Aleksandra Isakovic

University of Belgrade, Beograd, Central Serbia, Serbia

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Publications (31)101.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Diarylheptanoids belong to polyphenols, a group of plant secondary metabolites with multiple biological properties. Many of them display antioxidative, cytotoxic, or anticancer actions and are increasingly recognized as potential therapeutic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of two diarylheptanoids: platyphylloside 5(S)-1,7-di(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-heptanone-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and its newly discovered analog 5(S)-1,7-di(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-O-β-D-[6-(E-p-coumaroylglucopyranosyl)]heptane-3-one (2), both isolated from the bark of black alder (Alnus glutinosa). To that end, we have employed a cancer cell line (NCI-H460), normal human keratinocytes (HaCaT), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The effects on cell growth were assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. Cell death was examined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining on a flow cytometer. Reactive oxygen species production was examined by dihydroethidium staining. Mitochondrial structure and doxorubicin localization were visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Diarylheptanoids antagonized the effects of either doxorubicin or cisplatin, significantly increasing their IC50 values in normal cells. Diarylheptanoid 1 induced the retention of doxorubicin in cytoplasm and reduced mitochondrial fragmentation associated with doxorubicin application. Diarylheptanoid 2 reduced the reactive oxygen species production induced by cisplatin. Both compounds increased the messenger ribonucleic acid expression of enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species elimination (manganese superoxide dismutase and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α). These results indicate that neutralization of reactive oxygen species is an important mechanism of diarylheptanoid action, although these compounds exert a considerable anticancer effect. Therefore, these compounds may serve as protectors of normal cells during chemotherapy without significantly diminishing the effect of the applied chemotherapeutic.
    Planta Medica 08/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers represent a highly aggressive breast cancer subtype and are associated with a worse prognosis. This study was designed to investigate the mammography finding of HER2-positive breast cancer and to compare the results with the characteristics of HER2-negative breast cancer patients. From January 2010 to October 2011, mammography findings of 65 patients with pathologically confirmed HER2-positive breast cancers (n = 22) or HER2-negative breast cancers (n = 43) were retrospectively reviewed. The authors also reviewed pathological reports for information on the histological type and differentiation grade. Among the two types of breast cancer patients, estrogen receptor-negative/PR-negative/HER2-positive breast cancer patients most commonly had associated calcifications (18 of 22) on mammography. On mammography, cases with a cluster of calcifications usually were presented as pleomorphic calcifications (12 of 20) and branching calcifications (4 of 20). Patients with HER2-positive breast cancers showed a histological grade II. HER2-positive breast cancer patients usually had ductal invasive carcinoma (17 of 22). Moreover, postmenopausal patients showed a significantly higher frequency of HER2-positive tumours. Our results suggest that the imaging findings might be useful in diagnosing HER2-positive breast cancer patients.
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry 07/2014; · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Further phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Achillea clavennae has resulted in the isolation of three new sesquiterpene lactones: two highly oxygenated germacranolides (1, 2) and the iso-seco-guaianolide 9(R)-acetoxy-3-O-methyl-iso-seco-tanapartholide (3). Eight known compounds were also found, of which 9α-acetoxycanin (5), sintenin (6), and oleanolic acid (7) were detected for the first time. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by combined spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, CIMS, and FTIR). While the predominant metabolite germacranolide sintenin (6) was not cytotoxic, the new iso-seco-guaianolide (3) displayed cytotoxicity comparable to that of cisplatin and the lactone apressin (4), inducing partly apoptotic death in human U251 and rat C6 glioma cell lines.
    Planta Medica 02/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sideritis scardica (mountain tea) is an endemic plant on the Balkan Peninsula traditionally used for treating different conditions, mainly of inflammatory nature. This study was aimed to examine the cytotoxic activity of different S. scardica extracts against the rat glioma C6 line and rat astrocytes in primary culture. The obtained data revealed that diethyl ether (extract 2) and ethyl acetate (extract 3) extracts of S. scardica exerted a cytotoxic effect on C6 rat glioma cells. Diethyl ether extract induced an increase in reactive oxygen species production, leading to apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Ethyl acetate extract induced G2 M cell cycle arrest and autophagy. None of the tested extracts was cytotoxic to rat astrocytes in primary culture. Cytotoxic effects of S. scardica extracts were, at least in part, mediated by their flavonoid constituents apigenin and luteolin that, when applied alone, induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy.
