Shirley K Knauer

University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Are you Shirley K Knauer?

Claim your profile

Publications (55)327.51 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Calcium phosphate/poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles with a diameter below 200 nm, loaded with either nucleic acids or proteins, were synthesized by a water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The particles were stabilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and had a negative charge (zeta potential -26 mV). By the addition of calcium phosphate into the inner aqueous phase of the W1/O/W2-emulsion, the encapsulation efficiency of siRNA was increased to 37%, of DNA to 52%, and of bovine serum albumin to 78%, i.e. by a factor of 3 to 10 compared to PLGA nanoparticles without calcium phosphate. Total loadings of 8 µg siRNA, 5 µg DNA and 280 µg fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) per mg of PLGA were achieved by this method. The addition of an outer layer of either chitosan or polyethyleneimine (PEI) reversed the charge of the particles (zeta potential > +30 mV) and improved the cellular uptake as well as the endosomal escape of these particles as demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Calcium phosphate-PLGA nanoparticles loaded with DNA encoding for green fluorescent protein (eGFP-DNA) showed a good transfection efficiency for epithelial cells (HeLa) without any toxic effects. Gene silencing with HeLa cells expressing eGFP gave knockdown efficiencies of 53% for anionic nanoparticles, of 68% for chitosan-coated cationic nanoparticles, and of 89% for polyethyleneimine-coated cationic nanoparticles.
    J. Mater. Chem. B. 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticle applications in biotechnology and biomedicine are steadily increasing. In biological fluids, proteins bind to nanoparticles that form the protein corona, crucially affecting the nanoparticles' biological identity. As the corona affects in vitro and/or in vivo nanoparticle applications, we developed a method to obtain time-resolved protein corona profiles formed on various nanoparticles. After incubation in plasma or a similar biofluid, or after injection into a mouse, the first analytical step is sedimentation of the nanoparticle-protein complexes through a sucrose cushion, thereby allowing analysis of early corona formation time points. Next, corona profiles are visualized by gel electrophoresis and quantitatively analyzed after tryptic digestion using label-free liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. In contrast to other approaches, our established methodology allows the researcher to obtain qualitative and quantitative high-resolution corona signatures. The protocol can be readily extended to the investigation of protein coronas from various nanomaterials (as an example, we applied this protocol to different silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs)). Depending on the number of samples, the protocol from nanoparticle-protein complex recovery to data evaluation takes ∼8-12 d to complete.
    Nature Protocols 09/2014; 9(9):2030-2044. · 7.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are deregulated in a variety of human cancers, including neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial tumor of childhood. We previously reported a signature of 42 miRNAs to be highly predictive of neuroblastoma outcome. One miRNA in this signature, miR-542, was downregulated in tumors from patients with adverse outcome. Re-analysis of quantitative PCR and next-generation sequencing transcript data revealed that miR-542-5p as well as miR-542-3p expression is inversely correlated with poor prognosis in neuroblastoma patients. We, therefore, analyzed the function of miR-542 in neuroblastoma tumor biology. Ectopic expression of miR-542-3p in neuroblastoma cell lines reduced cell viability and proliferation, induced apoptosis and downregulated Survivin. Survivin expression was also inversely correlated with miR-542-3p expression in primary neuroblastomas. Reporter assays confirmed that miR-542-3p directly targeted Survivin. Downregulating Survivin using siRNA copied the phenotype of miR-542-3p expression in neuroblastoma cell lines, while cDNA-mediated ectopic expression of Survivin partially rescued the phenotype induced by miR-542-3p expression. Treating nude mice bearing neuroblastoma xenografts with miR-542-3p-loaded nanoparticles repressed Survivin expression, decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in the respective xenograft tumors. We conclude that miR-542-3p exerts its tumor suppressive function in neuroblastoma, at least in part, by targeting Survivin. Expression of miR-542-3p could be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating aggressive neuroblastoma. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 07/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Into the library: Screening a focused library of 259 peptide tweezers, composed of two identical arms with zero to three amino acids and an artificial anion recognition site, yielded DNA binders with nanomolar affinity. These ligands are only modest gene carriers (transfection efficiency <10 %); however, excellent transfection efficiencies (up to 90 %) were achieved after the covalent attachment of long aliphatic chains.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 12/2013; 52(52):14016-20. · 11.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In biological fluids, proteins bind to the surface of nanoparticles to form a coating known as the protein corona, which can critically affect the interaction of the nanoparticles with living systems. As physiological systems are highly dynamic, it is important to obtain a time-resolved knowledge of protein-corona formation, development and biological relevancy. Here we show that label-free snapshot proteomics can be used to obtain quantitative time-resolved profiles of human plasma coronas formed on silica and polystyrene nanoparticles of various size and surface functionalization. Complex time- and nanoparticle-specific coronas, which comprise almost 300 different proteins, were found to form rapidly (<0.5 minutes) and, over time, to change significantly in terms of the amount of bound protein, but not in composition. Rapid corona formation is found to affect haemolysis, thrombocyte activation, nanoparticle uptake and endothelial cell death at an early exposure time.
