[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We asked whether 35 genetic polymorphisms, previously found to be associated with cardiovascular disease, were associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in the CARE (Cholesterol and Recurrent Events) trial and with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the WOSCOPS (West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study) trial and whether the risk associated with these polymorphisms could be reduced by pravastatin treatment.
Identification of genetic polymorphisms associated with CHD may improve assessment of CHD risk and understanding of disease pathophysiology.
We tested the association between genotype and recurrent MI in the CARE study and between genotype and primary CHD in the WOSCOPS trial using regression models that adjusted for conventional risk factors: Cox proportional hazards models for the CARE study and conditional logistic regression models for a nested case-control study of the WOSCOPS trial.
We found that Trp719Arg (rs20455) in KIF6 was associated with coronary events. KIF6 encodes kinesin-like protein 6, a member of the molecular motor superfamily. In placebo-treated patients, carriers of the KIF6 719Arg allele (59.4% of the CARE trial cohort) had a hazard ratio of 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 2.15) in the CARE trial and an odds ratio of 1.55 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.09) in the WOSCOPS trial. Among carriers, the absolute risk reduction by pravastatin was 4.89% (95% CI 1.81% to 7.97%) in the CARE trial and 5.49% (95% CI 3.52% to 7.46%) in the WOSCOPS trial.
In both the CARE and the WOSCOPS trials, carriers of the KIF6 719Arg allele had an increased risk of coronary events, and pravastatin treatment substantially reduced that risk.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2008; 51(4):435-43. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Higher levels of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) may be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure. We examined the association between RDW and the risk of all-cause mortality and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in a population of people with coronary disease who were free of heart failure at baseline. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a post hoc analysis of data from the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events study. Baseline RDW was measured in 4111 participants who were randomized to receive pravastatin 40 mg daily or placebo and followed for a median of 59.7 months. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association between RDW and adverse clinical outcomes. During nearly 60 months of follow-up, 376 participants died. A significant association was noted between baseline RDW level and the adjusted risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio per percent increase in RDW, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.24). After categorization based on quartile of baseline RDW and further adjustment for hematocrit and other cardiovascular risk factors, a graded independent relation between RDW and death was observed (P for trend=0.001). For instance, participants with RDW in the highest quartile had an adjusted hazard ratio for death of 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 2.47) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Higher levels of RDW were also associated with increased risk of coronary death/nonfatal myocardial infarction, new symptomatic heart failure, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: We found a graded independent relation between higher levels of RDW and the risk of death and cardiovascular events in people with prior myocardial infarction but no symptomatic heart failure at baseline.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systolic hypertension is associated with increased pulse pressure (PP) and increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However the pathogenesis of increased PP remains controversial. One hypothesis suggests that aortic dilatation, wall stiffening and increased pulse wave velocity result from elastin fragmentation, leading to a premature reflected pressure wave that contributes to elevated PP. An alternative hypothesis suggests that increased proximal aortic stiffness and reduced aortic diameter leads to mismatch between pressure and flow, giving rise to an increased forward pressure wave and increased PP. To evaluate these two hypotheses, we measured pulsatile hemodynamics and proximal aortic diameter directly using tonometry, ultrasound imaging, and Doppler in 167 individuals with systolic hypertension. Antihypertensive medications were withdrawn for at least 1 week before study. Patients with PP above the median (75 mm Hg) had lower aortic diameter (2.94+/-0.36 versus 3.13+/-0.28 cm, P<0.001) and higher aortic wall stiffness (elastance-wall stiffness product: 16.1+/-0.7 versus 15.7+/-0.7 ln[dyne/cm], P<0.001) with no difference in augmentation index (19.9+/-10.4 versus 17.5+/-10.0%, P=0.12). Aortic diameter and wall stiffness both increased with advancing age (P<0.001). However, an inverse relation between PP and aortic diameter remained significant (P<0.001) in models that adjusted for age, sex, height, and weight and then further adjusted for aortic wall stiffness, augmentation index, and mean arterial pressure. Among individuals with systolic hypertension, increased PP is primarily attributable to increased wall stiffness and reduced aortic diameter rather than premature wave reflection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of blood pressure on outcomes after high-risk myocardial infarction is not well characterized. We studied the relationship between blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular events in 14 703 patients with heart failure, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, or both after acute myocardial infarction in the Valsartan in Myocardial Infarction Trial. We assessed the relationship between antecedent hypertension and outcomes and the association between elevated (systolic: >140 mm Hg) or low blood pressure (systolic: <100 mm Hg) in 2 of 3 follow-up visits during the first 6 months and subsequent cardiovascular events over a median 24.7 months of follow-up. Antecedent hypertension independently increased the risk of heart failure (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.32), stroke (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.58), cardiovascular death (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.22), and the composite of death, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, or cardiac arrest (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.21). While low blood pressure in the postmyocardial infarction period was associated with increased risk of adverse events, patients with elevated blood pressure (n=1226) were at significantly higher risk of stroke (adjusted HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.17 to 2.29) and combined cardiovascular events (adjusted HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.31). Six months after a high-risk myocardial infarction, elevated systolic blood pressure, a potentially modifiable risk factor, is associated with an increased risk of subsequent stroke and cardiovascular events. Whether aggressive antihypertensive treatment can reduce this risk remains unknown.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We assessed the association between albuminuria and the risks for death and cardiovascular events among patients with stable coronary disease.