    Planta Medica 09/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Achieving an effective treatment of cancer is difficult, particularly when resistance to conventional chemotherapy is developed. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity governs multi-drug resistance (MDR) development in different cancer cell types. Identification of anti-cancer agents with the potential to kill cancer cells and at the same time inhibit MDR is important to intensify the search for novel therapeutic approaches. We examined the effects of sulfinosine (SF), a quite unexplored purine nucleoside analog, in MDR (P-gp over-expressing) non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and glioblastoma cell lines (NCI-H460/R and U87-TxR, respectively). SF showed the same efficacy against MDR cancer cell lines and their sensitive counterparts. However, it was non-toxic for normal human keratinocytes (HaCaT). SF induced caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death and autophagy in MDR cancer cells. After SF application, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated and glutathione (GSH) concentration was decreased. The expression of key enzyme for GSH synthesis, gamma Glutamyl-cysteine-synthetase (γGCS) was decreased as well as the expression of gst-π mRNA. Consequently, SF significantly decreased the expression of hif-1α, mdr1 and vegf mRNAs even in hypoxic conditions. SF caused the inhibition of P-gp (coded by mdr1) expression and activity. The accumulation of standard chemotherapeutic agent - doxorubicin (DOX) was induced by SF in concentration- and time-dependent manner. The best effect of SF was obtained after 72 h when it attained the effect of known P-gp inhibitors (Dex-verapamil and tariquidar). Accordingly, SF sensitized the resistant cancer cells to DOX in subsequent treatment. Furthermore, SF decreased the experssion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on mRNA and protein level and modulated its secretion. In conclusion, the effects on P-gp (implicated in pharmacokinetics and MDR), GSH (implicated in detoxification) and VEGF (implicated in tumor-angiogenesis and progression) qualify SF as multi-potent anti-cancer agent, which use must be considered, in particular for resistant malignancies.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54044. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the cytotoxicity of recently synthesized (S,S)-ethylendiamine-N,N'-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoic acid esters toward human leukemic cell lines and healthy blood mononuclear cells. Cell viability was assessed by acid phosphatase assay, apoptosis, and differentiation were analyzed by flow cytometry and electron microscopy, while intracellular localization of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was determined by immunoblotting. It was demonstrated that methyl, ethyl, and n-propyl esters were toxic to HL-60, REH, MOLT-4, KG-1, JVM-2, and K-562 leukemic cell lines, while the nonesterified parental compound and n-butyl ester were devoid of cytotoxic action. The ethyl ester exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity (IC₅₀ 10.7 μM-45.4 μM), which was comparable to that of the prototypical anticancer drug cisplatin. The observed cytotoxic effect in HL-60 cells was associated with an increase in superoxide production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, leading to apoptotic cell death characterized by phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation in the absence of autophagic response. DNA fragmentation preceded caspase activation and followed AIF translocation from mitochondria to nucleus, which was indicative of caspase-independent apoptotic cell death. HL-60 cells treated with subtoxic concentration of the compound displayed morphological signs of granulocytic differentiation (nuclear indentations and presence of cytoplasmic primary granules), as well as an increased expression of differentiation markers CD11b and CD15. The cyclohexyl analogues of ethylenediamine dipropanoic acid were also toxic to peripheral blood mononuclear cells of both healthy controls and leukemic patients, the latter being more sensitive. Our data demonstrate that the toxicity of the investigated cyclohexyl compounds against leukemic cell lines is mediated by caspase-independent apoptosis associated with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and AIF translocation.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 03/2012; 25(4):931-9. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The protective ability of novel arylpiperazine-based dopaminergic ligands against nitric oxide (NO)-mediated neurotoxicity is investigated. The most potent neuroprotective arylpiperazine identified during the study was N-{4-[2-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)ethyl]-phenyl}picolinamide, which protected SH-SY5Y human neuron-like cells from the proapoptotic effect of NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) by decreasing oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase activation and subsequent phosphatydilserine externalization/DNA fragmentation. The protective effect was associated with the inhibition of proapoptotic (JNK, ERK, AMPK) and activation of antiapoptotic (Akt) signaling pathways, in the absence of interference with intracellular NO accumulation. The neuroprotective action of arylpiperazines was shown to be independent of dopamine receptor binding, as it was not affected by the high-affinity D₁/D₂ receptor blocker butaclamol. These results reported support the further study of arylpiperazines as potential neuroprotective agents.
    ChemMedChem 03/2012; 7(3):495-508. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sideritis scardica Griseb. (ironwort, mountain tea), an endemic plant of the Balkan Peninsula, has been used in traditional medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal complaints, inflammation, and rheumatic disorders. This study aimed to evaluate its gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities. Besides, continuously increasing interest in assessing the role of the plant active constituents preventing the risk of cancer was a reason to make a detailed examination of the investigated ethanol, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and N-butanol extracts regarding cytotoxicity. Oral administration of the investigated extracts caused a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Gastroprotective activity of the extracts was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats. The cytotoxic activity of plant extracts was assessed on PBMC, B16, and HL-60 cells and compared to the cytotoxicity of phenolic compounds identified in extracts. Apoptotic and necrotic cell death were analyzed by double staining with fluoresceinisothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated annexin V and PI. The developed HPLC method enabled qualitative fingerprint analysis of phenolic compounds in the investigated extracts. Compared to the effect of the positive control, the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacine (4 mg/kg), which produced a 50 % decrease in inflammation, diethyl ether and N-butanol extracts exhibited about the same effect in doses of 200 and 100 mg/kg (53.6 and 48.7 %; 48.4 and 49.9 %, respectively). All investigated extracts produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug ranitidine. The diethyl ether extract showed significant dose-dependent cytotoxicity on B16 cells and HL-60 cells, decreasing cell growth to 51.3 % and 77.5 % of control, respectively, when used at 100 µg/mL. It seems that phenolic compounds (apigenin, luteolin, and their corresponding glycosides) are responsible for the diethyl ether extract cytotoxic effect. It also appears that induction of oxidative stress might be involved in its cytotoxicity, since B16 and HL-60 cells increased their ROS production in response to treatment with diethyl ether extract. Neither of the tested extracts nor any phenolic compounds showed significant cytotoxic effect to human PBMC. These results demonstrated the potent anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities, as well as the promising cytotoxicity.
    Planta Medica 01/2012; 78(5):415-27. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENTs) 1-3 and human concentrative nucleoside transporters (hCNTs) 1-3 in the human choroid plexus (hCP) play a role in the homeostasis of adenosine and other naturally occurring nucleosides in the brain; in addition, hENT1, hENT2 and hCNT3 mediate membrane transport of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that could be used to treat HIV infection, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2'3'-dideoxycytidine and 2'3'-dideoxyinosine. This study aimed to explore the expression levels and functional activities of hENTs 1-3 and hCNTs 1-3 in human choroid plexus. Freshly-isolated pieces of lateral ventricle hCP, removed for various clinical reasons during neurosurgery, were obtained under Local Ethics Committee approval. Quantification of mRNAs that encoded hENTs and hCNTs was performed by the hydrolysis probes-based reverse transcription real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR); for each gene of interest and for 18 S ribosomal RNA, which was an endogenous control, the efficiency of PCR reaction (E) and the quantification cycle (Cq) were calculated. The uptake of [(3)H]inosine by the choroid plexus pieces was investigated to explore the functional activity of hENTs and hCNTs in the hCP. RT-qPCR revealed that the mRNA encoding the intracellularly located transporter hENT3 was the most abundant, with E(-Cq )value being only about 40 fold less that the E(-Cq )value for 18 S ribosomal RNA; mRNAs encoding hENT1, hENT2 and hCNT3 were much less abundant than mRNA for the hENT3, while mRNAs encoding hCNT1 and hCNT2 were of very low abundance and not detectable. Uptake of [(3)H]inosine by the CP samples was linear and consisted of an Na(+)-dependent component, which was probably mediated by hCNT3, and Na(+)-independent component, mediated by hENTs. The latter component was not sensitive to inhibition by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR), when used at a concentration of 0.5 muM, a finding that excluded the involvement of hENT1, but it was very substantially inhibited by 10 muM NBMPR, a finding that suggested the involvement of hENT2 in uptake. Transcripts for hENT1-3 and hCNT3 were detected in human CP; mRNA for hENT3, an intracellularly located nucleoside transporter, was the most abundant. Human CP took up radiolabelled inosine by both concentrative and equilibrative processes. Concentrative uptake was probably mediated by hCNT3; the equilibrative uptake was mediated only by hENT2. The hENT1 transport activity was absent, which could suggest either that this protein was absent in the CP cells or that it was confined to the basolateral side of the CP epithelium.
    Cerebrospinal Fluid Research 01/2010; 7:2. · 1.81 Impact Factor
  • Planta Medica - PLANTA MED. 01/2009; 75(09).
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    ABSTRACT: The brain efflux index (BEI), a measurement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux transport, was estimated at 15 s, 30 s, 1 min, 3 min and 10 min after intracerebral injection of [14C]pyrimidines. An initial steep increase of the BEI values over time was observed for [14]uracil and [14C]thymine, followed by a more moderate increase after 1 min. For the corresponding nucleosides, [14C]uridine and [14C]thymidine, the increase of BEI values over time was less steep and linear between 30 s and 3 min. The apparent BBB efflux clearances for [14C]uridine, [14C]thymidine, [14C]uracil and [14C]thymine were (microl/min/g): 95.2 +/- 12.1, 125.3 +/- 18.4, 290.4 +/- 28 and 358.5 +/- 32.5, respectively, which is at least several folds higher than the predicted BBB influx clearances of uridine, uracil and thymidine. Quick depletion of brain parenchyma from brain microvasculature has revealed that [14C] radioactivity accumulated in brain microvessels after injection of nucleosides [14C]thymidine and [14C]uridine, but that was not observed when nucleobases, [14C]thymine and [14C]uracil, were injected. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that the rat brain and liver (positive control) express dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in pyrimidine nucleobase catabolism. Two bands representing spliced variants have been detected with the relative density of the bands (expressed relative to the density of glyceraldehyde3-phosphate dehydrogenase bands, mean +/- SEM from 3 separate samples) 0.16 +/- 0.06 and 0.04 +/- 0.01 (brain) and 0.49 +/- 0.1 and 0.07 +/- 0.01 (liver). Overall, these results indicate that the net direction of pyrimidine BBB transport is the efflux transport; rapid BBB efflux transport and metabolic breakdown of pyrimidine nucleobases appear to be important for brain homeostasis.
    Neurochemical Research 09/2008; 34(3):566-73. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the influence of adenosine on inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)-dependent NO synthesis and viability of cytokine-treated C6 rat glioma cells. Adenosine significantly inhibited interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)+interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-induced synthesis of iNOS mRNA/protein and subsequent production of NO in C6 cells. The uptake of adenosine into glioma cells was not required for the suppression of iNOS induction, as confirmed by the inability of the adenosine transport blocker nitrobenzylthyoinosine to block the observed effect. Adenosine also blocked the IFN-gamma+IL-1beta-triggered expression of mRNA for the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, while it significantly enhanced the accumulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA in glioma cells. However, blockade of TNF-alpha action and COX-2 activity with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies and indomethacin, respectively, revealed that modulation of TNF-alpha and COX-2 was not involved in adenosine-mediated iNOS suppression. Adenosine significantly inhibited cytokine-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members p38 MAPK, p42/44 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in C6 cells. The levels of transcription factors IRF-1 and c-Fos, as well as the phosphorylation of c-Jun were also reduced in adenosine-treated C6 cells, while the activation of NF-kappaB was enhanced via increased phosphorylation of its inhibitory unit IkappaB. Importantly, adenosine-mediated suppression of NO release rescued glioma cells from NO-dependent cytokine cytotoxicity. These data suggest a possible role for adenosine-mediated inhibition of glial NO synthesis in regulation of the inflammatory CNS damage and brain cancer progression.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 07/2008; 591(1-3):106-13. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study identifies xanthones gentiakochianin and gentiacaulein as the active principles responsible for the in vitro antiglioma action of ether and methanolic extracts of the plant Gentiana kochiana. Gentiakochianin and gentiacaulein induced cell cycle arrest in G(2)/M and G(0)/G(1) phases, respectively, in both C6 rat glioma and U251 human glioma cell lines. The more efficient antiproliferative action of gentiakochianin was associated with its ability to induce microtubule stabilization in a cell-free assay. Both the xanthones reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the production of reactive oxygen species in glioma cells, but only the effects of gentiakochianin were pronounced enough to cause caspase activation and subsequent apoptotic cell death. The assessment of structure-activity relationship in a series of structurally related xanthones from G. kochiana and Gentianella austriaca revealed dihydroxylation at positions 7, 8 of the xanthonic nucleus as the key structural feature responsible for the ability of gentiakochianin to induce microtubule-associated G(2)/M cell block and apoptotic cell death in glioma cells.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 06/2008; 16(10):5683-94. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposE: The fullerene (C60/C70 mixture-C60/70) nanocrystalline suspension prepared by solvent exchange method using tetrahydrofyran (THF/nC60/70) and polyhydroxylated C60/70 [C60/70(OH)n] were compared for their ability to modulate cytotoxicity of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). TNF-induced cytotoxicity was assessed in L929 fibrosarcoma cells by crystal violet assay. The type of cell death (apoptosis/necrosis), production of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial depolarization and caspase activation were determined by flow cytometry using the appropriate reporter dyes. THF/nC60/70 augmented, while C60/70(OH)n reduced the cytotoxicity of TNF. The numbers of cells undergoing apoptosis/necrosis, as well as of those displaying the activation of apoptosis-inducing enzymes of caspase family, were respectively increased or reduced by THF/nC60/70 or C60/70(OH)n. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor cyclosporin A each partly blocked the cytotoxic action of TNF, indicating the involvement of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the TNF cytotoxicity. Accordingly, THF/nC60/70 or C60/70(OH)n potentiated or suppressed, respectively, TNF-triggered oxidative stress and mitochondrial depolarization. The ability of different fullerene preparations to modulate TNF-induced oxidative stress and subsequent cell death suggests their potential value in the TNF-based cancer therapy or prevention of TNF-dependent tissue damage.
    Pharmaceutical Research 06/2008; 25(6):1365-76. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxanthine is the main product of purine metabolic degradation and previous studies have revealed that it is present in the sheep CSF and plasma in micromolar concentrations. The aim of this study was to elucidate the transport of this molecule across the sheep choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) as a monolayer in primary culture, to explore the mechanism of uptake by the apical side of the CPE and investigate the metabolic changes inside the cell. The estimated permeability of the CPE monolayer for [14C]hypoxanthine, [14C]adenine and [14C]guanine was low and comparable to the permeability towards the extracellular space markers. The study of [14C]hypoxanthine uptake by the CPE revealed two components: Na+-dependent and Na+-independent, the latter being partially mediated by the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2. HPLC with simultaneous detection of radioactivity revealed that the majority of [14C]hypoxanthine inside the CPE is metabolised into [14C]nucleotides and [14C]inosine. The remaining intact [14C]hypoxanthine was transported across the opposite, basolateral side of CPE and appeared in the lower chamber buffer together with [14C]inosine. These findings indicate two possible roles of hypoxanthine uptake from the CSF by the CP epithelium in vivo: to provide material for nucleotide synthesis through the salvage pathways in the CPE, as well as to transfer excess hypoxanthine from CSF to blood.
    Neuroscience Letters 02/2008; 431(2):135-40. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the ability to induce cell death in certain conditions, the fullerenes (C(60)) are potential anticancer and toxic agents. The colloidal suspension of crystalline C(60) (nano-C(60), nC(60)) is extremely toxic, but the mechanisms of its cytotoxicity are not completely understood. By combining experimental analysis and mathematical modelling, we investigate the requirements for the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cytotoxicity of different nC(60) suspensions, prepared by solvent exchange method in tetrahydrofuran (THF/nC(60)) and ethanol (EtOH/nC(60)), or by extended mixing in water (aqu/nC(60)). With regard to their capacity to generate ROS and cause mitochondrial depolarization followed by necrotic cell death, the nC(60) suspensions are ranked in the following order: THF/nC(60)>EtOH/nC(60)>aqu/nC(60). Mathematical modelling of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) generation indicates that the (1)O(2)-quenching power (THF/nC(60)<EtOH/nC(60)<aqu/nC(60)) of the solvent intercalated in the fullerene crystals determines their ability to produce ROS and cause cell damage. These data could have important implications for toxicology and biomedical application of colloidal fullerenes.
    Biomaterials 12/2007; 28(36):5437-48. · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the rat glioma cell line C6 and the human glioma cell line U251, we demonstrate the multiple mechanisms underlying the in vitro anticancer effects of the C(60) fullerene water suspension (nano-C(60) or nC(60)) produced by solvent exchange method. Nano-C(60) in a dose-dependent manner reduced the tumor cell numbers after 24 h of incubation. The observed antiglioma action of nC(60) at high concentration (1 microg/ml) was due to a reactive oxygen species-mediated necrotic cell damage that was partly dependent on oxidative stress-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). On the other hand, low-dose nC(60) (0.25 microg/ml) did not induce either necrotic or apoptotic cell death, but caused oxidative stress/ERK-independent cell cycle block in G(2)/M phase and subsequent inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Treatment with either high-dose or low-dose nC(60) caused the appearance of acidified intracytoplasmic vesicles indicative of autophagy, but only the antiglioma effect of low-dose nC(60) was significantly attenuated by inhibiting autophagy with bafilomycin A1. Importantly, primary rat astrocytes were less sensitive than their transformed counterparts to a cytostatic action of low-dose nC(60). These data provide grounds for further development of nC(60) as an anticancer agent.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 08/2007; 568(1-3):89-98. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the capacity of an herbal anthraquinone aloe emodin to reduce the cytotoxicity of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) towards L929 mouse fibrosarcoma and U251 human glioma cell lines. Aloe emodin inhibited both TNF-induced cell necrosis and apoptosis, but it did not reduce cell death induced by UV radiation or hydrogen peroxide. Aloe emodin inhibited both basal and TNF-triggered activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and a selective blockade of ERK activation mimicked the cytoprotective action of the drug. On the other hand, aloe emodin did not affect TNF-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or generation of reactive oxygen species. The combination of aloe emodin and TNF caused an intracellular appearance of acidified autophagic vesicles, and the inhibition of autophagy with bafilomycin or 3-methyladenine efficiently blocked the cytoprotective action of aloe emodin. These data indicate that aloe emodin could prevent TNF-triggered cell death through mechanisms involving induction of autophagy and blockade of ERK activation.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 08/2007; 568(1-3):248-59. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study reports for the first time a dual antiglioma effect of the well-known antidiabetic drug metformin. In low-density cultures of the C6 rat glioma cell line, metformin blocked the cell cycle progression in G(0)/G(1) phase without inducing significant cell death. In confluent C6 cultures, on the other hand, metformin caused massive induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis associated with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, mitochondrial depolarization and oxidative stress. Metformin-triggered apoptosis was completely prevented by agents that block mitochondrial permeability transition (cyclosporin A) and oxygen radical production (N-acetylcisteine), while the inhibitors of JNK activation (SP600125) or glycolysis (sodium fluoride, iodoacetate) provided partial protection. The antiglioma effect of metformin was reduced by compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and was mimicked by the AMPK agonist AICAR. Similar effects were observed in the human glioma cell line U251, while rat primary astrocytes were completely resistant to the antiproliferative and proapoptotic action of metformin.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 06/2007; 64(10):1290-302. · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of gamma-irradiation on the cytotoxicity of pure C60 solubilized in water by using tetrahydrofuran (THF/n-C60 or THF/n-C60). In contrast to THF/n-C60, its gamma-irradiated counterpart failed to generate oxygen radicals and cause extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent necrotic cell death in various types of mammalian cells. Moreover, gamma-irradiated THF/n-C60 protected cells from the oxidative stress induced by native THF/n-C60 or hydrogen peroxide. The observed biological effects were associated with gamma-irradiation-mediated decomposition of THF and subsequent derivatization of the n-C60 surface. These results for the first time demonstrate gamma-irradiation-mediated changes in the physico-chemical properties of THF-prepared nanocrystalline C60, resulting in a complete loss of its cytotoxic effect and its conversion to a cytoprotective agent.
    Biomaterials 11/2006; 27(29):5049-58. · 8.31 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

413 Citations
101.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • University of Belgrade
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Institute of Microbiology and Immunology
      Beograd, Central Serbia, Serbia
  • 2008–2010
    • Kuwait University
      • Department of Physiology
      Kuwait, Muhafazat al `Asimah, Kuwait
  • 2006–2008
    • Institute for Educational Research, Belgrade, Serbia
      Beograd, Central Serbia, Serbia
  • 2007
    • Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences
      • Department of Radiation Chemistry and Physics
      Beograd, Central Serbia, Serbia