    Nature Nanotechnology 09/2013; · 31.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Survivin (BIRC5) is an acknowledged cancer therapy-resistance factor and overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Driven by its nuclear export signal (NES), Survivin shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and is detectable in both cellular compartments in tumor biopsies. Although predominantly nuclear Survivin is considered a favorable prognostic disease marker for HNSCC patients, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not resolved. Hence, we performed immunohistochemical and mutational analyses using laser capture microdissection on HNSCC biopsies from patients displaying high levels of nuclear Survivin. We found somatic BIRC5 mutations, c.278T>C (p.Phe93Ser), c.292C>T (p.Leu98Phe) and c.288A>G (silent), in tumor cells, but not in corresponding normal tissues. Comprehensive functional characterization of the Survivin mutants by ectopic expression and microinjection experiments revealed that p.Phe93Ser, but not p.Leu98Phe inactivated Survivin's NES, resulted in a predominantly nuclear protein, and attenuated Survivin's dual cytoprotective activity against chemo-radiation-induced apoptosis. Notably, in xenotransplantation studies, HNSCC cells containing the p.Phe93Ser mutation responded significantly better to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Collectively, our results underline the disease-relevance of Survivin's nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, and provide first evidence that genetic inactivation of Survivin's NES may account for predominantly nuclear Survivin and increased therapy response in cancer patients.
    Human Mutation 11/2012; · 5.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The delicate balance between the synthesis and the degradation of proteins ensures cellular homeostasis. Proteases act in an irreversible manner and therefore have to be strictly regulated. The ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is a major pathway for the proteolytic degradation of cellular proteins. Since dysregulation of the UPS is observed in most cancers including leukemia, the UPS is a valid target for therapeutic intervention strategies. Ubiquitin-ligases selectively bind substrates to target them for poly-ubiquitinylation and proteasomal degradation. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of these proteins could allow a specific level of control. Increasing evidence accumulates that ubiquitin-ligases termed mammalian seven in absentia homologues (SIAHs) are not only critical for the pathogenesis of solid tumors but also for leukemogenesis. However, the relevance and therapeutic potential of SIAH-dependent processes has not been fully elucidated. Here, we summarize functions of SIAH ubiquitin-ligases in leukemias, how they select leukemia-relevant substrates for proteasomal degradation, and how the expression and activity of SIAH1 and SIAH2 can be modulated in vivo. We also discuss that epigenetic drugs belonging to the group of histone deacetylase inhibitors induce SIAH-dependent proteasomal degradation to accelerate the turnover of leukemogenic proteins. In addition, our review highlights potential areas for future research on SIAH proteins.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 5 October 2012; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.284.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 10/2012; · 10.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Blood Cancer Journal 06/2012; 2(6):e77. · 1.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Taspase1 mediates cleavage of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) protein and leukemia-provoking MLL fusions and promotes solid malignancies. Currently, no effective and specific Taspase1 inhibitors are available, precluding its therapeutic exploitation. As the Taspase1 proenzyme is autoproteolytically cleaved and assumed to assemble into an active αββα heterodimer, we attempted to interfere with its activity by targeting Taspase1's dimerization. Notably, enforced expression of inactive Taspase1 mutants, aiming to inhibit formation of active protease dimers, was not inhibitory. Immunoprecipitation, gel filtration, and in vivo protein interaction assays revealed that active Taspase1 exists predominantly as an αβ monomer in living cells, providing an explanation why overexpression of inactive mutants was not trans-dominant. To alternatively test the biological consequences of enforced dimerization, we engineered Taspase1 variants containing the Jun/Fos dimerization motif. In absence of the respective interaction partners, the protease fusions were fully active, while enforcing dimerization by coexpression significantly inhibited processing of several target proteins in living cells. Our study provides the first evidence that Taspase1 is already active as an αβ monomer, arguing against heterocomplex formation being required for its pathobiological activity. Thus, it clearly supports strategies aiming to inhibit the cancer-promoting activity of Taspase1 by the identification of chemical decoys enforcing its dimerization.