We studied patients enrolled in the Prevention of Events with an ACE inhibitor (PEACE) trial, in which patients with chronic stable coronary disease and preserved systolic function were randomized to trandolapril or placebo and followed up for a median of 4.8 years. The urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) assessed in a core laboratory in 2977 patients at baseline and in 1339 patients at follow-up (mean 34 months) was related to estimated glomerular filtration rate and outcomes. The majority of patients (73%) had a baseline ACR within the normal range (<17 mug/mg for men and <25 mug/mg for women). Independent of the estimated glomerular filtration rate and other baseline covariates, a higher ACR, even within the normal range, was associated with increased risks for all-cause mortality (P<0.001) and cardiovascular death (P=0.01). The effect of trandolapril therapy on outcomes was not modified significantly by the level of albuminuria. Nevertheless, trandolapril therapy was associated with a significantly lower mean follow-up ACR (12.5 versus 14.6 mug/mg, P=0.0002), after adjustment for baseline ACR, time between collections, and other covariates. An increase in ACR over time was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio per log ACR 1.74, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.82).
Albuminuria, even in low levels within the normal range, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We explored the incidence and predictors of hyperkalemia in a broad population of heart failure patients.
When used in optimal doses to treat patients with heart failure, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors improve clinical outcomes but can cause hyperkalemia.
Participants in the CHARM (Candesartan in Heart Failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity) (n = 7,599) Program were randomized to standard heart failure therapy plus candesartan or placebo, titrated as tolerated to a target of 32 mg once daily with recommended monitoring of serum potassium and creatinine. We assessed the incidence and predictors of hyperkalemia associated with dose reduction, study drug discontinuation, hospitalization, or death over the median 3.2 years of follow-up.
Independent of treatment assignment, the risk of hyperkalemia increased with age > or =75 years, male gender, diabetes, creatinine > or =2.0 mg/dl, K+ > or =5.0 mmol/l, and background use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or spironolactone. Candesartan increased the rate of aggregate hyperkalemia from 1.8% to 5.2% (difference 3.4%, p < 0.0001) and serious hyperkalemia (associated with death or hospitalization) from 1.1% to 1.8% (difference 0.7%, p < 0.001), with hyperkalemia associated with death reported in 2 (0.05%) candesartan patients and 1 (0.03%) placebo patient. The benefit of candesartan in reducing cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization (relative risk reduction 16%, p < 0.0001) was uniform in these subgroups, as was the incremental risk of hyperkalemia.
The risk of hyperkalemia is increased in symptomatic heart failure patients with advanced age, male gender, baseline hyperkalemia, renal failure, diabetes, or combined RAAS blockade. Although these groups derive incremental clinical benefit from candesartan, careful surveillance of serum potassium and creatinine is particularly important.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 11/2007; 50(20):1959-66. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our goal was to determine the risk of stroke or non-cerebral embolism associated with paroxysmal compared with sustained atrial fibrillation (AF).
The risk of stroke and non-cerebral embolism and the efficacy of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in paroxysmal AF as compared with sustained AF are not precisely known.
The ACTIVE W (Atrial Fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial With Irbesartan for Prevention of Vascular Events) was a trial comparing OAC to combined antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel for prevention of vascular events in 6,706 AF patients. The incidence of thromboembolic events and major bleeds were compared in patients with paroxysmal AF (n = 1,202) and persistent or permanent AF (n = 5,495).
Patients with paroxysmal AF were younger, had a shorter AF history, more hypertension, and less valvular disease, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus than patients with sustained AF. At baseline, patients with paroxysmal AF had a CHADS2 (cardiac failure, hypertension, age, diabetes, stroke [doubled]) risk score of 1.79 +/- 1.03 compared with 2.04 +/- 1.12 in patients with sustained AF (p < 0.00001). The annualized risk of stroke or non-central nervous system (CNS) systemic embolism was 2.0 in paroxysmal AF compared with 2.2 in sustained AF (relative risk 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59 to 1.30, p = 0.496). After adjusting for confounding baseline variables, the relative risk was 0.94 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.40, p = 0.755). The incidence of stroke and non-CNS embolism was lower for patients treated with OAC irrespective of type of AF. There were more bleedings of any type in patients receiving clopidogrel plus aspirin, irrespective of the type of AF.
Patients with paroxysmal AF treated with aspirin plus clopidogrel or OAC have a similar risk for thromboembolic events than patients with sustained AF. This risk can be significantly lowered with OAC. (The ACTIVE W trial; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00243178;NCT00243178).
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 11/2007; 50(22):2156-61. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) are at increased risk of both fatal and nonfatal major adverse cardiovascular events. We used data from the Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) trials to assess the influence of nonfatal hospitalizations for HF on subsequent mortality rates in a broad spectrum of HF patients.
In the present study, 7599 patients with New York Heart Association class II to IV HF and reduced or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction were randomized to placebo or candesartan. We assessed the risk of death after discharge from a first hospitalization for HF using time-updated Cox proportional-hazards models on 7572 patients for whom discharge data were available. Of 7572 patients, 1455 (19%) had at least 1 HF hospitalization, and 586 of 1819 deaths occurred after discharge from an HF hospitalization. The mortality rate was increased after HF hospitalizations, even after adjustment for baseline predictors of death (hazard ratio, 3.15; 95% confidence interval, 2.83 to 3.50). Longer duration of HF hospitalization enhanced the risk of dying, as did repeat HF hospitalizations. Moreover, risk of death was highest within a month of discharge and then declined progressively over time, particularly for death resulting from HF progression and for sudden cardiac death. We observed a similar pattern of risk associated with all-cause hospitalization, although the magnitude was less than that with HF hospitalization.
In patients with chronic HF, the risk of death is greatest in the early period after discharge after a hospitalization for HF and is directly related to the duration and frequency of HF hospitalizations. These findings suggest a role for increased surveillance in the early postdischarge period of greatest vulnerability after an HF admission.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether alterations in cardiac structure or function contribute to the increased risk associated with renal impairment after myocardial infarction (MI).
Renal impairment is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes after MI.
Echocardiography was performed on 603 patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, heart failure (HF), or both after MI. Patients were grouped according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and measures of cardiac structure and function were related to baseline eGFR. The relationship between eGFR and cardiac structure and function and clinical outcomes of death or HF was assessed with multivariable Cox regression.
Ejection fraction, infarct segment length, right ventricular function, and mitral deceleration time were not influenced by renal function. Patients with reduced eGFR had smaller LV and larger left atrial (LA) volumes and higher left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and LV mass/LV volume ratio. A greater proportion of the patients with reduced eGFR had LV hypertrophy. The relationship between eGFR and the outcome of death or HF was attenuated by including baseline differences in LVMI, and both LVMI and LA volume conferred additional prognostic information in a multivariable model.
Renal impairment was associated with smaller LV and larger LA volumes and increased LVMI. Systolic function was similar when compared with patients with normal renal function. Thus, reduced systolic function cannot account for worse outcomes in patients with renal impairment after MI. Indirect measures of diastolic function suggest that diastolic dysfunction might be an important mediator of increased risk in this population.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2007; 50(13):1238-45. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In individuals without known cardiovascular disease, elevated body mass index (BMI) (weight/height2) is associated with an increased risk of death. However, in patients with certain specific chronic diseases, including heart failure, low BMI has been associated with increased mortality.
We examined the influence of BMI on prognosis using Cox proportional hazards models in 7599 patients (mean age, 65 years; 35% women) with symptomatic heart failure (New York Heart Association class II to IV) and a broad spectrum of left ventricular ejection fractions (mean, 39%) in the Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program. During a median follow-up of 37.7 months, 1831 patients died. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with patients with BMI between 30 and 34.9, patients in lower BMI categories had a graded increase in the risk of death. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.22 (1.06 to 1.41), 1.46 (1.24 to 1.71), and 1.69 (1.43 to 2.01) among those with BMI of 25 to 29.9, 22.5 to 24.9, and < 22.5, respectively. The increase in risk of death among patients with BMI > or = 35 was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 1.43). The association between BMI and mortality was not altered by age, smoking status, or left ventricular ejection fraction (P for interaction >0.20). However, lower BMI was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in patients without edema but not in patients with edema (P for interaction <0.0001). Lower BMI was associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular death and noncardiovascular death. Baseline BMI did not influence the risk of hospitalization for worsening heart failure or due to all causes.
In patients with symptomatic heart failure and either reduced or preserved left ventricular systolic function, underweight or low BMI was associated with increased mortality, primarily in patients without evidence of fluid overload (edema).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, several drugs for non-cardiovascular diseases have ceased marketing because of cardiovascular risk, highlighting the importance of evaluating the cardiovascular safety of new drugs even if not intended for cardiovascular diseases. Assessing and ensuring acceptable cardiovascular safety of non-cardiovascular drugs is difficult; nonetheless, governmental regulatory agencies are likely to change the requirements for drug safety information. This article explores our recommendations for rethinking current regulatory policies, emphasizing the need for mandatory post-marketing surveillance registries and highlighting the exposures necessary to subserve the need for greater assessment of safety issues.
European Heart Journal 09/2007; 28(15):1904-9. · 14.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and the incidence of specific cardiovascular events in low-risk patients with stable coronary disease, the incremental prognostic information obtained from these two biomarkers compared with traditional risk factors, and their ability to identify patients who may benefit from angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition.
The prognostic value of BNPs in low-risk patients with stable coronary artery disease remains unclear.
Baseline plasma BNP and NT-proBNP concentrations were measured in 3,761 patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular function participating in the PEACE (Prevention of Events With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition) study, a placebo-controlled trial of trandolapril. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess the association between natriuretic peptide concentrations and the incidence of cardiovascular mortality, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke.
The BNP and NT-proBNP levels were strongly related to the incidence of cardiovascular mortality, heart failure, and stroke but not to myocardial infarction. In multivariable models, BNP remained associated with increased risk of heart failure, whereas NT-proBNP remained associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, heart failure, and stroke. By C-statistic calculations, BNP and NT-proBNP significantly improved the predictive accuracy of the best available model for incident heart failure, and NT-proBNP also improved the model for cardiovascular death. The magnitude of effect of ACE inhibition on the likelihood of experiencing cardiovascular end points was similar, regardless of either BNP or NT-proBNP baseline concentrations.
In low-risk patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved ventricular function, BNPs provide strong and incremental prognostic information to traditional risk factors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2007; 50(3):205-14. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) is an important measure of ventricular performance and may identify patients at increased risk for developing late clinical symptoms of heart failure (HF). The primary outcome in this analysis of 744 patients from the Survival and Ventricular Enlargement (SAVE) trial was the development of death or HF over a mean time of 36 months. The mean LVEDP for all patients was 23±9 mm Hg, and 75% of participants (n=558) had an LVEDP >15 mm Hg. Patients with an LVEDP >30 mm Hg (n=187) had the highest risk of death or HF (unadjusted hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–1.97) when compared with the other 2 cohorts combined (n=603). After adjustment for other known predictors of cardiac risk, LVEDP no longer remained significant (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.77–1.65). Elevated LVEDP is common following myocardial infarction; however, it is not an independent predictor of subsequent HF risk. The variability in LVEDP is not fully explained by infarct size and atherosclerotic burden.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to identify potentially novel laboratory markers of risk in chronic heart failure patients.
Although a variety of prognostic markers have been described in heart failure, a systematic assessment of routine laboratory values has not been reported.
All 2,679 symptomatic chronic heart failure patients from the North American CHARM (Candesartan in Heart Failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity) program had a wide range of laboratory measures performed at a core facility, enabling us to assess the relationship between routine blood tests and outcomes using a Cox proportional hazards model. We then replicated our findings in a cohort of 2,140 heart failure patients from the Duke Databank.
Among 36 laboratory values considered in the CHARM program, higher red cell distribution width (RDW) showed the greatest association with morbidity and mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.17 per 1-SD increase, p < 0.001). Higher RDW was among the most powerful overall predictors, with only age and cardiomegaly showing a better independent association with outcome. This finding was replicated in the Duke Databank, in which higher RDW was strongly associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.29 per 1 SD, p < 0.001), second only to age as a predictor of outcome.
In 2 large contemporary heart failure populations, RDW was found to be a very strong independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. Understanding how and why this marker is associated with outcome may provide novel insights into heart failure pathophysiology.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2007; 50(1):40-7. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased aortic stiffness contributes to systolic hypertension and increased cardiovascular risk. The augmentation index (AI), ie, the percentage of central pulse pressure attributed to reflected wave overlap in systole, was proposed as a noninvasive indicator of increased arterial stiffness. We evaluated this hypothesis by investigating relations between AI and other direct measures of aortic stiffness.
Tonometric carotid- and femoral-pressure waveforms, Doppler aortic flow, and aortic-root diameter were assessed in 123 individuals with uncomplicated systolic hypertension and 29 controls of comparable age and sex. Carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV) was assessed from the carotid-femoral time delay and body-surface measurements. Aortic PWV was assessed from the ratio of the upstroke of carotid pressure and aortic flow velocity and was used to calculate proximal aortic compliance as [aortic area]/[1.06 x (aortic PWV)(2)].
Partial correlations (adjusted for age, sex, presence of hypertension, height, weight, and systolic ejection period) showed no association between AI and carotid-femoral PWV (R = -0.05, P = .54). The AI was significantly though weakly related directly with aortic compliance (R = 0.21, P = .012) and inversely with aortic PWV (R = -0.198, P = .017). However, higher stiffness (lower compliance and higher PWV) was associated with lower AI.
Increased AI is not a reliable surrogate for increased aortic stiffness. Decreasing AI with decreasing compliance (increasing aortic stiffness) may be attributable to impedance matching and reduced wave reflection at the interface between the aorta and the muscular arteries.
American Journal of Hypertension 07/2007; 20(6):642-7. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In large-scale randomized trials and their meta-analyses, beta-adrenergic blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors provide statistically significant and clinically important additive mortality and morbidity benefits in the treatment of heart failure. The CHARM trials were designed to test whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker candesartan would provide statistically significant and clinically important additive mortality and morbidity benefits to patients with heart failure as an alternative or in addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. CHARM demonstrated that an angiotensin-receptor blocker at a proven dose is an effective and safe therapy as an alternative or in addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with heart failure, 55% of whom were receiving beta-adrenergic blockers. These benefits include reductions in cardiovascular mortality rate as well as in hospitalization for heart failure. Such patients have a 50% mortality rate at 5 years, and heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization for patients 65 years of age and older.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 07/2007; 12(2):124-6. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Prevention of Events with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibition (PEACE) trial evaluated angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with trandolapril versus placebo added to conventional therapy in patients with stable coronary disease and preserved left ventricular function. The PEACE hemodynamic substudy evaluated effects of trandolapril on pulsatile hemodynamics. Hemodynamic studies were performed in 300 participants from 5 PEACE centers a median of 52 months (range, 25 to 80 months) after random assignment to trandolapril at a target dose of 4 mg per day or placebo. Central pulsatile hemodynamics and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity were assessed by using echocardiography, tonometry of the carotid and femoral arteries, and body surface transit distances. Patients randomly assigned to trandolapril tended to be older (mean+/-SD: 64.2+/-7.9 versus 62.9+/-7.7 years; P=0.14), with a higher body mass index (28.5+/-4.0 versus 27.8+/-3.9 kg/m(2); P=0.09) and lower ejection fraction (57.1+/-8.1% versus 58.7+/-8.4%; P<0.01). At the time of the hemodynamic substudy, the trandolapril group had lower mean arterial pressure (93.1+/-10.2 versus 96.3+/-11.3 mm Hg; P<0.01) and lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (geometric mean [95% CI]: 10.4 m/s [10.0 to 10.9 m/s] versus 11.2 m/s [10.7 to 11.8 m/s]; P=0.02). The difference in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity persisted (P<0.01) in an analysis that adjusted for baseline characteristics and follow-up mean pressure. In contrast, there was no difference in aortic compliance, characteristic impedance, augmentation index, or total arterial compliance. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with trandolapril produced a modest reduction in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, a measure of aortic wall stiffness, beyond what would be expected from blood pressure lowering or differences in baseline characteristics alone.