Szabolcs Fekete

University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland

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Publications (39)122.36 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are an emerging class of therapeutic agents that have recently gained importance. To attain acceptable kinetic performance with mAbs in reversed phase liquid chromatography, there is a need to work with the last generation of wide-pore sub-2μm fully porous or core-shell particles stationary phases. In addition, temperature in the range 60-90°C was found to be mandatory to limit adsorption phenomenon of mAbs and their fragments. A generic method development strategy was proposed to account for the selectivity, efficiency, recovery, and the possible thermal degradation. This study also demonstrated that the gradient steepness and temperature cannot be optimized using van't Hoff type linear models. Similarly, the common linear solvent strength model also generated some error in predicting the retention times. In contrast, when quadratic models were employed, the prediction accuracy of retention times was found to be excellent (relative error between 0.5 and 1%) using a reasonable number of experiments (9 or 6 experiments for optimization of gradient time and temperature, which requires between 6 and 8h). Two separations of mAbs fragments were performed to demonstrate the reliability of the quadratic approach.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 06/2012; 70:158-68. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent reversed-phase wide-pore stationary phases were evaluated for the separation of intact monoclonal antibodies and their fragments. Two types of stationary phases were tested: Phenomenex Aeris Widepore, with 3.6 μm core-shell particles and Waters Acquity BEH300 with 1.7 μm fully porous particles. A systematic investigation was carried out using model IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies, namely rituximab, panitumumab, and bevacizumab. It appeared that adsorption of these antibodies on the stationary phase was significantly higher compared to proteins of equivalent size. The adsorption was particularly important for the intact antibodies of 150 kDa and for the largest fragments of 50 to 100 kDa (i.e., heavy chain, -fraction of antigene-binding). The present study demonstrated an obvious relationship between adsorption phenomenon and the unwanted strong secondary interactions (ionic and hydrogen bond) of the stationary phase. Thus, adsorption was more pronounced on the Aeris column because of the stronger ion exchange contribution of this stationary phase. Using C4 phase instead of C18 at 50-70°C, there is a slight reduction (5-20%) in adsorption. Two solutions were proposed to decrease the strength of secondary interactions and thus resolve (or at least diminish) adsorption issue. First, increasing mobile phase temperature up to 80-90°C appeared as a promising solution. However, temperature should be used with caution as it can partially damage large biomolecules. A compromise between residence time and temperature should be found. Second, it is recommended to add a small amount of an ancillary solvent, such as n-butanol to the mobile phase. Indeed, the hydroxyl group of n-butanol probably interacts with water adsorbed on the residual silanol groups "to shield" silanols.
    Journal of Separation Science 06/2012; · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • Szabolcs Fekete, Jean-Luc Veuthey, Davy Guillarme
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    ABSTRACT: In the pharmaceutical field, there is considerable interest in the use of peptides and proteins for therapeutic purposes. There are various ways to characterize such complex samples, but during the last few years, a significant number of technological developments have been brought to the field of RPLC and RPLC-MS. Thus, the present review focuses first on the basics of RPLC for peptides and proteins, including the inherent problems, some possible solutions and some directions for developing a new RPLC method that is dedicated to biomolecules. Then the latest advances in RPLC, such as wide-pore core-shell particles, fully porous sub-2 μm particles, organic monoliths, porous layer open tubular columns and elevated temperature, are described and critically discussed in terms of both kinetic efficiency and selectivity. Numerous applications with real samples are presented that confirm the relevance of these different strategies. Finally, one of the key advantages of RPLC for peptides and proteins over other historical approaches is its inherent compatibility with MS using both MALDI and ESI sources.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 03/2012; 69:9-27. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The separation of large biomolecules such as proteins or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by RPLC can be drastically enhanced thanks to the use of columns packed with wide-pore porous sub-2 μm particles or shell particles. In this context, a new wide-pore core-shell material has been recently released under the trademark Aeris WIDEPORE. It is made of a 3.2 μm solid inner core surrounded by a 0.2 μm porous layer (total particle size of 3.6 μm). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of this new material, compare it to other recently developed and older conventional wide-pore columns and demonstrate its applicability to real-life separations of proteins and mAbs. At first, the traditional h(min) values of the Aeris WIDEPORE column were determined for small model compounds. The h(min) values were equal to 1.7-1.8 and 1.4 for the 2.1 and 4.6 mm I.D. columns, respectively, which are in agreement with the values reported for other core-shell materials. In the case of a small protein Insulin (5.7 kDa), the achievable lowest h value was below 2 and this impressive result confirms that the Aeris WIDEPORE material should be dedicated to protein analysis. This column was then compared with five other commercially available wide-pore and medium-pore stationary phases, in the gradient elution mode, using various flow rates, gradient steepness and model proteins of MW=5.7-66.8 kDa. The Aeris WIDEPORE material often provided the best performance, in terms of peak capacity, peak capacity per time and pressure unit (PPT) and also based on the gradient kinetic plot representation. Finally, real separations of filgrastim (18.8 kDa) and its oxidized and reduced forms were performed on the different columns and the Aeris WIDEPORE material provided the most impressive performance (peak capacity>100 for t(grad)<6 min). Last but not least, this new material was also evaluated on digested and reduced mAb and powerful, high-throughput separations were also attained.
    Journal of Chromatography A 03/2012; 1236:177-88. · 4.61 Impact Factor
  • Szabolcs Fekete, Erzsébet Oláh, Jeno Fekete
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    ABSTRACT: Columns packed with sub-2 μm totally porous and sub-3 μm core-shell particles are very widespread nowadays to conduct fast and efficient separations. In order to carry out really fast separations, short (5 cm long) columns are very popular today. The goal of this paper is to review the recent possibilities in fast or "ultra-fast" HPLC by applying short and narrow bore columns packed with modern core-shell and very fine fully porous particles. Efficiency data obtained with these recently commercialized columns from the past few years are collected, discussed and compared in terms of potential separation time and efficiency. The reasons of the success of these columns are presented. This paper also shows that theoretically expected efficiency is sometimes compromised in practical work especially in the case of narrow bore columns. The extra-column dispersion of a given LC system can also dramatically decrease the performance of small columns. It is not possible to utilize the real efficiency of these small columns in spite of their really high intrinsic separation power.
    Journal of Chromatography A 03/2012; 1228:57-71. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method is developed to determine lincomycin (LM) in honey, muscle, milk, and egg. Samples are cleaned-up at pH 4.7 using Strata-X-C mixed-mode polymeric strong cation exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, which could selectively adsorb the lincomycin from matrices under the acidic condition. LM is separated on the recently introduced Kinetex XB core-shell type HPLC column using isocratic elution mode with a mobile phase containing 0.1% formic acid in water/acetonitrile (93/7, v/v, pH 2.6) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. The subsequent MS/MS detection has decreased ion effect, which allows the limit of detection (LOD) of LM for honey to be 0.05 µg/kg for honey and 0.5 µg/kg for muscle, milk, and egg. These LODs are much lower than those reported previously. The other main advantage of the developed method is the analysis time of only 3.5 min, which is about three times shorter than other reported LC-MS-MS methods. Recoveries varies between 94.2% and 125.2% and in-house reproducibility ranges from 3.7% to 28.7%. The developed method is validated according to European Union (EU) Commission Decision 2002/657/EC using a matrix-comprehensive validation strategy. All studied analytical parameters fulfills the EU guidelines.
    Journal of chromatographic science 03/2012; 50(3):190-8. · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to identify and to quantify nitroimidazoles, metronidazole (MNZ), ronidazole (RNZ) and dimetridazole (DMZ) and their corresponding hydroxy metabolites, MNZ-OH and 2-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole (HMNNI) in plasma, milk, muscle, egg, honey and feed samples. The same sample clean-up procedure including a novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) on polymeric Strata-SDB cartridges was used for each matrix. The analytes were separated on Kinetex XB C-18 core-shell type HPLC column using isocratic elution mode with a mobile phase containing 0.1% formic acid in water/methanol (88/12, v/v, pH 2.6) at a flow rate of 0.7 ml/min. The main advantage of the developed method is that the analysis time of only 3 min, which is about three to ten times shorter than in other reported HPLC methods. The developed method was validated using a matrix-comprehensive in-house validation strategy. The matrix effect of LC-MS/MS analysis was also investigated. Results are presented from the successful application of the developed method to an incurred pork meat certified reference material and to incur porcine plasmas in a proficiency test in year 2011.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 02/2012; 64-65:40-8. · 2.45 Impact Factor
  • Szabolcs Fekete, Jeno Fekete
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    ABSTRACT: Small columns packed with core-shell and sub-2 μm totally porous particles and monolith columns are very popular to conduct fast and efficient chromatographic separations. In order to carry out fast separations, short (2-5 cm) and narrow-bore (2-2.1 mm) columns are used to decrease the analyte retention volume. Beside the column efficiency, another significant issue is the extra-column band-spreading. The extra-column dispersion of a given LC system can dramatically decrease the performance of a small very efficient column. The aim of this study was to compare the extra-column peak variance contribution of several commercially available LC systems. The efficiency loss of three different type 5 cm long narrow bore, very efficient columns (monolith, sub-2 μm fully porous and sub-2 μm core-shell packing) as a function of extra-column peak variance, and as a function of flow rate and also kinetic plots (analysis time versus apparent column efficiency) are presented.
    Journal of Chromatography A 08/2011; 1218(31):5286-91. · 4.61 Impact Factor
  • Szabolcs Fekete, Jeno Fekete
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    ABSTRACT: The performance of 5 cm long narrow-bore columns packed with 2.6-2.7 μm core-shell particles and a column packed with 1.7 μm totally porous particles was compared in very fast gradient separations of polar neutral active pharmaceutical compounds. Peak capacities as a function of flow-rate and gradient time were measured. Peak capacities around 160-170 could be achieved within 25 min with these 5 cm long columns. The highest peak capacity was obtained with the Kinetex column however it was found that as the flow-rate increases, the peak capacity of the new Poroshell-120 column is getting closer to that obtained with the Kinetex column. Considering the column permeability, peak capacity per unit time and per unit pressure was also calculated. In this comparison the advantage of sub-3 μm core-shell particles is more significant compared to sub-2 μm totally porous particles. Moreover it was found that the very similar sized (d(p)=2.7 μm) and structured (ρ=0.63) new Poroshell-120 and the earlier introduced Ascentis Express particles showed different efficiency. Results obtained showed that the 5 cm long narrow bore columns packed with sub-3 μm core-shell particles offer the chance of very fast and efficient gradient separations, thus these columns can be applied for fast screening measurements of routine pharmaceutical analysis such as cleaning validation.
    Talanta 04/2011; 84(2):416-23. · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Szabolcs Fekete, Katalin Ganzler, Jeno Fekete
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    ABSTRACT: A novel fast and sensitive method has been developed for the specific simultaneous determination of polysorbate 20 (Tween 20) and unbound polyethylene-glycol (PEG) from liquid formulations in the presence of proteins and excipients. The quantitative determination is based on a fast liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation and condensation nucleation light scattering detection (CNLSD or NQAD™). The method uses a Kinetex core-shell column (100 mm × 3 mm, 2.6 μm) and methanol-water-trifluoroacetic acid mobile phase. The rapid HPLC-CNLSD method presented here is suitable for quantifying polysorbate 20 in the range of 10-60 μg/ml and unbound PEG in the range of 2-40 μg/ml in protein solutions within good manufacturing practices (GMP) of the pharmaceutical industry.
    Journal of Chromatography A 10/2010; 1217(40):6258-66. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    Szabolcs Fekete, Katalin Ganzler, Jeno Fekete
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    ABSTRACT: At present sub-2 μm packed columns are very popular to accomplish rapid and efficient separations. Applying particles with shortened diffusion path to improve the efficiency of separation performs higher efficiency than it is possible with the totally porous particles having the same size. The advantages of sub-2 μm particles and shell particles are combined in the new Kinetex 1.7 μm particles. In this study a systematical evaluation of the efficiency and achievable analysis time obtained with 5 cm long narrow bore column packed with sub-2 μm core-shell particles (1.25 μm core diameter and 0.23 μm porous silica layer), and other type very efficient columns is presented. The efficiency of separation was investigated also for small pharmaceutical and large molecules (proteins). Van Deemter, Knox and kinetic plots are calculated. The results obtained with low molecular weight polar neutral analytes (272 g/mol, 875 g/mol), with a polypeptide (4.1 kDa) and with different sized proteins (18.8 kDa, 38.9 kDa and 66.3 kDa) are presented in this study. Moreover, particle size distribution, and average pore size (low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, LTNA) of the new very fine core-shell particles were investigated. According to this study, increased flow rates can be applied on sub-2 μm core-shell columns to accomplish very fast separations without significant loss in efficiency. The new sub-2 μm shell particles offer very high efficiency both for small and large molecule separation.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 09/2010; 54(3):482-90. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Today sub-2 microm packed columns are very popular to conduct fast chromatographic separations. The mass-transfer resistance depends on the particle size but some practical limits exist not to reach the theoretically expected plate height and mass-transfer resistance. Another approach applies particles with shortened diffusion path to enhance the efficiency of separations. In this study a systematical evaluation of the possibilities of the separations obtained with 5 cm long narrow bore columns packed with new 2.6 microm shell particles (1.9 microm nonporous core surrounded by a 0.35 microm porous shell, Kinetex, Core-Shell), packed with other shell-type particles (Ascentis Express, Fused-Core), totally porous sub-2 microm particles and a 5 cm long narrow bore monolith column is presented. The different commercially available columns were compared by using van Deemter, Knox and kinetic plots. Theoretical Poppe plots were constructed for each column to compare their kinetic performance. Data are presented on polar neutral real-life analytes. Comparison of a low molecular weight compounds (MW=270-430) and a high molecular weight one (MW approximately 900) was conducted. This study proves that the Kinetex column packed with 2.6 microm shell particles is worthy of rivaling to sub-2 microm columns and other commercially available shell-type packings (Ascentis Express or Halo), both for small and large molecule separation. The Kinetex column offers a very flat C term. Utilizing this feature, high flow rates can be applied to accomplish very fast separations without significant loss in efficiency.
    Journal of Chromatography A 06/2010; 1217(23):3642-53. · 4.61 Impact Factor
  • Szabolcs Fekete, Katalin Ganzler, Jeno Fekete
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    ABSTRACT: A fast and sensitive method has been developed for the specific determination of Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) in liquid formulations in the presence of proteins and excipients. The quantitative determination is based on a fast liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation and charged aerosol detection (CAD). The method was validated using a Poroshell 300SB-C18 column packed with 5 microm shell particles (75 mm x 2.1 mm) and acetonitrile-methanol-water-trifluoroacetic acid mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.65 ml/min. The rapid LC-CAD method is suitable for quantifying Polysorbate 80 in the range of 10-60 microg/ml in protein solutions within good manufacturing practices (GMPs) of the pharmaceutical industry.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 03/2010; 52(5):672-9. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many different strategies of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method development are used today. This paper describes a strategy for the systematic development of ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatographic (UHPLC or UPLC) methods using 5cmx2.1mm columns packed with sub-2microm particles and computer simulation (DryLab((R)) package). Data for the accuracy of computer modeling in the Design Space under ultrahigh-pressure conditions are reported. An acceptable accuracy for these predictions of the computer models is presented. This work illustrates a method development strategy, focusing on time reduction up to a factor 3-5, compared to the conventional HPLC method development and exhibits parts of the Design Space elaboration as requested by the FDA and ICH Q8R1. Furthermore this paper demonstrates the accuracy of retention time prediction at elevated pressure (enhanced flow-rate) and shows that the computer-assisted simulation can be applied with sufficient precision for UHPLC applications (p>400bar). Examples of fast and effective method development in pharmaceutical analysis, both for gradient and isocratic separations are presented.
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2009; 1216(45):7816-23. · 4.61 Impact Factor
  • Szabolcs Fekete, Katalin Ganzler, Jeno Fekete
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing the separating efficiency enhances the separation power. The most popular solution for improving chromatographic performance is to employ columns packed with small particle diameters (i.e., sub-2 microm particles) to induce a simultaneous improvement in efficiency, optimal velocity and mass transfer, albeit the cost of pressure. In this study a systematic evaluation of the possibilities and limitations of the separations obtained with 5 cm long narrow bore columns packed with 1.5-3.0 microm particles is presented. Several commercially available different sub-3 microm and sub-2 microm packed columns were evaluated by using van Deemter, Knox and kinetic plots. Theoretical Poppe plots were constructed for each column to compare their kinetic performance. Data are presented on different polar neutral real life analytes, to show that the separation time is not obviously shorter if the particle size is reduced. Comparison of low-molecular weight compounds (one steroid and one non-steroid hormone, with molecular weights lower than 500) and a high-molecular weight one (MW approximately 1000) was conducted. Same efficiency can be achieved with columns packed with 1.9-2.1 microm particles as with smaller particles. The column packed with 3 microm particles had the lowest reduced plate height minimum (h=2.2) while the column with the smallest particles (1.5 microm) gave the highest reduced plate height minimum (h approximately 3.0). According to this study, the theoretically expected efficiency of very fine particles (diameter <2 microm) used in practice today is compromised. Investigation of this phenomenon is presented.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 08/2009; 51(1):56-64. · 2.45 Impact Factor
  • Szabolcs Fekete, Jeno Fekete, Katalin Ganzler
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    ABSTRACT: The performance of a narrow bore silica based monolith column (5 cm x 2 mm) was compared to 5 cm long narrow bore (internal diameter < or = 2.1 mm) columns, packed with shell particles (2.7 microm) and totally porous sub-2 microm particles (1.5 microm, 1.7 microm and 1.9 microm) in gradient and isocratic elution separations of steroids. The highest peak capacity could be achieved with the column packed with 1.5 microm totally porous particles. The columns packed with porous 1.7 microm and shell 2.7 microm particles showed very similar capacity. The monolith column provided the lowest capacity during gradient elution. The plate height (HETP) of the 2.7 microm Ascentis Express column was very similar to the HETP obtained with 1.5 microm and 1.7 microm totally porous particles. The Chromolith monolithic column displayed an efficiency that is comparable to that of columns packed with spherical particles having their diameter between 3 microm and 4 microm. A kinetic plot analysis is presented to compare the theoretical analysis speed of different separation media. At 200 bar, the monolith column provided the highest performance when the required plate number was higher than 5000 (N>5000), however the efficiency drifted off faster in the range of N<5000 than in the case of packed columns. If the possibility of maximum performance was utilized (1000 bar for sub-2 microm particles, 600 bar for shell particles and 200 bar for monolith column) the monolith column would provide the poorest efficiency, while the column, packed with 1.5 microm particles offered the shortest impedance time.