    The FASEB Journal 05/2012; 26(8):3421-9. · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • Roland H Stauber, Carolin Bier, Shirley K Knauer
    Cancer Research 05/2012; 72(11):2912; author reply 2913. · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In biological fluids, proteins may associate with nanoparticles (NPs), leading to the formation of a so-called "protein corona" largely defining the biological identity of the particle. Here, we present a novel approach to assess apparent binding affinities for the adsorption/desorption of proteins to silver NPs based on the impact of the corona formation on the agglomeration kinetics of the colloid. Affinities derived from circular dichroism measurements complement these results, simultaneously elucidating structural changes in the adsorbed protein. Employing human serum albumin as a model, apparent affinities in the nanomolar regime resulted from both approaches. Collectively, our findings now allow discrimination between the formation of protein mono- and multilayers on NP surfaces.
    Langmuir 04/2012; 28(25):9673-9. · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is relevant for homeostasis and plays a critical role in gastrointestinal cancers. Here, we report that post-translational modification of endogenous HDAC2 with small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (SUMO1) is a new regulatory switch for the tumor suppressor p53. Sumoylation of HDAC2 at lysine 462 allows binding of HDAC2 to p53. Moreover, sumoylated HDAC2 is a previously not recognized biologically relevant site-specific deacetylase for p53. Deacetylation of p53 at lysine 320 by sumoylated HDAC2 blocks recruitment of p53 into promoter-associated complexes and p53-dependent expression of genes for cell cycle control and apoptosis. Thereby, catalytically active sumoylated HDAC2 restricts p53 functions and attenuates DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Genotoxic stress evokes desumoylation of HDAC2, enabling p53-dependent gene expression. Our data show a new molecular mechanism involving a dynamically controlled HDAC2-sumoylation/p53-acetylation switch that regulates cell fate decisions following genotoxic stress.
    Journal of Molecular Cell Biology 04/2012; 4(5):284-93. · 7.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is important for innate and adaptive immunity. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) antagonize unbalanced immune functions causing chronic inflammation and cancer. Phosphorylation and acetylation regulate STAT1 and different IFNs induce phosphorylated STAT1 homo-/heterodimers, e.g. IFNα activates several STATs whereas IFNγ only induces phosphorylated STAT1 homodimers. In transformed cells HDACi trigger STAT1 acetylation linked to dephosphorylation by the phosphatase TCP45. It is unclear whether acetylation differentially affects STAT1 activated by IFNα or IFNγ, and if cellular responses to both cytokines depend on a phosphatase-dependent inactivation of acetylated STAT1. Here, we report that HDACi counteract IFN-induced phosphorylation of a critical tyrosine residue in the STAT1 C-terminus in primary cells and hematopoietic cells. STAT1 mutants mimicking a functionally inactive DNA binding domain (DBD) reveal that the number of acetylation-mimicking sites in STAT1 determines whether STAT1 is recruited to response elements after stimulation with IFNγ. Furthermore, we show that IFNα-induced STAT1 heterodimers carrying STAT1 molecules mimicking acetylation bind cognate DNA and provide innate anti-viral immunity. IFNγ-induced acetylated STAT1 homodimers are though inactive, suggesting that heterodimerization and complex formation can rescue STAT1 lacking a functional DBD. Apparently, the type of cytokine determines how acetylation affects the nuclear entry and DNA binding of STAT1. Our data contribute to a better understanding of STAT1 regulation by acetylation.
    Cellular Signalling 03/2012; 24(7):1453-60. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are the sixth most common malignant neoplasm and more than 50% of patients succumb to this disease. HNSCCs are characterized by therapy resistance, which relies on the overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins and on the aberrant regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). As inherent and acquired resistance to therapy counteracts improvement of long-term survival, novel multi-targeting strategies triggering cancer cell death are urgently required. We investigated how induction of replicational stress by the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) combined with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) exerts anti-tumor activity. We treated HNSCC cell lines and freshly isolated tumor cells with HDACi, such as the clinically approved anti-epileptic drug valproic acid (VPA), in combination with HU. Our data demonstrate that at clinically achievable levels VPA/HU combinations efficiently block proliferation as well as clonogenic survival, and trigger apoptosis of HNSCC cells. In the presence of VPA/HU, such tumor cells increase expression of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family protein BIM, independent of wild-type p53 signaling and in the absence of increased expression of the p53 targets PUMA and BAX. The pro-apoptotic activity of BIM in HNSCCs was found critical for tumor cell death; ectopic overexpression of BIM induced HNSCC apoptosis and RNAi-mediated depletion of BIM protected HNSCC cells from VPA/HU. Also, significantly elevated BIM levels (p less than 0.01) were detectable in the apoptotic tumor centers versus proliferating tumor margins in HNSCC patients (n=31), underlining BIM's clinical relevance. Importantly, VPA/HU treatment additionally reduces expression and cell surface localization of EGFR. Accordingly, in a xenograft mouse model, VPA/HU efficiently blocked tumor growth (P less than 0.001) correlating with BIM induction and EGFR downregulation. We provide a molecular rationale for the potent anti-cancer activities of this drug combination. Our data suggest its exploitation as a potential strategy for the treatment of HNSCC and other tumor entities characterized by therapy resistance linked to dysregulated EGFR activation.
    Oncotarget 01/2012; 3(1):31-43. · 6.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The development of new non-viral transfection vectors for gene transport into cells is of current interest. A small, three-armed peptide ligand 1 is derived from the cationic dipeptide Lys-Phe with an additional anion recognition site at its N-terminus, binds to DNA with high affinity (K ca. 107 M−1) and efficiently delivers a GFP plasmid into cells. Compared to the cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI), routinely used as a standard vector for transfection, 1 is significantly more efficient and also less cytotoxic. As DLS and AFM studies show, ligand 1 condenses DNA into tightly packed cationic aggregates which are then taken up by the cells. In contrast, the analogous divalent peptide ligand 2 of identical amino acid sequence and the highly charged divalent DNA-binder 3 (Lys-Lys-Arg) do not enable gene delivery though they also bind with high affinity (2: K ca. 106 M−1; 3: K ca. 107 M−1). All three ligands are able to transfer genetic material into cells but only the trivalent gene carrier is able to escape from the endosome due to its superior buffering capacity.
    Chemical Science. 01/2012; 3(4):996-1002.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The chromosomal translocation t(4;11)(q21;q23) is associated with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia of infants. The resulting AF4•MLL oncoprotein becomes activated by Taspase1 hydrolysis and is considered to promote oncogenic transcriptional activation. Hence, Taspase1's proteolytic activity is a critical step in AF4•MLL pathophysiology. The Taspase1 proenzyme is autoproteolytically processed in its subunits and is assumed to assemble into an αββα-heterodimer, the active protease. Therefore, we investigated here whether overexpression of catalytically inactive Taspase1 variants are able to interfere with the proteolytic activity of the wild type enzyme in AF4•MLL model systems. The consequences of overexpressing the catalytically dead Taspase1 mutant, Taspase1(T234V), or the highly attenuated variant, Taspase1(D233A), on Taspase1's processing of AF4•MLL and of other Taspase1 targets was analyzed in living cancer cells employing an optimized cell-based assay. Notably, even a nine-fold overexpression of the respective Taspase1 mutants neither inhibited Taspase1's cis- nor trans-cleavage activity in vivo. Likewise, enforced expression of the α- or β-subunits showed no trans-dominant effect against the ectopically or endogenously expressed enzyme. Notably, co-expression of the individual α- and β-subunits did not result in their assembly into an enzymatically active protease complex. Probing Taspase1 multimerization in living cells by a translocation-based protein interaction assay as well as by biochemical methods indicated that the inactive Taspase1 failed to assemble into stable heterocomplexes with the wild type enzyme. Collectively, our results demonstrate that inefficient heterodimerization appears to be the mechanism by which inactive Taspase1 variants fail to inhibit wild type Taspase1's activity in trans. Our work favours strategies targeting Taspase1's catalytic activity rather than attempts to block the formation of active Taspase1 dimers to interfere with the pathobiological function of AF4•MLL.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e34142. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin proteasome system plays an important role in normal and malignant hematopoiesis and relies on the concerted action of three enzyme families. The E2 ubiquitin conjugase UBCH8 (ubiquitin conjugating enzyme [human] 8) cooperates with the E3 ubiquitin ligases SIAH1 and SIAH2 (seven in absentia homolog 1/2) to mediate the proteasomal degradation of oncoproteins. One such protein is the leukemia fusion protein PML-RARα (promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptorα) that is associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia. A limited number of UBCH8 interaction partners that participate in the UBCH8-dependent depletion of cancer-relevant proteins are known. We report here that TRIAD1 (two RING fingers and DRIL [double RING finger linked] 1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase relevant for the clonogenic growth of myloid progenitors, binds UBCH8 as well as PML-RARα. Moreover, there is concurrent induction of TRIAD1 and UBCH8 upon combinatorial treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells with the pro-apoptotic epigenetic modulator valproic acid and the differentiation inducing agent all-trans retinoic acid. However, in sharp contrast to SIAH1/SIAH2 and UBCH8, TRIAD1 binding to PML-RARα has no effect on its turnover. In summary, our data exclude TRIAD1 as crucial regulator of the leukemic determinant PML-RARα, but highlight the prominence of the UBCH8/SIAH axis in PML-RARα degradation.
    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 01/2012; 44(1):132-8. · 4.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In higher eukaryotes, PAPS synthases are the only enzymes producing the essential sulphate-donor 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS). Recently, PAPS synthases have been associated with several genetic diseases and retroviral infection. To improve our understanding of their pathobiological functions, we analysed the intracellular localisation of the two human PAPS synthases, PAPSS1 and PAPSS2. For both enzymes, we observed pronounced heterogeneity in their subcellular localisation. PAPSS1 was predominantly nuclear, whereas PAPSS2 localised mainly within the cytoplasm. Treatment with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B had little effect on their localisation. However, a mutagenesis screen revealed an Arg-Arg motif at the kinase interface exhibiting export activity. Notably, both isoforms contain a conserved N-terminal basic Lys-Lys-Xaa-Lys motif indispensable for their nuclear localisation. This nuclear localisation signal was more efficient in PAPSS1 than in PAPSS2. The activities of the identified localisation signals were confirmed by microinjection studies. Collectively, we describe unusual localisation signals of both PAPS synthase isoforms, mobile enzymes capable of executing their function in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29559. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In biological fluids, proteins associate with nanoparticles, leading to a protein "corona" defining the biological identity of the particle. However, a comprehensive knowledge of particle-guided protein fingerprints and their dependence on nanomaterial properties is incomplete. We studied the long-lived ("hard") blood plasma derived corona on monodispersed amorphous silica nanoparticles differing in size (20, 30, and 100 nm). Employing label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and immunoblotting the composition of the protein corona was analyzed not only qualitatively but also quantitatively. Detected proteins were bioinformatically classified according to their physicochemical and biological properties. Binding of the 125 identified proteins did not simply reflect their relative abundance in the plasma but revealed an enrichment of specific lipoproteins as well as proteins involved in coagulation and the complement pathway. In contrast, immunoglobulins and acute phase response proteins displayed a lower affinity for the particles. Protein decoration of the negatively charged particles did not correlate with protein size or charge, demonstrating that electrostatic effects alone are not the major driving force regulating the nanoparticle-protein interaction. Remarkably, even differences in particle size of only 10 nm significantly determined the nanoparticle corona, although no clear correlation with particle surface volume, protein size, or charge was evident. Particle size quantitatively influenced the particle's decoration with 37% of all identified proteins, including (patho)biologically relevant candidates. We demonstrate the complexity of the plasma corona and its still unresolved physicochemical regulation, which need to be considered in nanobioscience in the future.
    ACS Nano 08/2011; 5(9):7155-67. · 12.03 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
327.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • University of Duisburg-Essen
      • • Group of Inorganic Chemistry
      • • Zentrum für Medizinische Biotechnologie
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2012
    • Universitätsklinikum Jena
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
    • Universitätsklinikum Freiburg
      Freiburg an der Elbe, Lower Saxony, Germany
    • Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena
      • Institut für Biochemie und Biophysik
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
    • Institute of Molecular Biology
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2007–2012
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • Institute for Immunology
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2008
    • University Hospital Frankfurt
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
  • 2005–2008
    • Georg-Speyer-Haus
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • Institute of Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology
      Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany