated inverse relationships between serum ghrelin and gastric and esophageal cancers but those associations have been restricted to specific populations, including smokers and overweight individuals. We examined the association between ghrelin and gastroesophageal cancers and atrophic gastritis in a population-based setting. In total 220 gastroesophageal cancers, comprising non-cardia and cardia gastric cancer, esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and age and gender-matched controls were recruited. Serum ghrelin, pepsinogen I/II ratio (PGI/II) and anti-H.pylori IgG antibodies were measured. Relationships between ghrelin and gastroesophageal cancers, after adjustment for PGI/II ratio, H.pylori status and smoking, were tested using logistic regression. Furthermore, in 125 endoscopically normal volunteers, with and without histological atrophic gastritis, the relationship with ghrelin was compared. Serum ghrelin (lowest vs. highest quintile) was inversely associated with gastric cancer: OR (95% CI) 8.71 (1.70-44.59) for cardia and 6.58 (1.26-34.46) for non-cardia cancer. Lower serum ghrelin was also associated with esophageal SCC: OR (95% CI) 5.69 (1.36-23.78), but not with esophageal adenocarcinoma. A similar association was observed between gastric cancer (cardia and non-cardia) and esophageal SCC when serum ghrelin was analysed as a continuous scaled variable. In endoscopically-normal volunteers, extensive atrophic gastritis was associated with low serum ghrelin [OR (95% CI) 0.25 (0.10-0.64)]. Inverse associations between ghrelin and some gastroesophageal cancers suggest a potential role for serum ghrelin as a biomarker of upper gastrointestinal cancers and atrophic gastritis. In areas with a high incidence of gastric and/or esophageal cancer, screening might be more effectively targeted to individuals with low serum ghrelin in addition to the PGI/II ratio.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74440. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074440 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The introduction of the bowel cancer screening programme has resulted in increasing numbers of patients being diagnosed with node-negative disease. Unfortunately, approximately 30 % will develop recurrence following surgery. Given the toxicity associated with adjuvant chemotherapy, it is important to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. This study aims to identify which clinicopathological factors and genetic profiling markers predict outcome in node-negative disease. Forty-nine microsatellite stable (MSS) patients undergoing curative resection between 1991 and 1993 were included. Local immune response was assessed by Klintrup criteria and vascular invasion status assessed through Miller's elastin staining. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) on a range of loci provided data on allelic imbalance. Analysis of survival included clinicopathological and CGH data in a multivariate (Cox) model. On binary logistical regression analysis, 4p deletion was independently associated with low Klintrup score (HR 0.16; 95 % CI (0.03-0.96); P = 0.045), venous invasion (HR 4.19; 95 % CI (1.08-16.29); P = 0.039) and higher Dukes' stage (HR 6.43; 95 % CI (1.22-33.97); P = 0.028). Minimum follow-up was 109 months and there were 24 cancer deaths. On multivariate analysis, high Klintrup score (HR 0.33; 95 % CI (0.12-0.93); P = 0.036), 4p- (HR 4.01; 95 % CI (1.58-10.21); P = 0.004) and 5q- (HR 3.81; 95 % CI (1.54-9.47); P = 0.004) were significantly associated with survival. 4p-, 5q- and low Klintrup score were independently associated with poor cancer-specific survival in node-negative MSS colorectal cancer. Confirmatory work in a larger cohort is needed to determine whether these markers may be used to identify patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 09/2013; 139(12). DOI:10.1007/s00432-013-1521-2 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphovascular invasion (LBVI) has long been recognized as an essential step of metastases in patients with cancer. However, the process of invasion into lymphatic and blood vessels is still not well defined in breast cancer. To examine the evidence for LBVI, lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) and blood vessel invasion (BVI) in predicting survival in patients with primary operable breast cancer, and to evaluate the detection methods of vessel invasion. A systematic review of data published from 1964 to 2012 was undertaken according to a pre-defined protocol. There is robust evidence that general LBVI and LVI are independent prognostic factors of poorer survival. The prognostic role of BVI remains unclear. Most studies detected LBVI using H&E stained sections. The overall weighted average of the LBVI rate using immunostaining was higher (35%) than H&E (24%). The LBVI rate using H&E was variable (9-50%) and less variable using immunostaining (32-41%). The overall weighted average of the LVI rate was similar using H&E and immunostaining (33% vs. 25%). The LVI rate using H&E was variable (10-49%) and less variable using immunostaining (21-42%). The overall weighted average of the BVI rate was similar using H&E and/or classical staining and immunostaining (16% vs. 10%). The BVI rates using H&E and/or classical staining approach (4-46%) and immunostaining (1-29%) were both variable. The LBVI and LVI are powerful prognostic factors in primary operable breast cancer. However, BVI was rarely specifically examined and its role in predicting survival is not clear. Further work is required using reliable specific staining to establish the routine use of LVI and BVI in the prediction of outcome in patients with primary operable breast cancer.
    Critical reviews in oncology/hematology 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2013.08.014 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:The importance of lymphocyte subtypes in determining outcome in primary operable ductal invasive breast cancer remains unclear. The aim of present study was to examine the relationship between tumour lymphocyte subsets infiltrate and standard clinico-pathological factors and survival in patients with primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer.Methods:The analysis of the inflammatory cell infiltrate, including lymphocyte subtypes, was undertaken using immunohistochemical techniques and visual quantitative and semi-quantitative techniques in 338 patients with ductal breast cancer.Results:The majority (91%) of patients had high grade inflammatory cell infiltrate. The median follow-up of the survivors was 164 months. During this period, 65 died of their cancer. On univariate analysis, tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate, macrophages infiltrate (P<0.05), lymphocytic infiltrate (P<0.001) and CD8+ T-lymphocytic infiltrate (P<0.01) were associated with improved cancer-specific survival, whereas neutrophil (P<0.05) and CD138+ B-lymphocytic infiltrate (P<0.001) were associated with poorer cancer-specific survival. On multivariate analysis, tumour lymphocytic infiltrate (P<0.001), macrophage infiltrate (P<0.05), CD8+ T-lymphocytic infiltrate (P<0.01) and CD138+ B-lymphocytic infiltrate (P<0.001) were independently associated with cancer survival. When the significant inflammatory cell types were included with tumour-based factors in multivariate analysis only tumour size (Hazard ratios (HR): 2.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53-4.27, P<0.001), Ki-67 index (HR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.08-4.00, P<0.05), lymphovascular invasion (HR: 4.40, 95% CI: 2.07-9.35, P<0.001), macrophage infiltrate (HR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.33-0.73, P<0.001), lymphocytic infiltrate (HR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05-0.23, P<0.001), CD8+ T-lymphocytic infiltrate (HR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.38-0.87, P<0.001) and CD138+ B-lymphocytic infiltrate (HR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.79-4.56, P<0.001) were independently associated with cancer survival.Conclusion:The majority of patients with invasive ductal breast cancer had high-grade inflammatory cell infiltrate. In these patients, inflammatory cells including macrophage and lymphocytic infiltrate, and subsets CD8+ T-lymphocytic infiltrate and CD138+ B-lymphocytic infiltrate had superior prognostic value, compared with hormone status and lymph node involvement in patients with primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 27 August 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.493 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 08/2013; 109(6). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.493 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the West, a substantial proportion of subjects with adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia and gastroesophageal junction have no history of reflux. We studied the gastroesophageal junction in asymptomatic volunteers with normal and large waist circumference (WC) to determine if central obesity is associated with abnormalities that might predispose individuals to adenocarcinoma. We performed a study of 24 healthy, Helicobacter pylori-negative volunteers with small and 27 with large WC. Abdominal fat was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging. Orientated jumbo biopsies were taken across the squamo-columnar junction (SCJ). High-resolution pH-metry (12 sensors) and manometry (36 sensors) were performed in upright and supine subjects before and after a meal; the SCJ was visualized fluoroscopically. The cardiac mucosa was significantly longer in the large WC group (2.5 mm vs 1.75 mm; P=.008); its length correlated with intra (R=.35, P=.045) and total (R=0.37, P=.034) abdominal fat. The SCJ was closer to the upper border of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in subjects with large WC (2.77 cm vs 3.54 cm, P=.02). There was no evidence of excessive reflux 5 cm above the LES in either group. Gastric acidity extended more proximally within the LES in the large WC group, compared with the upper border (2.65 cm vs 4.1cm, P=.027) and peak LES pressure (0.1 cm proximal vs 2.1 cm distal, P=.007). The large WC group had shortening of the LES, attributable to loss of the distal component (total LES length 3 cm vs 4.5 cm, P=.043). Central obesity is associated with intra-sphincteric extension of gastric acid and cardiac mucosal lengthening. The latter might arise through metaplasia of the most distal esophageal squamous epithelium and this process might predispose individuals to adenocarcinoma.
    Gastroenterology 06/2013; 145(4). DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2013.06.038 · 13.93 Impact Factor
  • Gut 06/2013; 62(Suppl 1):A11-A11. DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-304907.025 · 13.32 Impact Factor
  • Gut 06/2013; 62(Suppl 1):A106-A107. DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-304907.234 · 13.32 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
867.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2015
    • University of Glasgow
      • • College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences
      • • Division of Biological Sciences
      • • Institute of Cancer Sciences
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1998
    • The University of Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom