[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cells play a critical role in development and in tissue regeneration. The dental pulp contains a small sub-population of stem cells that are involved in the response of the pulp to caries progression. Specifically, stem cells replace odontoblasts that have undergone cell death as a consequence of the cariogenic challenge. Stem cells also secrete factors that have the potential to enhance pulp vascularisation and provide the oxygen and nutrients required for the dentinogenic response that is typically observed in teeth with deep caries. However, the same angiogenic factors that are required for dentine regeneration may ultimately contribute to the demise of the pulp by enhancing vascular permeability and interstitial pressure. Recent studies focused on the biology of dental pulp stem cells revealed that the multipotency and angiogenic capacity of these cells could be exploited therapeutically in dental pulp tissue engineering. Collectively, these findings suggest new treatment paradigms in the field of endodontics. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential impact of dental pulp stem cells to regenerative endodontics.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caries-induced pulpitis is typically accompanied by an increase in dental pulp microvascular density. However, the mechanisms by which dental pulp cells recognize lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) remain unclear. We hypothesized that Porphyromonas endodontalis and Escherichia coli LPSs induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPF) through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. ELISA, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and Western blots were used. Here, we observed that LPSs induced VEGF expression in DPSC and HDPF cells, and both cell types express Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR- 4). Notably, LPS-induced VEGF is associated with phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC zeta) and extracellular signal-regulator kinase (ERK1/2) and is dependent upon MAPK activation. Analysis of these data, collectively, unveils a signaling pathway responsible for synthesis of VEGF by pulp cells and suggests a novel therapeutic target for the management of vascular responses in teeth with pulpitis.
Journal of dental research 03/2010; 89(3):264-9. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inflammation observed in the dental pulp of teeth with deep caries lesions is characterized by a significant increase in blood vessel density. It is known that lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Gram-positive cariogenic bacteria induces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in dental pulp cells. The hypothesis underlying this study was that LTA induces VEGF expression in dental pulp cells through TLR2 and PI3k/Akt signaling. Odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23) and undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21) were exposed to LTA from Streptococcus sanguis, and the role of TLR2, PI3K/Akt, and IKK signaling in LTA-induced VEGF expression was evaluated. These studies demonstrated that TLR2 signaling through the PI3K-Akt pathway is necessary for LTA-induced VEGF expression in pulp cells. In contrast, inhibition of IKK signaling did not prevent VEGF up-regulation in response to LTA. Understanding signaling pathways triggered by cariogenic bacteria may reveal novel therapeutic targets for the clinical management of pulpitis.
Journal of dental research 09/2009; 88(9):835-40. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term outcome of replanted avulsed permanent teeth is frequently compromised by lack of revascularization, resulting in pulp necrosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on the revascularization of severed human dental pulps. Tooth slices were prepared from non-carious human molars and treated with 0-50 ng/mL rhVEGF(165) or rhFGF-2 for 7 days in vitro. Both angiogenic factors enhanced pulp microvessel density compared with untreated controls (p < 0.05). Tooth slices were also treated with 0 or 50 ng/mL rhVEGF(165) for one hour prior to implantation into the subcutaneous space of immunodeficient mice. Treatment with rhVEGF(165) increased pulp microvessel density in vivo (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that rhVEGF(165) enhanced neovascularization of severed human dental pulps and suggest that topical application of an angiogenic factor prior to replantation might be beneficial for the treatment of avulsed teeth.
Journal of dental research 01/2009; 87(12):1144-8. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria cell walls such as Prevotella intermedia and Escherichia coli induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in odontoblasts, but not in undifferentiated dental pulp cells. CD14 and TLR4 are responsible for LPS signaling in macrophages, but their expression levels and function in dental pulp cells are unknown. We showed here that murine odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23) express CD14 and TLR4 by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. In contrast, undifferentiated dental pulp cells (OD-21) presented low or no expression of these two receptors. MDPC-23 cells showed CD14 and TLR4 up-regulation upon exposure to LPS, as determined by real time PCR. Dominant negative murine TLR4 (DN-mTLR4) transfected MDPC-23 cells did not show upregulated VEGF expression in response to LPS stimulation. These results demonstrate that odontoblast-like cells express CD14 and TLR4, and that LPS-induced VEGF expression is mediated, at least in part, by TLR4 signaling.
Journal of Endodontics 11/2006; 32(10):951-5. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether commonly used endodontic sealers could either induce or increase the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) when in contact with cell types found in the periapical tissues.
Freshly mixed samples of Roth 801 sealer, Sealapex and ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) were placed in contact with cultured macrophages and fibroblasts for 24 h. The supernatant from the cultures was assayed for PGE2 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell viability counts were made. As a positive control, similar cultures were also exposed to lipopolysaccharide and the supernatant analysed for PGE2. Data were compared by anova.
The three materials examined in these experiments did not stimulate increased PGE2 release from either of the cell lines. In control cultures, lipopolysaccharide increased PGE2 release from macrophages but not from fibroblasts. Viability counts revealed that, whilst Roth 801 sealer caused some cell death in both fibroblasts and macrophages, Sealapex led to cell death only in the macrophage cultures. ProRoot MTA did not lead to statistically significant cell death in either culture.
Under 24-h culture conditions, the three freshly mixed test materials did not increase directly either production or release of PGE2 from either macrophages or gingival fibroblasts. Roth 801 decreased cell viability counts for both fibroblasts and macrophages. Sealapex decreases macrophage viability. ProRoot MTA did not affect viability in either cell line.
International Endodontic Journal 06/2006; 39(5):357-62. · 2.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell proliferation, migration and survival. Direct pulp capping with an adhesive resin system was shown to induce local increase in blood vessel density and lack of dentin bridging. However, the mechanisms involved in the increase in blood vessel density observed near the pulp exposures capped with an adhesive resin are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES.: To investigate the effect of an adhesive resin or one of its hydrophilic monomers (HEMA), in the expression of VEGF by pulp cells. METHODS.: Mouse odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23), undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21), gingival fibroblasts, and macrophages were exposed to SingleBond (3M) or to 0-1000nM HEMA. VEGF expression was evaluated by ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS AND SIGNIFICANCE.: VEGF expression was upregulated in MDPC-23 cells exposed to HEMA (p<0.001) or to SingleBond (p<0.018), and in macrophages exposed to HEMA (p<0.001) or SingleBond (p=0.001). In contrast, VEGF expression remained unchanged in undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21), or fibroblasts exposed to either HEMA or Single Bond (p>0.05). Treatment with SingleBond or HEMA did not affect VEGF expression at the mRNA level of any cell type evaluated here, suggesting that the induction of VEGF expression in these cells is regulated primarily at the post-transcriptional level. These findings suggest that VEGF is involved in the regulation of pulp neovascularization observed in response to the application of adhesive resins at site of pulp exposure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ProRoot Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) has been indicated as a pulp capping material. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth-colored (white) MTA on pulp cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Mouse odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23) and undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21) were exposed to 0 to 100 mg MTA for 24 h. Propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry demonstrated that MTA did not induce apoptosis of MDPC-23 or OD-21 (p > 0.05). Cell cycle analysis showed that MTA induced a modest (but significant) increase in the percentage of MDPC-23 in the S and G2 phases, and OD-21 in the S phase of cell cycle, as compared to untreated controls (p </= 0.05). In conclusion, MTA induced proliferation, and not apoptosis, of pulp cells in vitro. These findings suggest a potential mechanism to explain the regenerative effect observed in the dentin-pulp complex when MTA was used for direct pulp capping.
Journal of Endodontics 06/2005; 31(5):387-91. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the percentage of apoptotic cells and the cell cycle profile of fibroblasts and macrophages exposed to either ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) mixed with chlorhexidine (CHX), or exposed to ProRoot MTA mixed with sterile water.
Mouse gingival fibroblasts or mouse macrophages were seeded in six-well plates and allowed to attach overnight. Freshly mixed or set (allowed to dry for 24 h) specimens of tooth-coloured (white) ProRoot MTA were prepared with 0.12% CHX gluconate (MTA/CHX) or with sterile water (MTA/H2O). The cells were exposed for 24 h to the MTA specimens, which were placed over permeable membrane inserts to avoid direct contact with the cells. Untreated cells served as controls. Propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry was used to evaluate the effects of ProRoot MTA on cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way anova followed by post-hoc tests with the use of the SigmaStat 2.0 software, and significance was determined at P < or = 0.05.
MTA specimens containing CHX induced apoptosis of macrophages and fibroblasts (P < 0.05). In contrast, no change in the proportion of apoptotic cells was observed when sterile water was used to prepare the specimens (P > 0.05). Cell cycle analysis showed that exposure to MTA/CHX decreased the percentage of fibroblasts and macrophages in S phase (DNA synthesis) as compared with exposure to MTA/H2O (P < 0.05).
This in vitro study demonstrated that the substitution of CHX for sterile water in MTA increases its cytotoxicity. This suggests that the potentially beneficial antimicrobial effect of CHX may be accompanied by an increase in the cytotoxicity of the resulting MTA-based material.
International Endodontic Journal 03/2005; 38(2):137-43. · 2.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The application of an adhesive resin near or directly over the pulp was shown to induce pulp inflammation and lack of dentin regeneration. We hypothesize that the absence of dentin bridging is due to adhesive-resin-induced apoptosis of cells responsible for pulp healing and dentin regeneration. Mouse odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23), undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21), or macrophages (RAW 264.7) were exposed to SingleBond polymerized for 0-40 seconds. Annexin V and propidium iodide assays demonstrated that SingleBond induced apoptosis of MDPC-23, OD-21, and macrophages. The proportion of apoptotic cells was dependent on the degree of adhesive resin polymerization. Adhesive-resin-induced death of pulp cells was associated with activation of the pro-apoptotic cysteine protease Caspase-3. Interestingly, most cells exposed to adhesive resin that did not undergo apoptosis showed cell-cycle arrest. We conclude that an adhesive resin induces apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest of cells involved in the regeneration of the dentin-pulp complex in vitro.
Journal of Dental Research 09/2003; 82(8):592-6. · 3.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent pro-angiogenic factor, might regulate the neovascularization observed in the pulp of teeth with deep caries. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on VEGF expression in dental pulp cells. Mouse odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23) or undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21) were exposed to 0-20 microg ml-1Escherichia coli LPS or 0-80 microg ml-1Prevotella intermedia LPS. As controls, mouse macrophages or gingival fibroblasts were exposed to LPS, since these cells are known to secrete VEGF. The VEGF expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The baseline expression levels of VEGF protein were higher in MDPC-23 and OD-21 than in fibroblasts or macrophages. Vascular endothelial growth factor protein expression was upregulated in MDPC-23 and macrophages exposed to E. coli LPS, but not in OD-21 cells or fibroblasts. Higher concentrations of P. intermedia LPS were required to induce VEGF expression in MDPC-23 cells. Treatment with LPS did not affect VEGF expression at the mRNA level in any of the cells evaluated. These results demonstrate that bacterial LPS upregulates VEGF expression in odontoblast-like cells and macrophages, and suggest that the regulation of VEGF expression occurs primarily at a post-transcriptional level.
European Journal Of Oral Sciences 07/2003; 111(3):228-34. · 1.42 Impact Factor