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 06/2009; 50(5):703-9. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    Szabolcs Fekete, Jeno Fekete, Katalin Ganzler
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    ABSTRACT: An ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of seven steroid (dienogest, finasteride, gestodene, levonorgestrel, estradiol, ethinylestradiol, and norethisterone acetate) active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) residues. A new, generic method is presented, with which it is possible to verify the cleaning process of a steroid producing equipment line used for the production of various pharmaceuticals. The UPLC method was validated using an UPLC BEH C18 column with a particle size of 1.7 microm (50 mm x 2.1 mm) and acetonitrile-water (48:52, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.55 ml/min. Method development and method validation for cleaning control analysis are described. The rapid UPLC method is suitable for cleaning control assays within good manufacturing practices (GMP) of the pharmaceutical industry.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 01/2009; 49(3):833-8. · 2.45 Impact Factor
  • Szabolcs Fekete, Jeno Fekete, Katalin Ganzler
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    ABSTRACT: The performance of 5 cm long columns packed with shell particles was compared to totally porous sub-2 microm particles in gradient and isocratic elution separations of hormones (dienogest, finasteride, gestodene, levonorgestrel, estradiol, ethinylestradiol, noretistherone acetate, bicalutamide and tibolone). Peak capacities around 140-150 could be achieved in 25 min with the 5 cm long columns. The Ascentis Express column (packed with 2.7 microm shell particles) showed similar efficiency to sub-2 microm particles under gradient conditions. Applying isocratic separation, the column of 2.7 microm shell particles had a reduced plate height minimum of approximately h=1.6. It was much smaller than obtained with totally porous particles (h approximately = 2.8). The impedance time also proved more favorable with 2.7 microm shell particles than with totally porous particles. The influence of extra-column volume on column efficiency was investigated. The extra-column dispersion of the chromatographic system may cause a shift of the HETP curves.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 11/2008; 49(1):64-71. · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • Róbert Berky, Szabolcs Fekete, Jenő Fekete
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, some practical examples are presented that show the quality of separations using very efficient columns packed with the latest generation of core shell sub-3 μm and fully porous sub-2 μm particles in one-dimensional peptide separations. This paper shows an approach for the analysis of proteins, such as high-resolution separations, and a data transformation process to improve peak recognition and analysis. Applying power functions on raw chromatographic data can be a neat tool in the field of biosimilar analysis, especially in comparability studies regarding the quality (primary structure) of proteins. Based on the results presented here, it can be stated that the use of power functions is beneficial for the comparison of chromatograms when peak areas are considered but has no effect when using peak heights. In this study, the new Acquity CSH columns (C18 and phenyl-hexyl) and the core–shell type wide pore Ascentis Express Peptide ES C18 material were applied with great success in peptide mapping. Finally, using phenyl-hexyl stationary phase in peptide separation seems to be a good alternative to the generally applied C18 or C4 phases.
    Chromatographia 75(5-6). · 1.44 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

334 Citations
122.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • University of Lausanne
      • School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (EPGL)
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
    • University of Geneva
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis Chemistry
      Genève, GE, Switzerland
  • 2013
    • Egis Gyógyszergyár Nyrt.
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 2010–2013
    • Budapest University of Technology and Economics
      • Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 2008–2010
    • Gedeon Richter Plc
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary